Abstract

Thermal properties of InP-based quantum well photonic crystal nanobeam lasers heterogeneously integrated on silicon on insulator waveguides are studied. We show both numerically and experimentally the reduction of the thermal resistance of the III-V cavities by adjusting the composition of the layer which bonds the III-V materials to the silicon wafer and by adding an over-cladding on top of the cavities. Using a bonding layer made of benzocyclobutene and SiO2 and an over-cladding of MgF2, we found a decrease by a factor higher than 35 compared to air-suspended photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. Such optimized structures are demonstrated to operate under continuous wave pumping for several 10's of minutes despite the adverse effect of non-radiative surface recombination of carriers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2014 (3)

A. Bazin, K. Lengle, M. Gay, P. Monnier, L. Bramerie, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, F. Raineri, “Ultrafast all-optical switching and error-free 10Gbit/s wavelength conversion in hybrid InP-silicon on insulator nanocavities using surface quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Sekoguchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, S. Noda, “Photonic crystal nanocavity with a Q-factor of ~9 million,” Opt. Express 22(1), 916–924 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bazin, R. Raj, F. Raineri, “Design of silica encapsulated high-Q photonic crystal nanobeam,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(5), 952–958 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, M. Notomi, “Ultralow-power all-optical RAM based on nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 248–252 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (8)

B.-H. Ahn, J.-H. Kang, M.-K. Kim, J.-H. Song, B. Min, K.-S. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, “One-dimensional parabolic-beam photonic crystal laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5654–5660 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gong, B. Ellis, G. Shambat, T. Sarmiento, J. S. Harris, J. Vuckovic, “Nanobeam photonic crystal cavity quantum dot laser,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8781–8789 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Halioua, A. Bazin, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Raineri, R. Raj, “III-V photonic crystal wire cavity laser on silicon wafer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(10), 2146–2150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, M. Notomi, “High speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Karle, Y. Halioua, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, F. van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, R. Raj, “Heterogeneous integration and precise alignment of InP-based photonic crystal lasers to complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabricated silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, M. Khan, Y. Huang, J.-H. Ryou, P. Deotare, R. Dupuis, M. Lončar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Moreau, G. Tessier, F. Raineri, M. Brunstein, A. Yacomotti, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, A. Levenson, Y. De Wilde, “Transient thermoreflectance imaging of active photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, M. Smit, “Adhesive bonding of InP/InGaAsP dies to processed silicon-on-insulator wafers using dvs-bis-benzocyclobutene,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(12), G1015–G1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Guilet, S. Bouchoule, C. Jany, C. S. Corr, P. Chabert, “Optimization of a Cl2-H2 inductively coupled plasma etching process adapted to nonthermalized InP wafers for the realization of deep ridge heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24(5), 2381–2387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. R. Cao, Wan Kuang, Zhi-Jian Wei, Sang-Jun Choi, M. Haixia Yu, J. D. Bagheri, O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Sapphire-bonded photonic crystal microcavity lasers and their far-field radiation patterns,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 4–6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, “Ultrafast dynamics of the third-order nonlinear response in a two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. M. H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, “Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermo-optic effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1528–1530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Hwang, H. Ryu, D. Song, I. Han, H. Park, D. Jang, Y. Lee, “Continuous room-temperature operation of optically pumped two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers at 1.6 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(10), 1295–1297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Oigawa, J.-F. Fan, Y. Nannichi, H. Sugahara, M. Oshima, “Universal passivation effect of (NH4)2Sx treatment on the surface of III-V compound semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(3A), L322–L325 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, B.-H.

Asano, T.

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, M. Smit, “Adhesive bonding of InP/InGaAsP dies to processed silicon-on-insulator wafers using dvs-bis-benzocyclobutene,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(12), G1015–G1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bagheri, J. D.

J. R. Cao, Wan Kuang, Zhi-Jian Wei, Sang-Jun Choi, M. Haixia Yu, J. D. Bagheri, O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Sapphire-bonded photonic crystal microcavity lasers and their far-field radiation patterns,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 4–6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bazin, A.

Beaudoin, G.

A. Bazin, K. Lengle, M. Gay, P. Monnier, L. Bramerie, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, F. Raineri, “Ultrafast all-optical switching and error-free 10Gbit/s wavelength conversion in hybrid InP-silicon on insulator nanocavities using surface quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Karle, Y. Halioua, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, F. van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, R. Raj, “Heterogeneous integration and precise alignment of InP-based photonic crystal lasers to complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabricated silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Vecchi, F. Raineri, I. Sagnes, A. Yacomotti, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, K.-H. Lee, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, S. Guilet, G. Beaudoin, A. Taneau, S. Bouchoule, A. Levenson, R. Raj, “Continuous-wave operation of photonic band-edge laser near 1.55 µm on silicon wafer,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7551–7556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchoule, S.

