Abstract

Following an initial discussion of control error signal generation, we present new developments and applications of automatic endless optical polarization control based on a commercial electrooptic LiNbO3 polarization transformer: (i) Fast tracking and subsequent demultiplexing of DPSK/DQPSK/QAM polarization channels was hitherto limited to a fairly fixed optical input power. With APD photoreceivers used for residual interference detection, we demonstrate here an optical level tolerance of at least 7 dB, compared to only 3 dB for PIN photoreceivers. DPSK channel polarizations are tracked at up to 40 krad/s and higher speed on the Poincaré sphere. (ii) High-order optical modulation schemes require increased accuracy of the polarization controller in the demultiplexer. This is possible at the expense of a reduced tracking speed. We achieve a mean polarization extinction ratio of >40 dB or <0.02 rad error while tracking arbitrary endless polarization changes of up to 1000 rad/s. (iii) While electronic polarization tracking in coherent receivers is currently limited to a symbol rate of about 28 GBaud we show optical polarization tracking of a signal with 1 THz bandwidth.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Krummrich, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in longhaul WDM transmission systems,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC2005, OThT6, March 6–11, 2005, Anaheim, CA, USA.
  2. M. Reimer, D. Dumas, G. Soliman, D. Yevick, and M. O'Sullivan, “Polarization evolution in dispersion compensation modules,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009, San Diego, CA, Mar. 22–26, 2009, Paper OWD.
  3. B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, “100-krad/s endless polarisation tracking with miniaturised module card,” Electron. Lett. 47(14), 813–814 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Ciena Wavelogic 3, application note available on 11 Oct. 2013 at http://www.ciena.com/resources/application-notes/Enabling-a-Bigger-and-Smarter-Network-with-Cienas-WaveLogic-3-AN.html .
  5. B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, K. Puntsri, “40-krad/s Polarization tracking in 200-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 430 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(9), 613–615 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, H. Griesser, S. Bayer, H. Wernz, “Record 59-krad/s polarization tracking in 112-Gb/s, 640-km, PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1407–1409 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Koch, R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, J. Omar, K. Puntsri, “20-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DPSK transmission with 40 krad/s endless optical polarization tracking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 798–801 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, “20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1118–1120 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. N. Wang, C. J. Xie, “Automatic optical polarization demultiplexing for polarization division multiplexed signals,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3183–3189 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, A. E. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. Fauzi Abas Ismail, H. Zhang, S. Ibrahim, F. Wüst, R. Noé, “5.94 Tbit/s, 1.49 bit/s/Hz (40×2×2×40 Gbit/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization division multiplex C-Band transmission over 324 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 914–916 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, “20.4-Tb/s (204 × 111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,” PDP20, OFC 2007, March 25, 2007, Anaheim, California, USA.
  15. A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. Winzer, C. Doerr, J. Centanni, E. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb/s C+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” PDP19, OFC 2007, March 25, 2007, Anaheim, California, USA.
  16. J.-X. Cai, O. V. Sinkin, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, and N. S. Bergano, “40 Gb/s transmission using polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RZ-DBPSK with automatic polarization tracking,” OFC2008, paper PDP4, San Diego, CA, USA, February 24–28, 2008.
  17. X. S. Yao, L.-S. Yan, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, J. Jiang, “All-optic scheme for automatic polarization division demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7407–7414 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Shen, X. Liu, S. Zhong, L. Zong, J. Veselka, P. Kim, J. Ferment, H. P. Sardesai, “Design of polarization de-multiplexer and PMD compensator for 112 Gb/s direct-detect PDM RZ-DQPSK systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3282–3293 (2010).
  19. J. Zhang, X. Yuan, M. Lin, T. Jinjing, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Transmission of 112Gb/s PM-RZ-DQPSK over 960km with adaptive polarization tracking based on power difference,” Proc. ECOC2010, P2.09.
  20. M. Yagi, S. Satomi, and S. Ryu, “Field Trial of 160-Gbit/s, Polarization-division multiplexed RZ-DQPSK transmission system using automatic polarization control,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, Paper OThT7.
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Ito, S. Fujita, E. T. de Gabory, and K. Fukuchi, “Improvement of PMD Tolerance for 110 Gb/s Pol-Mux RZ-DQPSK Signal with optical pol-dmux using optical PMD compensation and asymetric symbol-synchronous chirp,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009, San Diego, CA, Mar. 22–26, 2009, Paper OThR5.
  22. H. Wernz, S. Herbst, S. Bayer, H. Griesser, E. Martins, C. Fuerst, B. Koch, V. Mirvoda, R. Noé, A. Ehrhardt, L. Schuerer, S. Vorbeck, M. Schneiders, D. Breuer, and R. P. Braun, “Nonlinear behaviour of 112 Gb/s polarisation-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK with direct detection in a 630 km field trial,” Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC2009), Tu3.4.3, Vienna, Austria, 20-24 Sept. 2009.
  23. R. Noé, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, “Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(7), 1199–1207 (1988).
  24. N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, “Polarization control for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(3), 438–458 (1990).
  25. F. Heismann, M. S. Whalen, “Fast automatic polarization control system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(5), 503–505 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, D. Lambert, V. Lal, A. Dentai, M. Kuntz, J. Rahn, H.-S. Tsai, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, J. Tang, J. Zhang, T. Butrie, M. Raburn, B. Little, A. Nilsson, M. Reffle, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “10 channel, 45.6Gb/s per channel, polarization multiplexed DQPSK InP receiver photonic integrated circuit”, Proc. OFC 2010, PDP B2, 21–25 March 2010, San Diego, USA.
    [CrossRef]
  27. http://www.novoptel.de/Control/EPC1000_application_note_01.pdf , downloaded 30 Dec. 2013.
  28. R. Noé, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wust, “Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(10), 1469–1475 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

