Abstract

Artificial lighting in office buildings typically requires 30% of the total energy consumption of the building, providing a substantial opportunity for energy savings. To reduce the energy consumed by indoor lighting, we propose a sensor-less light-emitting diode (LED) dimming system using daylight harvesting. In this study, we used light simulation software to quantify and visualize daylight, and analyzed the correlation between photovoltaic (PV) power generation and indoor illumination in an office with an integrated PV system. In addition, we calculated the distribution of daylight illumination into the office and dimming ratios for the individual control of LED lights. Also, we were able directly to use the electric power generated by PV system. As a result, power consumption for electric lighting was reduced by 40 – 70% depending on the season and the weather conditions. Thus, the dimming system proposed in this study can be used to control electric lighting to reduce energy use cost-effectively and simply.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. L. D. D. Harvey, “Reducing energy use in the building sector: measures, costs, and examples,” Energy Effic. 12, 2265–2300 (2009).
  4. C.-H. Tsuei, J.-W. Pen, and W.-S. Sun, “Simulating the illuminance and the efficiency of the LED and fluorescent lights used in indoor lighting design,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18692–18701 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C.-H. Tsuei, W.-S. Sun, and C.-C. Kuo, “Hybrid sunlight/LED illumination and renewable solar energy saving concepts for indoor lighting,” Opt. Express 18(S4Suppl 4), A640–A653 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. H. Lee and J. K. Kwon, “Distributed dimming control for LED lighting,” Opt. Express 21(S6), A917–A932 (2013).
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  7. D. H. W. Li and J. C. Lam, “Evaluation of lighting performance in office buildings with daylighting controls,” Energy Build. 33(8), 793–803 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. B. Cook, “High efficiency lighting in industry and commercial buildings,” Power Eng. J. 12(5), 197–206 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Taguchi, “Present status of energy saving technologies and future prospect in white LED lighting,” IEEJ Trans. Electr. Electron. Eng. 3(1), 21–26 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. P. Leslie, R. Raghavan, O. Howlett, and C. Eaton, “The potential of simplified concepts for daylight harvesting,” Lighting Res. Tech. 37(1), 21–40 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. T. Kim and G. Kim, “Overview and new developments in optical daylighting systems for building a healthy indoor environment,” Build. Environ. 45(2), 256–269 (2010).
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  18. M. B. C. Aries and G. R. Newsham, “Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: A literature review,” Energy Policy 36(6), 1858–1866 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. G. R. Newsham, M. B. C. Aries, S. Mancini, and G. Faye, “Individual control of electric lighting in a daylight space,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(1), 25–41 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. E. S. Lee, D. L. DiBartolomeo, and S. E. Selkowitz, “Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results,” Energy Build. 38(1), 30–44 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Yang, G. Zheng, C. Lou, D. An, and J. Burnett, “Grid-connected building-integrated photovoltaics: a Hong Kong case study,” Sol. Energy 76(1-3), 55–59 (2004).
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  26. U. Herrmann, H. G. Langer, and H. van der Broeck, “Low cost DC to AC converter for photovoltaic power conversion in residential applications,” in 24th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (1993), pp. 588–594.
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  27. D. H. W. Li, G. H. W. Cheung, and C. C. S. Lau, “A simplified procedure for determining indoor daylight illuminance using daylight coefficient concept,” Build. Environ. 41(5), 578–589 (2006).
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  29. Korean Standard Information Centre, http://www.standard.go.kr . Accessed on November 24, 2013.

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

K. Kapsis and A. K. Athienitis, “Building integrated semi-transparent photovoltaics: energy and daylighting performance,” Proc. SPIE 8007, 800726 (2011).

2010 (2)

J. T. Kim and G. Kim, “Overview and new developments in optical daylighting systems for building a healthy indoor environment,” Build. Environ. 45(2), 256–269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Tsuei, W.-S. Sun, and C.-C. Kuo, “Hybrid sunlight/LED illumination and renewable solar energy saving concepts for indoor lighting,” Opt. Express 18(S4Suppl 4), A640–A653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

L. D. D. Harvey, “Reducing energy use in the building sector: measures, costs, and examples,” Energy Effic. 12, 2265–2300 (2009).