G. Vecchi, F. Raineri, I. Sagnes, A. Yacomotti, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, K.-H. Lee, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, S. Guilet, G. Beaudoin, A. Taneau, S. Bouchoule, A. Levenson, R. Raj, “Continuous-wave operation of photonic band-edge laser near 1.55 µm on silicon wafer,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7551–7556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Guilet, S. Bouchoule, C. Jany, C. S. Corr, P. Chabert, “Optimization of a Cl2-H2 inductively coupled plasma etching process adapted to nonthermalized InP wafers for the realization of deep ridge heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24(5), 2381–2387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Braive, R.

A. Bazin, K. Lengle, M. Gay, P. Monnier, L. Bramerie, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, F. Raineri, “Ultrafast all-optical switching and error-free 10Gbit/s wavelength conversion in hybrid InP-silicon on insulator nanocavities using surface quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Karle, Y. Halioua, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, F. van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, R. Raj, “Heterogeneous integration and precise alignment of InP-based photonic crystal lasers to complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabricated silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Vecchi, F. Raineri, I. Sagnes, A. Yacomotti, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, K.-H. Lee, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, S. Guilet, G. Beaudoin, A. Taneau, S. Bouchoule, A. Levenson, R. Raj, “Continuous-wave operation of photonic band-edge laser near 1.55 µm on silicon wafer,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7551–7556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bramerie, L.

A. Bazin, K. Lengle, M. Gay, P. Monnier, L. Bramerie, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, F. Raineri, “Ultrafast all-optical switching and error-free 10Gbit/s wavelength conversion in hybrid InP-silicon on insulator nanocavities using surface quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, M. Smit, “Adhesive bonding of InP/InGaAsP dies to processed silicon-on-insulator wafers using dvs-bis-benzocyclobutene,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(12), G1015–G1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brunstein, M.

V. Moreau, G. Tessier, F. Raineri, M. Brunstein, A. Yacomotti, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, A. Levenson, Y. De Wilde, “Transient thermoreflectance imaging of active photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, R. M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, J. R.

J. R. Cao, Wan Kuang, Zhi-Jian Wei, Sang-Jun Choi, M. Haixia Yu, J. D. Bagheri, O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Sapphire-bonded photonic crystal microcavity lasers and their far-field radiation patterns,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 4–6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chabert, P.

S. Guilet, S. Bouchoule, C. Jany, C. S. Corr, P. Chabert, “Optimization of a Cl2-H2 inductively coupled plasma etching process adapted to nonthermalized InP wafers for the realization of deep ridge heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24(5), 2381–2387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, H. M. H.

H. M. H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, “Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermo-optic effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1528–1530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cojocaru, C.

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, “Ultrafast dynamics of the third-order nonlinear response in a two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corr, C. S.

S. Guilet, S. Bouchoule, C. Jany, C. S. Corr, P. Chabert, “Optimization of a Cl2-H2 inductively coupled plasma etching process adapted to nonthermalized InP wafers for the realization of deep ridge heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24(5), 2381–2387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

J. R. Cao, Wan Kuang, Zhi-Jian Wei, Sang-Jun Choi, M. Haixia Yu, J. D. Bagheri, O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Sapphire-bonded photonic crystal microcavity lasers and their far-field radiation patterns,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 4–6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

H. M. H. Chong, R. M. De La Rue, “Tuning of photonic crystal waveguide microcavity by thermo-optic effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(6), 1528–1530 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Wilde, Y.

V. Moreau, G. Tessier, F. Raineri, M. Brunstein, A. Yacomotti, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, A. Levenson, Y. De Wilde, “Transient thermoreflectance imaging of active photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deotare, P.

Y. Zhang, M. Khan, Y. Huang, J.-H. Ryou, P. Deotare, R. Dupuis, M. Lončar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deotare, P. B.

Q. Quan, P. B. Deotare, M. Loncar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity strongly coupled to the feeding waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 203102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R.

Y. Zhang, M. Khan, Y. Huang, J.-H. Ryou, P. Deotare, R. Dupuis, M. Lončar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eichenfield, M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellis, B.

Englund, D.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, J.-F.

H. Oigawa, J.-F. Fan, Y. Nannichi, H. Sugahara, M. Oshima, “Universal passivation effect of (NH4)2Sx treatment on the surface of III-V compound semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(3A), L322–L325 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Faraon, A.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fushman, I.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gay, M.

