Abstract

The radiated power enhancement and more congregated radiation of a radiating dipole within a GaN material when it is coupled with the localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance modes induced on a surface Ag nanoparticle (NP) are numerically demonstrated. The numerical study is based on an algorithm including the induction of LSP resonance on the Ag NP by the source dipole and the feedback effect of the LSP resonance field on the source dipole behavior. The spectral peaks of radiated power enhancement correspond to the substrate LSP resonance modes with mode fields mainly distributed around the bottom of the Ag NP such that the coupling system radiates mainly into the GaN half-space. By moving the radiating dipole laterally away from the bottom of the Ag NP, the spectral peaks of radiated power enhancement red shift and their levels diminish with increasing lateral distance. The radiation patterns in the GaN half-space show more congregated radiation around the vertical direction, indicating that the light extraction efficiency can be enhanced in an LSP-coupled light-emitting device with surface metal NPs.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. R. Wu, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Surface-plasmon-coupled emission enhancement of a quantum well with a metal nanoparticle embedded in a light-emitting diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2599–2606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Light emission polarization properties of semipolar InGaN/GaN quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and C. C. Yang, “Impact of high-order surface plasmon modes of metal nanoparticles on enhancement of optical emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Anisotropic optical matrix elements in strained GaN quantum wells on semipolar and nonpolar substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(33), L789–L791 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Enhancement of luminescence efficiency using surface plasmon polaritons: Figures of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1968–1980 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. Y.

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. R. Wu, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Surface-plasmon-coupled emission enhancement of a quantum well with a metal nanoparticle embedded in a light-emitting diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2599–2606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. F.

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Y.

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. L.

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. R. Wu, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Surface-plasmon-coupled emission enhancement of a quantum well with a metal nanoparticle embedded in a light-emitting diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2599–2606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. Y.

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, C. Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y. H.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chou, W. H.

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, W. H.

Cicek, E.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. H.

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. F.

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. W.

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H. H.

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Light emission polarization properties of semipolar InGaN/GaN quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. J.

Jung, G. Y.

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. L.

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khurgin, J. B.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and C. C. Yang, “Impact of high-order surface plasmon modes of metal nanoparticles on enhancement of optical emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Enhancement of luminescence efficiency using surface plasmon polaritons: Figures of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1968–1980 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiang, Y. W.

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. R. Wu, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Surface-plasmon-coupled emission enhancement of a quantum well with a metal nanoparticle embedded in a light-emitting diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2599–2606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. H.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H.

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.

Kuroda, T.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y. L.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lan, C. C.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. J.

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. J.

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. L.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. H.

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C. P.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. F.

Lu, C. H.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

McClintock, R.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neogi, A.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, I. K.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rahnema, B.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, C. H.

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shen, K. C.

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J. H.

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Enhancement of luminescence efficiency using surface plasmon polaritons: Figures of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1968–1980 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and C. C. Yang, “Impact of high-order surface plasmon modes of metal nanoparticles on enhancement of optical emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Enhancement of luminescence efficiency using surface plasmon polaritons: Figures of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1968–1980 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tackeuchi, A.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ting, S. Y.

Tsai, F. J.

Tseng, H. Y.

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. Y.

Wu, Y. R.

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. R. Wu, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Surface-plasmon-coupled emission enhancement of a quantum well with a metal nanoparticle embedded in a light-emitting diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2599–2606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Light emission polarization properties of semipolar InGaN/GaN quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yablonvitch, E.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, A. A.

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Anisotropic optical matrix elements in strained GaN quantum wells on semipolar and nonpolar substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(33), L789–L791 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. R. Wu, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Surface-plasmon-coupled emission enhancement of a quantum well with a metal nanoparticle embedded in a light-emitting diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(10), 2599–2606 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and C. C. Yang, “Impact of high-order surface plasmon modes of metal nanoparticles on enhancement of optical emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. J.

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. M.

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A914–A929 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yim, S. Y.

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z. Y.

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

C. H. Lu, C. C. Lan, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, B. H. Kim, I. K. Park, C. Y. Cho, C. C. Byeon, and S. J. Park, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(7), 1253–1257 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express