D. H. Li, T. N. Lam, W. W. Chan, and A. H. Mak, “Energy and cost analysis of semi-transparent photovoltaic in office buildings,” Appl. Energy 86(5), 722–729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (7)

T. Taguchi, “Present status of energy saving technologies and future prospect in white LED lighting,” IEEJ Trans. Electr. Electron. Eng. 3(1), 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. B. C. Aries and G. R. Newsham, “Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: A literature review,” Energy Policy 36(6), 1858–1866 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Kurian, R. S. Aithal, J. Bhat, and V. I. George, “Robust control and optimisation of energy consumption in daylight—artificial light integrated schemes,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(1), 7–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Newsham, M. B. C. Aries, S. Mancini, and G. Faye, “Individual control of electric lighting in a daylight space,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(1), 25–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Tsuei, J.-W. Pen, and W.-S. Sun, “Simulating the illuminance and the efficiency of the LED and fluorescent lights used in indoor lighting design,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18692–18701 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Svilainis, “LED PWM dimming linearity investigation,” Displays 29(3), 243–249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Omer, “Energy, environment and sustainable development,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 12(9), 129–163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. H. W. Li, G. H. W. Cheung, and C. C. S. Lau, “A simplified procedure for determining indoor daylight illuminance using daylight coefficient concept,” Build. Environ. 41(5), 578–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Lee, D. L. DiBartolomeo, and S. E. Selkowitz, “Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results,” Energy Build. 38(1), 30–44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A.-S. Choi, K.-D. Song, and Y.-S. Kim, “The characteristics of photosensors and electronic dimming ballasts in daylight responsive dimming systems,” Build. Environ. 40(1), 39–50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Leslie, R. Raghavan, O. Howlett, and C. Eaton, “The potential of simplified concepts for daylight harvesting,” Lighting Res. Tech. 37(1), 21–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Miyazaki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Energy savings of office buildings by the use of semi-transparent solar cells for windows,” Renew. Energy 30(3), 281–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. Yang, G. Zheng, C. Lou, D. An, and J. Burnett, “Grid-connected building-integrated photovoltaics: a Hong Kong case study,” Sol. Energy 76(1-3), 55–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Chwieduk, “Towards sustainable-energy buildings,” Appl. Energy 76(1-3), 211–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. H. W. Li and J. C. Lam, “Evaluation of lighting performance in office buildings with daylighting controls,” Energy Build. 33(8), 793–803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Cook, “High efficiency lighting in industry and commercial buildings,” Power Eng. J. 12(5), 197–206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. F. Min, E. Mills, and Q. Zhang, “Energy efficient lighting in China: Problems and prospects,” Energy Policy 25(1), 77–83 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

F. Rubinstein, M. Siminovitch, and R. Verderber, “Fifty percent energy savings with automatic lighting controls,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 29(4), 768–773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. Rubinstein, “Photoelectric control of equi-illumination lighting systems,” Energy Build. 6(2), 141–150 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aithal, R. S.

C. P. Kurian, R. S. Aithal, J. Bhat, and V. I. George, “Robust control and optimisation of energy consumption in daylight—artificial light integrated schemes,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(1), 7–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akisawa, A.

T. Miyazaki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Energy savings of office buildings by the use of semi-transparent solar cells for windows,” Renew. Energy 30(3), 281–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

An, D.

H. Yang, G. Zheng, C. Lou, D. An, and J. Burnett, “Grid-connected building-integrated photovoltaics: a Hong Kong case study,” Sol. Energy 76(1-3), 55–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aries, M. B. C.

M. B. C. Aries and G. R. Newsham, “Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: A literature review,” Energy Policy 36(6), 1858–1866 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Newsham, M. B. C. Aries, S. Mancini, and G. Faye, “Individual control of electric lighting in a daylight space,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(1), 25–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Athienitis, A. K.

K. Kapsis and A. K. Athienitis, “Building integrated semi-transparent photovoltaics: energy and daylighting performance,” Proc. SPIE 8007, 800726 (2011).

Benton, C.

M. Warren, S. Selkowitz, O. Morse, C. Benton, and J. E. Jewell, “Lighting system performance in an innovative daylighted structure: an instrumented study,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Daylighting Conference, Long Beach (1986), pp. 21–221.

Bhat, J.

C. P. Kurian, R. S. Aithal, J. Bhat, and V. I. George, “Robust control and optimisation of energy consumption in daylight—artificial light integrated schemes,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(1), 7–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, J.

H. Yang, G. Zheng, C. Lou, D. An, and J. Burnett, “Grid-connected building-integrated photovoltaics: a Hong Kong case study,” Sol. Energy 76(1-3), 55–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. W.