A. Bazin, K. Lengle, M. Gay, P. Monnier, L. Bramerie, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, F. Raineri, “Ultrafast all-optical switching and error-free 10Gbit/s wavelength conversion in hybrid InP-silicon on insulator nanocavities using surface quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y.

Guilet, S.

G. Vecchi, F. Raineri, I. Sagnes, A. Yacomotti, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, K.-H. Lee, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, S. Guilet, G. Beaudoin, A. Taneau, S. Bouchoule, A. Levenson, R. Raj, “Continuous-wave operation of photonic band-edge laser near 1.55 µm on silicon wafer,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7551–7556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Guilet, S. Bouchoule, C. Jany, C. S. Corr, P. Chabert, “Optimization of a Cl2-H2 inductively coupled plasma etching process adapted to nonthermalized InP wafers for the realization of deep ridge heterostructures,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24(5), 2381–2387 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haixia Yu, M.

J. R. Cao, Wan Kuang, Zhi-Jian Wei, Sang-Jun Choi, M. Haixia Yu, J. D. Bagheri, O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Sapphire-bonded photonic crystal microcavity lasers and their far-field radiation patterns,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 4–6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Halioua, Y.

Y. Halioua, A. Bazin, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, G. Roelkens, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, F. Raineri, “Hybrid III-V semiconductor/silicon nanolaser,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9221–9231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Halioua, A. Bazin, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Raineri, R. Raj, “III-V photonic crystal wire cavity laser on silicon wafer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(10), 2146–2150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Karle, Y. Halioua, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, F. van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, R. Raj, “Heterogeneous integration and precise alignment of InP-based photonic crystal lasers to complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabricated silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, I.

J. Hwang, H. Ryu, D. Song, I. Han, H. Park, D. Jang, Y. Lee, “Continuous room-temperature operation of optically pumped two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers at 1.6 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(10), 1295–1297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haret, L. D.

Harris, J. S.

Huang, Y.

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S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, M. Notomi, “High speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
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D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. Vecchi, F. Raineri, I. Sagnes, A. Yacomotti, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, K.-H. Lee, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, S. Guilet, G. Beaudoin, A. Taneau, S. Bouchoule, A. Levenson, R. Raj, “Continuous-wave operation of photonic band-edge laser near 1.55 µm on silicon wafer,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7551–7556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

A. Bazin, K. Lengle, M. Gay, P. Monnier, L. Bramerie, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, F. Raineri, “Ultrafast all-optical switching and error-free 10Gbit/s wavelength conversion in hybrid InP-silicon on insulator nanocavities using surface quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Halioua, A. Bazin, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, G. Roelkens, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, F. Raineri, “Hybrid III-V semiconductor/silicon nanolaser,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9221–9231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Halioua, A. Bazin, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Raineri, R. Raj, “III-V photonic crystal wire cavity laser on silicon wafer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(10), 2146–2150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Karle, Y. Halioua, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, F. van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, R. Raj, “Heterogeneous integration and precise alignment of InP-based photonic crystal lasers to complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabricated silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Moreau, G. Tessier, F. Raineri, M. Brunstein, A. Yacomotti, R. Raj, I. Sagnes, A. Levenson, Y. De Wilde, “Transient thermoreflectance imaging of active photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(9), 091103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Vecchi, F. Raineri, I. Sagnes, A. Yacomotti, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, K.-H. Lee, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, S. Guilet, G. Beaudoin, A. Taneau, S. Bouchoule, A. Levenson, R. Raj, “Continuous-wave operation of photonic band-edge laser near 1.55 µm on silicon wafer,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7551–7556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, “Ultrafast dynamics of the third-order nonlinear response in a two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Halioua, A. Bazin, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, G. Roelkens, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, F. Raineri, “Hybrid III-V semiconductor/silicon nanolaser,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9221–9231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Halioua, A. Bazin, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Raineri, R. Raj, “III-V photonic crystal wire cavity laser on silicon wafer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(10), 2146–2150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Karle, Y. Halioua, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, F. van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, R. Raj, “Heterogeneous integration and precise alignment of InP-based photonic crystal lasers to complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabricated silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, M. Smit, “Adhesive bonding of InP/InGaAsP dies to processed silicon-on-insulator wafers using dvs-bis-benzocyclobutene,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(12), G1015–G1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Zhang, M. Khan, Y. Huang, J.-H. Ryou, P. Deotare, R. Dupuis, M. Lončar, “Photonic crystal nanobeam lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Hwang, H. Ryu, D. Song, I. Han, H. Park, D. Jang, Y. Lee, “Continuous room-temperature operation of optically pumped two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers at 1.6 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(10), 1295–1297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. Bazin, K. Lengle, M. Gay, P. Monnier, L. Bramerie, R. Braive, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, F. Raineri, “Ultrafast all-optical switching and error-free 10Gbit/s wavelength conversion in hybrid InP-silicon on insulator nanocavities using surface quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Halioua, A. Bazin, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, G. Roelkens, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, F. Raineri, “Hybrid III-V semiconductor/silicon nanolaser,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9221–9231 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Halioua, A. Bazin, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Raineri, R. Raj, “III-V photonic crystal wire cavity laser on silicon wafer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(10), 2146–2150 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Karle, Y. Halioua, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, F. van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, R. Raj, “Heterogeneous integration and precise alignment of InP-based photonic crystal lasers to complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabricated silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. Vecchi, F. Raineri, I. Sagnes, A. Yacomotti, P. Monnier, T. J. Karle, K.-H. Lee, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, S. Guilet, G. Beaudoin, A. Taneau, S. Bouchoule, A. Levenson, R. Raj, “Continuous-wave operation of photonic band-edge laser near 1.55 µm on silicon wafer,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7551–7556 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. R. Cao, Wan Kuang, Zhi-Jian Wei, Sang-Jun Choi, M. Haixia Yu, J. D. Bagheri, O’Brien, P. D. Dapkus, “Sapphire-bonded photonic crystal microcavity lasers and their far-field radiation patterns,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(1), 4–6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Sato, T.

