Abstract

Nanopillar AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by nanosphere lithography and dry-etching. The optical properties of the nanopillar LEDs were characterized by both temperature-dependent and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. Compared to an as-grown sample, the nanopillar sample has a PL emission peak blue-shift of 7 meV, a 42% enhanced internal quantum efficiency at room temperature and a reduced radiative recombination lifetime from 870 picosecond to 621 picosecond at 7K. These results are directly from the suppressed quantum confined stark effect that is due to the strain relaxation in the nanopillar MQWs, further revealed by micro-Raman measurement. Additionally, finite-difference time domain simulation also proves better light extraction efficiency in the nanopillar LEDs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. S. Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Y. Zhang, H. Z. Xie, H. Y. Zheng, T. B. Wei, H. Yang, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, X. Y. Song, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by multiple laser stealth dicing in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6808–6815 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  11. C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, B. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (112̄0) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, and A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(1), 83–89 (1992).

2013 (2)

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

J. Bai, Q. Wang, and T. Wang, “Characterization of InGaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Zhang, H. Z. Xie, H. Y. Zheng, T. B. Wei, H. Yang, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, X. Y. Song, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by multiple laser stealth dicing in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6808–6815 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Li and A. Waag, “GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 071101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, L.-C. Huang, Y.-T. Wang, T.-C. Lu, and J. J. Huang, “Effects of Strains and Defects on the Internal Quantum Efficiency of InGaN/GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(4), 551–556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “Air-spaced GaN nanopillar photonic band gap structures patterned by nanosphere lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Huang, L. Y. Chen, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, Y. H. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and J. Huang, “Investigation of low-temperature electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN based nanorod light emitting arrays,” Nanotechnology 22(4), 045202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Hersee, X. Y. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, B. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (112̄0) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. S. Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, and A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(1), 83–89 (1992).

1984 (1)

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Asif Khan, M.

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J.

J. Bai, Q. Wang, and T. Wang, “Characterization of InGaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, K.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ban, T.

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bilenko, Y.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cantu, P.

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

Y. Y. Huang, L. Y. Chen, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, Y. H. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and J. Huang, “Investigation of low-temperature electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN based nanorod light emitting arrays,” Nanotechnology 22(4), 045202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-H.

C.-H. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, L.-C. Huang, Y.-T. Wang, T.-C. Lu, and J. J. Huang, “Effects of Strains and Defects on the Internal Quantum Efficiency of InGaN/GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(4), 551–556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. M.

Chemla, D.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. P.

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H. S.

Chen, H. T.

Chen, L. Y.

Y. Y. Huang, L. Y. Chen, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, Y. H. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and J. Huang, “Investigation of low-temperature electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN based nanorod light emitting arrays,” Nanotechnology 22(4), 045202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-Y.

C.-H. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, L.-C. Huang, Y.-T. Wang, T.-C. Lu, and J. J. Huang, “Effects of Strains and Defects on the Internal Quantum Efficiency of InGaN/GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(4), 551–556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. W.

Y. Y. Huang, L. Y. Chen, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, Y. H. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and J. Huang, “Investigation of low-temperature electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN based nanorod light emitting arrays,” Nanotechnology 22(4), 045202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, C. L.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, B. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (112̄0) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “Air-spaced GaN nanopillar photonic band gap structures patterned by nanosphere lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cong, P.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Craven, M. D.

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, B. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (112̄0) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Demangeot, F.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, B. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (112̄0) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Domnich, V.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Douglas Yoder, P.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fichtenbaum, N. A.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Frandon, J.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, G.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Geng, C.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gogotsi, Y.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y. P.

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Grzegory, I.

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, and A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(1), 83–89 (1992).

Hangleiter, A.

J. S. Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, B. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (112̄0) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hersee, S. D.

S. D. Hersee, X. Y. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Y. Y. Huang, L. Y. Chen, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, Y. H. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and J. Huang, “Investigation of low-temperature electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN based nanorod light emitting arrays,” Nanotechnology 22(4), 045202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, J. J.

C.-H. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, L.-C. Huang, Y.-T. Wang, T.-C. Lu, and J. J. Huang, “Effects of Strains and Defects on the Internal Quantum Efficiency of InGaN/GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(4), 551–556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L.-C.