D. H. Li, T. N. Lam, W. W. Chan, and A. H. Mak, “Energy and cost analysis of semi-transparent photovoltaic in office buildings,” Appl. Energy 86(5), 722–729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, G. H. W.

D. H. W. Li, G. H. W. Cheung, and C. C. S. Lau, “A simplified procedure for determining indoor daylight illuminance using daylight coefficient concept,” Build. Environ. 41(5), 578–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, A.-S.

A.-S. Choi, K.-D. Song, and Y.-S. Kim, “The characteristics of photosensors and electronic dimming ballasts in daylight responsive dimming systems,” Build. Environ. 40(1), 39–50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chwieduk, D.

D. Chwieduk, “Towards sustainable-energy buildings,” Appl. Energy 76(1-3), 211–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cook, B.

B. Cook, “High efficiency lighting in industry and commercial buildings,” Power Eng. J. 12(5), 197–206 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DiBartolomeo, D. L.

E. S. Lee, D. L. DiBartolomeo, and S. E. Selkowitz, “Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results,” Energy Build. 38(1), 30–44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, C.

R. P. Leslie, R. Raghavan, O. Howlett, and C. Eaton, “The potential of simplified concepts for daylight harvesting,” Lighting Res. Tech. 37(1), 21–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faye, G.

G. R. Newsham, M. B. C. Aries, S. Mancini, and G. Faye, “Individual control of electric lighting in a daylight space,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(1), 25–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

George, V. I.

C. P. Kurian, R. S. Aithal, J. Bhat, and V. I. George, “Robust control and optimisation of energy consumption in daylight—artificial light integrated schemes,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(1), 7–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, L. D. D.

L. D. D. Harvey, “Reducing energy use in the building sector: measures, costs, and examples,” Energy Effic. 12, 2265–2300 (2009).

Herrmann, U.

U. Herrmann, H. G. Langer, and H. van der Broeck, “Low cost DC to AC converter for photovoltaic power conversion in residential applications,” in 24th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (1993), pp. 588–594.
[CrossRef]

Howlett, O.

R. P. Leslie, R. Raghavan, O. Howlett, and C. Eaton, “The potential of simplified concepts for daylight harvesting,” Lighting Res. Tech. 37(1), 21–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J. E.

M. Warren, S. Selkowitz, O. Morse, C. Benton, and J. E. Jewell, “Lighting system performance in an innovative daylighted structure: an instrumented study,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Daylighting Conference, Long Beach (1986), pp. 21–221.

Kapsis, K.

K. Kapsis and A. K. Athienitis, “Building integrated semi-transparent photovoltaics: energy and daylighting performance,” Proc. SPIE 8007, 800726 (2011).

Kashiwagi, T.

T. Miyazaki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Energy savings of office buildings by the use of semi-transparent solar cells for windows,” Renew. Energy 30(3), 281–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

J. T. Kim and G. Kim, “Overview and new developments in optical daylighting systems for building a healthy indoor environment,” Build. Environ. 45(2), 256–269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. T.

J. T. Kim and G. Kim, “Overview and new developments in optical daylighting systems for building a healthy indoor environment,” Build. Environ. 45(2), 256–269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-S.

A.-S. Choi, K.-D. Song, and Y.-S. Kim, “The characteristics of photosensors and electronic dimming ballasts in daylight responsive dimming systems,” Build. Environ. 40(1), 39–50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-C.

Kurian, C. P.

C. P. Kurian, R. S. Aithal, J. Bhat, and V. I. George, “Robust control and optimisation of energy consumption in daylight—artificial light integrated schemes,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(1), 7–24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, J. K.

Lam, J. C.

D. H. W. Li and J. C. Lam, “Evaluation of lighting performance in office buildings with daylighting controls,” Energy Build. 33(8), 793–803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lam, T. N.

D. H. Li, T. N. Lam, W. W. Chan, and A. H. Mak, “Energy and cost analysis of semi-transparent photovoltaic in office buildings,” Appl. Energy 86(5), 722–729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Langer, H. G.

U. Herrmann, H. G. Langer, and H. van der Broeck, “Low cost DC to AC converter for photovoltaic power conversion in residential applications,” in 24th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (1993), pp. 588–594.
[CrossRef]

Lau, C. C. S.

D. H. W. Li, G. H. W. Cheung, and C. C. S. Lau, “A simplified procedure for determining indoor daylight illuminance using daylight coefficient concept,” Build. Environ. 41(5), 578–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E. S.