B. Koch, R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, J. Omar, K. Puntsri, “20-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DPSK transmission with 40 krad/s endless optical polarization tracking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 798–801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, “100-krad/s endless polarisation tracking with miniaturised module card,” Electron. Lett. 47(14), 813–814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, K. Puntsri, “40-krad/s Polarization tracking in 200-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 430 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(9), 613–615 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, H. Griesser, S. Bayer, H. Wernz, “Record 59-krad/s polarization tracking in 112-Gb/s, 640-km, PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1407–1409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shen, X. Liu, S. Zhong, L. Zong, J. Veselka, P. Kim, J. Ferment, H. P. Sardesai, “Design of polarization de-multiplexer and PMD compensator for 112 Gb/s direct-detect PDM RZ-DQPSK systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3282–3293 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, “20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1118–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. Fauzi Abas Ismail, H. Zhang, S. Ibrahim, F. Wüst, R. Noé, “5.94 Tbit/s, 1.49 bit/s/Hz (40×2×2×40 Gbit/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization division multiplex C-Band transmission over 324 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 914–916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, A. E. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Noé, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wust, “Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(10), 1469–1475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

F. Heismann, M. S. Whalen, “Fast automatic polarization control system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(5), 503–505 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, “Polarization control for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(3), 438–458 (1990).

1988 (1)

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, “Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(7), 1199–1207 (1988).

Achiam, Y.

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, S.

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, H. Griesser, S. Bayer, H. Wernz, “Record 59-krad/s polarization tracking in 112-Gb/s, 640-km, PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1407–1409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhandare, S.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. Fauzi Abas Ismail, H. Zhang, S. Ibrahim, F. Wüst, R. Noé, “5.94 Tbit/s, 1.49 bit/s/Hz (40×2×2×40 Gbit/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization division multiplex C-Band transmission over 324 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 914–916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boffi, P.

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, “20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1118–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cardakli, M. C.

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, A. E. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cho, P. S.

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Derosier, R. M.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fauzi Abas Ismail, A.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. Fauzi Abas Ismail, H. Zhang, S. Ibrahim, F. Wüst, R. Noé, “5.94 Tbit/s, 1.49 bit/s/Hz (40×2×2×40 Gbit/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization division multiplex C-Band transmission over 324 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 914–916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferment, J.

Ferrario, M.

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, “20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1118–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Filsinger, V.

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, K. Puntsri, “40-krad/s Polarization tracking in 200-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 430 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(9), 613–615 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Forghieri, F.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Greenblatt, A. S.

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Griesser, H.

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, H. Griesser, S. Bayer, H. Wernz, “Record 59-krad/s polarization tracking in 112-Gb/s, 640-km, PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1407–1409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gross, Y.

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harston, G.

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayee, M. I.

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, A. E. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, H.

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, “Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(7), 1199–1207 (1988).

Heismann, F.

F. Heismann, M. S. Whalen, “Fast automatic polarization control system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(5), 503–505 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hidayat, A.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. Fauzi Abas Ismail, H. Zhang, S. Ibrahim, F. Wüst, R. Noé, “5.94 Tbit/s, 1.49 bit/s/Hz (40×2×2×40 Gbit/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization division multiplex C-Band transmission over 324 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 914–916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hinz, S.