C.-H. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, L.-C. Huang, Y.-T. Wang, T.-C. Lu, and J. J. Huang, “Effects of Strains and Defects on the Internal Quantum Efficiency of InGaN/GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(4), 551–556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Huang, L. Y. Chen, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, Y. H. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and J. Huang, “Investigation of low-temperature electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN based nanorod light emitting arrays,” Nanotechnology 22(4), 045202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Im, J. S.

J. S. Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Itie, J. P.

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, and A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(1), 83–89 (1992).

Jauberthie-Carillon, C.

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, and A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(1), 83–89 (1992).

Jiang, H. X.

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaneta, A.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T.-T.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Katona, T.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katona, T. M.

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ke, M. Y.

Y. Y. Huang, L. Y. Chen, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, Y. H. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and J. Huang, “Investigation of low-temperature electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN based nanorod light emitting arrays,” Nanotechnology 22(4), 045202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keading, J. F.

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, Y. W.

Kikuchi, A.

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, K.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koida, T.

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, B. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (112̄0) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kollmer, H.

J. S. Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuball, M.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. Y. Huang, L. Y. Chen, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, Y. H. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and J. Huang, “Investigation of low-temperature electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN based nanorod light emitting arrays,” Nanotechnology 22(4), 045202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuokstis, E.

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Zhang, H. Z. Xie, H. Y. Zheng, T. B. Wei, H. Yang, J. Li, X. Y. Yi, X. Y. Song, G. H. Wang, and J. M. Li, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by multiple laser stealth dicing in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6808–6815 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J. M.

Li, K. H.

K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “Air-spaced GaN nanopillar photonic band gap structures patterned by nanosphere lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. Li and A. Waag, “GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 071101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.-H.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. H.

Lin, J. Y.

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.-S.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lochner, Z.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-C.

C.-H. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, L.-C. Huang, Y.-T. Wang, T.-C. Lu, and J. J. Huang, “Effects of Strains and Defects on the Internal Quantum Efficiency of InGaN/GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(4), 551–556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. H.

Y. Y. Huang, L. Y. Chen, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, Y. H. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and J. Huang, “Investigation of low-temperature electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN based nanorod light emitting arrays,” Nanotechnology 22(4), 045202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lunev, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mahbub Satter, M.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Maruska, H. P.

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moe, C.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, B. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (112̄0) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, C. J.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nikolic, R. J.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, T.

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Off, J.

J. S. Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, T.

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, P.

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, and A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(1), 83–89 (1992).

Pinquier, C.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Polian, A.

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, and A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(1), 83–89 (1992).

Ponce, F. A.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Puech, P.

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ramesh, V.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, C. E.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J.-H.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

San Miguel, A.

P. Perlin, C. Jauberthie-Carillon, J. P. Itie, A. San Miguel, I. Grzegory, and A. Polian, “Raman scattering and x-ray-absorption spectroscopy in gallium nitride under high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(1), 83–89 (1992).

Schaake, C.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, F.

J. S. Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, H.

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shatalov, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.-C.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sohmer, A.

J. S. Im, H. Kollmer, J. Off, A. Sohmer, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Reduction of oscillator strength due to piezoelectric fields in GaN/AlxGa1-xN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 57(16), R9435–R9438 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Song, X. Y.

Sota, T.

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, B. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (112̄0) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, B. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (112̄0) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, C. Y.

Su, L.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. Y.

S. D. Hersee, X. Y. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y. H.

Y. Y. Huang, L. Y. Chen, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, Y. H. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and J. Huang, “Investigation of low-temperature electroluminescence of InGaN/GaN based nanorod light emitting arrays,” Nanotechnology 22(4), 045202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Y. Chen, Y. Y. Huang, C. H. Chang, Y. H. Sun, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, C. P. Chen, and J. J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, Y.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ting, S. Y.

Uedono, A.

T. Onuma, S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Sota, P. Cantu, T. M. Katona, J. F. Keading, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Waag, A.

S. Li and A. Waag, “GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 071101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. H.

Wang, H. M.