K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, M. Notomi, “Ultralow-power all-optical RAM based on nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 248–252 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, M. Notomi, “High speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, R. Raj, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, “Ultrafast dynamics of the third-order nonlinear response in a two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(11), 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, M. Notomi, “Ultralow-power all-optical RAM based on nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 248–252 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, M. Notomi, “High speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
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K. Nozaki, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, Y. Suzaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, R. Takahashi, M. Notomi, “Ultralow-power all-optical RAM based on nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 6(4), 248–252 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuo, A. Shinya, T. Kakitsuka, K. Nozaki, T. Segawa, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, M. Notomi, “High speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic crystal laser with 13fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 648–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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G. Roelkens, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, M. Smit, “Adhesive bonding of InP/InGaAsP dies to processed silicon-on-insulator wafers using dvs-bis-benzocyclobutene,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(12), G1015–G1019 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Hwang, H. Ryu, D. Song, I. Han, H. Park, D. Jang, Y. Lee, “Continuous room-temperature operation of optically pumped two-dimensional photonic crystal lasers at 1.6 µm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(10), 1295–1297 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-H.

Stoltz, N.

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugahara, H.

H. Oigawa, J.-F. Fan, Y. Nannichi, H. Sugahara, M. Oshima, “Universal passivation effect of (NH4)2Sx treatment on the surface of III-V compound semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(3A), L322–L325 (1991).
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Opt. Express (6)

Other (1)

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, and M. L. Masanovic, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuit (John Wiley, 2012).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematics of the hybrid III-V/SOI PhC nanolaser structure. (b) Side view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature elevation in the centre of the PhC nanolaser of the hybrid structure simulated in the different configurations. The thermal resistance Rth is indicated for all the studied cases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated spatial temperature distributions in the median plane of the hybrid PhC nanobeam cavity, with BCB + SiO2 bonding layer and with the different over-cladding material. Here, Ptherm = 100µW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electron microscope image of hybrid nanolasers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission wavelength versus temperature for a hybrid nanolaser with BCB + SiO2 bonding layer and air over-cladding. The dashed line indicates the linear fit with ∂λ/∂T = 0.1nm/K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emission wavelength as a function of the pump peak power for a hybrid nanolaser with BCB + SiO2 bonding layer and MgF2 over-cladding. The linear fit of the curves above threshold are indicated by the dashed lines ((∂λ/∂P)L = - 0.0031nm/mW; (∂λ/∂P)H = - 0.0018nm/mW).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Characteristic curves with CW pumping of the emission from a hybrid nanolaser with BCB + SiO2 bonding layer and MgF2 over-cladding. The data points displayed as diamonds are taken while CW pumping right after the sample fabrication. The data points displayed as circles are taken after 1 hour of CW operation at twice the threshold (Pth).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thermal properties of the materials constituting the hybrid structure.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured   R th app in the different studied configurations in terms of bonding layers and over-cladding.

Equations (2)

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ω( N,T )= ω tr ( T )+ 1 2 αG 0 ( T )ln( N/ N tr )
R th app = T P = { ( λ P ) H ( λ P ) } λ T

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