Hoffmann, D.

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, “Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(7), 1199–1207 (1988).

Ibrahim, S.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. Fauzi Abas Ismail, H. Zhang, S. Ibrahim, F. Wüst, R. Noé, “5.94 Tbit/s, 1.49 bit/s/Hz (40×2×2×40 Gbit/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization division multiplex C-Band transmission over 324 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 914–916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Jinjing, T.

J. Zhang, X. Yuan, M. Lin, T. Jinjing, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Transmission of 112Gb/s PM-RZ-DQPSK over 960km with adaptive polarization tracking based on power difference,” Proc. ECOC2010, P2.09.

Jopson, R. M.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A.

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, C. J.

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.

Koch, B.

B. Koch, R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, J. Omar, K. Puntsri, “20-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DPSK transmission with 40 krad/s endless optical polarization tracking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 798–801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, “100-krad/s endless polarisation tracking with miniaturised module card,” Electron. Lett. 47(14), 813–814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, K. Puntsri, “40-krad/s Polarization tracking in 200-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 430 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(9), 613–615 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, H. Griesser, S. Bayer, H. Wernz, “Record 59-krad/s polarization tracking in 112-Gb/s, 640-km, PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1407–1409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Levy-Yurista, G.

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M.

J. Zhang, X. Yuan, M. Lin, T. Jinjing, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Transmission of 112Gb/s PM-RZ-DQPSK over 960km with adaptive polarization tracking based on power difference,” Proc. ECOC2010, P2.09.

Liu, X.

Lucero, A. J.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marazzi, L.

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, “20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1118–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Margalit, M.

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, P.

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, “20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1118–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, “20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1118–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, A. R.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Milivojevic, B.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. Fauzi Abas Ismail, H. Zhang, S. Ibrahim, F. Wüst, R. Noé, “5.94 Tbit/s, 1.49 bit/s/Hz (40×2×2×40 Gbit/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization division multiplex C-Band transmission over 324 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 914–916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mirvoda, V.

B. Koch, R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, J. Omar, K. Puntsri, “20-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DPSK transmission with 40 krad/s endless optical polarization tracking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 798–801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, “100-krad/s endless polarisation tracking with miniaturised module card,” Electron. Lett. 47(14), 813–814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, K. Puntsri, “40-krad/s Polarization tracking in 200-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 430 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(9), 613–615 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, H. Griesser, S. Bayer, H. Wernz, “Record 59-krad/s polarization tracking in 112-Gb/s, 640-km, PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1407–1409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noe, R.

B. Koch, R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, J. Omar, K. Puntsri, “20-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DPSK transmission with 40 krad/s endless optical polarization tracking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 798–801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Noé, R.

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, “100-krad/s endless polarisation tracking with miniaturised module card,” Electron. Lett. 47(14), 813–814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, K. Puntsri, “40-krad/s Polarization tracking in 200-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 430 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(9), 613–615 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, H. Griesser, S. Bayer, H. Wernz, “Record 59-krad/s polarization tracking in 112-Gb/s, 640-km, PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1407–1409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. Fauzi Abas Ismail, H. Zhang, S. Ibrahim, F. Wüst, R. Noé, “5.94 Tbit/s, 1.49 bit/s/Hz (40×2×2×40 Gbit/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization division multiplex C-Band transmission over 324 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 914–916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Noé, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wust, “Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(10), 1469–1475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, “Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(7), 1199–1207 (1988).

Omar, J.

B. Koch, R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, J. Omar, K. Puntsri, “20-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DPSK transmission with 40 krad/s endless optical polarization tracking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 798–801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Parolari, P.

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, “20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1118–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Puntsri, K.

B. Koch, R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, J. Omar, K. Puntsri, “20-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DPSK transmission with 40 krad/s endless optical polarization tracking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 798–801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, K. Puntsri, “40-krad/s Polarization tracking in 200-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 430 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(9), 613–615 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Righetti, A.

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, “20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1118–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sahin, A. B.

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, A. E. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sandel, D.