C. Y. Cho, J. J. Kim, S. J. Lee, S. H. Hong, K. J. Lee, S. Y. Yim, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced emission efficiency of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes by surface plasmons in silver disks,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(12), 122103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. S. Chen, C. F. Chen, Y. Kuo, W. H. Chou, C. H. Shen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupled light-emitting diode with metal protrusions into p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041108 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, Y. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, C. Y. Chen, H. L. Chen, C. F. Huang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and Y. J. Yang, “Enhanced and partially polarized output of a light-emitting diode with Its InGaN/GaN quantum well coupled with surface plasmons on a metal grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, J. H. Song, S. H. Hong, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and S. J. Park, “Enhanced optical output power of green light-emitting diodes by surface plasmon of gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Cho, K. S. Kim, S. J. Lee, M. K. Kwon, H. Ko, S. T. Kim, G. Y. Jung, and S. J. Park, “Surface plasmon-enhanced light-emitting diodes with silver nanoparticles and SiO2 nano-disks embedded in p-GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 041107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and C. C. Yang, “Impact of high-order surface plasmon modes of metal nanoparticles on enhancement of optical emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a- and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. C. Shen, C. H. Liao, Z. Y. Yu, J. Y. Wang, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Effects of the intermediate SiO2 layer on polarized output of a light-emitting diode with surface plasmon coupling,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Huang and Y. R. Wu, “Light emission polarization properties of semipolar InGaN/GaN quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

A. A. Yamaguchi, “Anisotropic optical matrix elements in strained GaN quantum wells on semipolar and nonpolar substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(33), L789–L791 (2007).
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Nanotechnology

C. W. Huang, H. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. Hsieh, K. Y. Chen, H. Y. Lin, H. S. Chen, Y. L. Jung, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of surface metal nanoparticles and their induced surface plasmon coupling with subsurface InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 22(47), 475201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Localized surface plasmon-induced emission enhancement of a green light-emitting diode,” Nanotechnology 19(34), 345201 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Demonstration of the problem geometry, in which an Ag NP is placed on the surface of a thick GaN layer with an embedded thin QW layer at the depth of d. A radiating dipole, which is represented by a thick (red) arrow, is located in the QW layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized downward radiated powers of the NP-dipole coupling system as functions of wavelength for d = 30, 50, 70, 90, and 120 nm when the dipole is located exactly below the Ag NP, i.e., at x = 0. The Ag NP is surrounded by air in the upper-half-space. For comparison, the result in the case of no Ag NP at the air/GaN interface with d = 70 nm is also plotted as the dashed curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized upward radiated powers of the NP-dipole coupling system as functions of wavelength under the same conditions as those in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface charge distributions of the LSP resonance features at 620 (a) and 470 (b) nm in the case of d = 30 nm and those at 625 (c) and 490 (d) nm in the case of d = 70 nm shown Fig. 2. The arrows show the orientations of the source dipoles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized upward (a) and downward (b) radiated powers as functions of wavelength when an x-oriented source dipole is located at x = 0-6h with d fixed at 70 nm. Here, h = 31/2a/4. The Ag NP is surrounded by air in the upper-half-space.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized upward (a) and downward (b) radiated powers as functions of wavelength when a y-oriented source dipole is located at x = 0-6h with d fixed at 70 nm. Here, h = 31/2a/4. The Ag NP is surrounded by air in the upper-half-space.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Radiation patterns of the NP-dipole coupling system in the lower-half x-z plane at 625 nm when an x-dipole is located at x = 0, 2h, and 4h. For comparison, the radiation pattern in the case of no Ag NP at the air/GaN interface is also shown. In all cases, d is fixed at 70 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Radiation patterns of the NP-dipole coupling system in the lower-half y-z plane at 625 nm when an x-dipole is located at x = 0, 2h, and 4h. For comparison, the radiation pattern in the case of no Ag NP at the air/GaN interface is also shown. In all cases, d is fixed at 70 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Radiation patterns of the NP-dipole coupling system in the lower-half x-z plane at 625 nm when a y-dipole is located at x = 0, 2h, and 4h. For comparison, the radiation pattern in the case of no Ag NP at the air/GaN interface is also shown. In all cases, d is fixed at 70 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Radiation patterns of the NP-dipole coupling system in the lower-half y-z plane at 625 nm when a y-dipole is located at x = 0, 2h, and 4h. For comparison, the radiation pattern in the case of no Ag NP at the air/GaN interface is also shown. In all cases, d is fixed at 70 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Percentages of the downward radiated power within a circular cone around the vertically downward direction at 625 nm in wavelength as functions of half-subtended angle when x = 0, 2h, and 4h in the case of an x-dipole. For comparison, the corresponding result in the case of no Ag NP is also shown. In all cases, d = 70 nm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Percentages of the downward radiated power within a circular cone around the vertically downward direction at 625 nm in wavelength as functions of half-subtended angle when x = 0, 2h, and 4h in the case of a y-dipole. For comparison, the corresponding result in the case of no Ag NP is also shown. In all cases, d = 70 nm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Normalized upward (a) and downward (b) radiated powers of the NP-dipole coupling system as functions of wavelength for various d values when the Ag NP is surrounded by a dielectric material with refractive index at 2 in the upper-half-space and the dipole is located exactly below the Ag NP, i.e., at x = 0. For comparison, the result in the case of no Ag NP at the air/GaN interface with d = 70 nm is also plotted as the dashed curve.

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