M. Asif Khan, M. Shatalov, H. P. Maruska, H. M. Wang, and E. Kuokstis, “III–Nitride UV Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(10), 7191–7206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

J. Bai, Q. Wang, and T. Wang, “Characterization of InGaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

J. Bai, Q. Wang, and T. Wang, “Characterization of InGaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Bai, Y. P. Gong, and T. Wang, “Influence of strain relaxation on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well nanorods,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(39), 395102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. F.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolic, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

S. D. Hersee, X. Y. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.-T.

C.-H. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, L.-C. Huang, Y.-T. Wang, T.-C. Lu, and J. J. Huang, “Effects of Strains and Defects on the Internal Quantum Efficiency of InGaN/GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(4), 551–556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. B.

Wei, Y.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Band-Edge Electroabsorption in Quantum Well Structures: The Quantum-Confined Stark Effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53(22), 2173–2176 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wraback, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, H.

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xie, H. Z.

Yan, J.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Q.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

Yang, H.

Yang, J.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y. F.

Yi, X. Y.

Zeng, J.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. Y.

Zheng, H. Y.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

P. Dong, J. Yan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Geng, T. Wei, P. Cong, Y. Zhang, J. Zeng, Y. Tian, L. Sun, Q. Yan, J. Li, S. Fan, and Z. Qin, “282-nm AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with improved performance on nano-patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lochner, T.-T. Kao, Y.-S. Liu, X.-H. Li, M. Mahbub Satter, S.-C. Shen, P. Douglas Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, Y. Wei, H. Xie, A. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Deep-ultraviolet lasing at 243 nm from photo-pumped AlGaN/AlN heterostructure on AlN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(10), 101110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Sekiguchi, K. Kishino, and A. Kikuchi, “Emission color control from blue to red with nanocolumn diameter of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn arrays grown on same substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 1 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Koida, S. F. Chichibu, T. Sota, M. D. Craven, B. A. Haskell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Improved quantum efficiency in nonpolar (112̄0) AlGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on GaN prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(19), 3768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C.-H. Chang, L.-Y. Chen, L.-C. Huang, Y.-T. Wang, T.-C. Lu, and J. J. Huang, “Effects of Strains and Defects on the Internal Quantum Efficiency of InGaN/GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48(4), 551–556 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (9)

K. H. Li and H. W. Choi, “Air-spaced GaN nanopillar photonic band gap structures patterned by nanosphere lithography,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Li and A. Waag, “GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 071101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Bai, Q. Wang, and T. Wang, “Characterization of InGaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(11), 113103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Puech, F. Demangeot, J. Frandon, C. Pinquier, M. Kuball, V. Domnich, and Y. Gogotsi, “GaN nanoindentation: A micro-Raman spectroscopy study of local strain fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(5), 2853–2856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Dai, B. Zhang, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Comparison of optical transitions in InGaN quantum well structures and microdisks,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4951 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Keller, C. Schaake, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. J. Neufeld, Y. Wu, K. McGroddy, A. David, S. P. DenBaars, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical and structural properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(5), 054314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, L. Su, Y. Zhu, K. Okamoto, M. Funato, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, “Optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanopillars fabricated by postgrowth chemically assisted ion beam etching,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023522 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic process flow of fabricating AlGaN/GaN nanopillar LEDs using the nanosphere lithography and dry-etching.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The top-view (a), tilted (b) and cross-sectional (c) SEM images of the AlGaN/GaN nanopillar structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The CL results of the AlGaN/GaN MQWs nanopillar LED sample measured at room temperature. The plane (a) and cross-sectional (b) monochromatic CL images of the nanopillar LEDs. The inset shows the CL spectrum of the nanopillar LEDs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PL spectra of as-grown sample and nanopillar sample at room temperature (a) and 10 K (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Arrhenius plots of the PL intensities of the as-grown and nanopillar samples as a function of temperature from 10 K to 300 K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time-resolved PL (TR-PL) spectra of the as-grown and nanopillar sample measured at low temperature (7 K).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Raman spectra of the E2 (high) phonon mode of the as-grown and nanopillar samples, the inset shows a typical Raman spectra of the as-grown and nanopillar samples.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of FDTD simulations of light propagation in (a) as-grown LED sample and (b) nanopillar LED sample.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 the LEE of different directions by FDTD simulation.

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