E. S. Lee, D. L. DiBartolomeo, and S. E. Selkowitz, “Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results,” Energy Build. 38(1), 30–44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Leslie, R. P.

R. P. Leslie, R. Raghavan, O. Howlett, and C. Eaton, “The potential of simplified concepts for daylight harvesting,” Lighting Res. Tech. 37(1), 21–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. H.

D. H. Li, T. N. Lam, W. W. Chan, and A. H. Mak, “Energy and cost analysis of semi-transparent photovoltaic in office buildings,” Appl. Energy 86(5), 722–729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. H. W.

D. H. W. Li, G. H. W. Cheung, and C. C. S. Lau, “A simplified procedure for determining indoor daylight illuminance using daylight coefficient concept,” Build. Environ. 41(5), 578–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. W. Li and J. C. Lam, “Evaluation of lighting performance in office buildings with daylighting controls,” Energy Build. 33(8), 793–803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lou, C.

H. Yang, G. Zheng, C. Lou, D. An, and J. Burnett, “Grid-connected building-integrated photovoltaics: a Hong Kong case study,” Sol. Energy 76(1-3), 55–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mak, A. H.

D. H. Li, T. N. Lam, W. W. Chan, and A. H. Mak, “Energy and cost analysis of semi-transparent photovoltaic in office buildings,” Appl. Energy 86(5), 722–729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, S.

G. R. Newsham, M. B. C. Aries, S. Mancini, and G. Faye, “Individual control of electric lighting in a daylight space,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(1), 25–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mills, E.

G. F. Min, E. Mills, and Q. Zhang, “Energy efficient lighting in China: Problems and prospects,” Energy Policy 25(1), 77–83 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Min, G. F.

G. F. Min, E. Mills, and Q. Zhang, “Energy efficient lighting in China: Problems and prospects,” Energy Policy 25(1), 77–83 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, T.

T. Miyazaki, A. Akisawa, and T. Kashiwagi, “Energy savings of office buildings by the use of semi-transparent solar cells for windows,” Renew. Energy 30(3), 281–304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morse, O.

M. Warren, S. Selkowitz, O. Morse, C. Benton, and J. E. Jewell, “Lighting system performance in an innovative daylighted structure: an instrumented study,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Daylighting Conference, Long Beach (1986), pp. 21–221.

Newsham, G. R.

M. B. C. Aries and G. R. Newsham, “Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: A literature review,” Energy Policy 36(6), 1858–1866 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Newsham, M. B. C. Aries, S. Mancini, and G. Faye, “Individual control of electric lighting in a daylight space,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(1), 25–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Omer, A. M.

A. M. Omer, “Energy, environment and sustainable development,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 12(9), 129–163 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pen, J.-W.

Raghavan, R.

R. P. Leslie, R. Raghavan, O. Howlett, and C. Eaton, “The potential of simplified concepts for daylight harvesting,” Lighting Res. Tech. 37(1), 21–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubinstein, F.

F. Rubinstein, M. Siminovitch, and R. Verderber, “Fifty percent energy savings with automatic lighting controls,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 29(4), 768–773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Rubinstein, “Photoelectric control of equi-illumination lighting systems,” Energy Build. 6(2), 141–150 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Selkowitz, S.

M. Warren, S. Selkowitz, O. Morse, C. Benton, and J. E. Jewell, “Lighting system performance in an innovative daylighted structure: an instrumented study,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Daylighting Conference, Long Beach (1986), pp. 21–221.

Selkowitz, S. E.

E. S. Lee, D. L. DiBartolomeo, and S. E. Selkowitz, “Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results,” Energy Build. 38(1), 30–44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siminovitch, M.

F. Rubinstein, M. Siminovitch, and R. Verderber, “Fifty percent energy savings with automatic lighting controls,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 29(4), 768–773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.-D.

A.-S. Choi, K.-D. Song, and Y.-S. Kim, “The characteristics of photosensors and electronic dimming ballasts in daylight responsive dimming systems,” Build. Environ. 40(1), 39–50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.-S.

Svilainis, L.

L. Svilainis, “LED PWM dimming linearity investigation,” Displays 29(3), 243–249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

T. Taguchi, “Present status of energy saving technologies and future prospect in white LED lighting,” IEEJ Trans. Electr. Electron. Eng. 3(1), 21–26 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsuei, C.-H.

van der Broeck, H.

U. Herrmann, H. G. Langer, and H. van der Broeck, “Low cost DC to AC converter for photovoltaic power conversion in residential applications,” in 24th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (1993), pp. 588–594.
[CrossRef]

Verderber, R.

F. Rubinstein, M. Siminovitch, and R. Verderber, “Fifty percent energy savings with automatic lighting controls,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 29(4), 768–773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Warren, M.

M. Warren, S. Selkowitz, O. Morse, C. Benton, and J. E. Jewell, “Lighting system performance in an innovative daylighted structure: an instrumented study,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Daylighting Conference, Long Beach (1986), pp. 21–221.

Yang, H.

H. Yang, G. Zheng, C. Lou, D. An, and J. Burnett, “Grid-connected building-integrated photovoltaics: a Hong Kong case study,” Sol. Energy 76(1-3), 55–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

G. F. Min, E. Mills, and Q. Zhang, “Energy efficient lighting in China: Problems and prospects,” Energy Policy 25(1), 77–83 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, G.

H. Yang, G. Zheng, C. Lou, D. An, and J. Burnett, “Grid-connected building-integrated photovoltaics: a Hong Kong case study,” Sol. Energy 76(1-3), 55–59 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Energy (2)

D. H. Li, T. N. Lam, W. W. Chan, and A. H. Mak, “Energy and cost analysis of semi-transparent photovoltaic in office buildings,” Appl. Energy 86(5), 722–729 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Chwieduk, “Towards sustainable-energy buildings,” Appl. Energy 76(1-3), 211–217 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Build. Environ. (3)

D. H. W. Li, G. H. W. Cheung, and C. C. S. Lau, “A simplified procedure for determining indoor daylight illuminance using daylight coefficient concept,” Build. Environ. 41(5), 578–589 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim and G. Kim, “Overview and new developments in optical daylighting systems for building a healthy indoor environment,” Build. Environ. 45(2), 256–269 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A.-S. Choi, K.-D. Song, and Y.-S. Kim, “The characteristics of photosensors and electronic dimming ballasts in daylight responsive dimming systems,” Build. Environ. 40(1), 39–50 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Displays (1)

L. Svilainis, “LED PWM dimming linearity investigation,” Displays 29(3), 243–249 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Energy Build. (3)

F. Rubinstein, “Photoelectric control of equi-illumination lighting systems,” Energy Build. 6(2), 141–150 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Lee, D. L. DiBartolomeo, and S. E. Selkowitz, “Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results,” Energy Build. 38(1), 30–44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. W. Li and J. C. Lam, “Evaluation of lighting performance in office buildings with daylighting controls,” Energy Build. 33(8), 793–803 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Energy Effic. (1)

L. D. D. Harvey, “Reducing energy use in the building sector: measures, costs, and examples,” Energy Effic. 12, 2265–2300 (2009).

Energy Policy (2)

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Daylight harvesting and dimming control system for indoor lighting in an office building.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

General illustration of the pilot test. (a) three-story building facing to south and (b) schematic view of the office.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution trend of daylight along the distance from the window after transmitting through the window.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation between indoor illumination at 6 m from the window (left, colored line) and external PV power (right, dotted line) during working hours from Feb 27, 2012 to Mar 1, 2012.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absolute ratio of indoor illumination 6 m inside the office to photovoltaic power generation outside the office.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three parts of the dimming control system with daylight harvesting: (a) 60-W solar cell array, (b) dimming control system, and (c) 52-W LED panel lights.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Circuit diagram of the dimming system integrated with the BIPV system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulated indoor illumination and power consumption. Indoor illuminations at each point over time under clear skies (a) and overcast skies (c), and power consumption under clear skies (b) and overcast skies (d).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Indoor illumination due to only daylight distribution and artificial indoor lightings with daylight under (a) clear and (b) overcast skies.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental results of indoor illumination and power consumption. Indoor illumination at each point over time under clear skies (a) and overcast skies (c), and power consumption under clear skies (b) and overcast skies (d).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Changes in the dimming ratios for the three LED lights under (a) clear conditions, Apr 30, 2012, and (b) overcast conditions, May 1, 2012.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Average annual energy savings with respect to seasons or months.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Data-sheet of LED lightings used for dimming control

Equations (4)

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y= α 1 exp( x 1.09 )+ α 2
L ( x ) = P ( t ) β { α 1 exp ( x 1.09 ) + α 2 }
L x [lx]=P×4.24×{45.11×exp( x 1.09 )+0.84}
Di m x [%]= L R L x L R ×100, if Dim x 0, then Dim x =0 and if 0<Dim x 10, then Dim x =10

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