B. Koch, R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, J. Omar, K. Puntsri, “20-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DPSK transmission with 40 krad/s endless optical polarization tracking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 798–801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, “100-krad/s endless polarisation tracking with miniaturised module card,” Electron. Lett. 47(14), 813–814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, K. Puntsri, “40-krad/s Polarization tracking in 200-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 430 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(9), 613–615 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. Fauzi Abas Ismail, H. Zhang, S. Ibrahim, F. Wüst, R. Noé, “5.94 Tbit/s, 1.49 bit/s/Hz (40×2×2×40 Gbit/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization division multiplex C-Band transmission over 324 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 914–916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Noé, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wust, “Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(10), 1469–1475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sardesai, H. P.

Shen, Y.

Siano, R.

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, “20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1118–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sulhoff, J. W.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Veselka, J.

Walker, G. R.

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, “Polarization control for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(3), 438–458 (1990).

Walker, N. G.

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, “Polarization control for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(3), 438–458 (1990).

Wang, Z. N.

Wernz, H.

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, H. Griesser, S. Bayer, H. Wernz, “Record 59-krad/s polarization tracking in 112-Gb/s, 640-km, PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1407–1409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Whalen, M. S.

F. Heismann, M. S. Whalen, “Fast automatic polarization control system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(5), 503–505 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

X. S. Yao, L.-S. Yan, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, J. Jiang, “All-optic scheme for automatic polarization division demultiplexing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7407–7414 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, A. E. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, C.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wust, F.

Wüst, F.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. Fauzi Abas Ismail, H. Zhang, S. Ibrahim, F. Wüst, R. Noé, “5.94 Tbit/s, 1.49 bit/s/Hz (40×2×2×40 Gbit/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization division multiplex C-Band transmission over 324 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 914–916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C. J.

Yan, L.-S.

Yao, X. S.

Yuan, X.

J. Zhang, X. Yuan, M. Lin, T. Jinjing, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Transmission of 112Gb/s PM-RZ-DQPSK over 960km with adaptive polarization tracking based on power difference,” Proc. ECOC2010, P2.09.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, H.

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. Fauzi Abas Ismail, H. Zhang, S. Ibrahim, F. Wüst, R. Noé, “5.94 Tbit/s, 1.49 bit/s/Hz (40×2×2×40 Gbit/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization division multiplex C-Band transmission over 324 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 914–916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, X. Yuan, M. Lin, T. Jinjing, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Transmission of 112Gb/s PM-RZ-DQPSK over 960km with adaptive polarization tracking based on power difference,” Proc. ECOC2010, P2.09.

Zhang, M.

J. Zhang, X. Yuan, M. Lin, T. Jinjing, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Transmission of 112Gb/s PM-RZ-DQPSK over 960km with adaptive polarization tracking based on power difference,” Proc. ECOC2010, P2.09.

Zhang, X.

J. Zhang, X. Yuan, M. Lin, T. Jinjing, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Transmission of 112Gb/s PM-RZ-DQPSK over 960km with adaptive polarization tracking based on power difference,” Proc. ECOC2010, P2.09.

Zhang, Y.

J. Zhang, X. Yuan, M. Lin, T. Jinjing, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Transmission of 112Gb/s PM-RZ-DQPSK over 960km with adaptive polarization tracking based on power difference,” Proc. ECOC2010, P2.09.

Zhong, S.

Zong, L.

Zyskind, J. L.

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, “100-krad/s endless polarisation tracking with miniaturised module card,” Electron. Lett. 47(14), 813–814 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (8)

S. Bhandare, D. Sandel, B. Milivojevic, A. Hidayat, A. Fauzi Abas Ismail, H. Zhang, S. Ibrahim, F. Wüst, R. Noé, “5.94 Tbit/s, 1.49 bit/s/Hz (40×2×2×40 Gbit/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization division multiplex C-Band transmission over 324 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 914–916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, V. Filsinger, K. Puntsri, “40-krad/s Polarization tracking in 200-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 430 km,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(9), 613–615 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noé, V. Mirvoda, H. Griesser, S. Bayer, H. Wernz, “Record 59-krad/s polarization tracking in 112-Gb/s, 640-km, PDM-RZ-DQPSK transmission,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1407–1409 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, R. Noe, D. Sandel, V. Mirvoda, J. Omar, K. Puntsri, “20-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DPSK transmission with 40 krad/s endless optical polarization tracking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(9), 798–801 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, C. J. Kerr, A. S. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. B. Khurgin, “Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-gb/s DWDM transmission over 4×100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 656–658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Boffi, M. Ferrario, L. Marazzi, P. Martelli, P. Parolari, A. Righetti, R. Siano, M. Martinelli, “20-Gb/s PolDM duobinary transmission over 350-km SSMF supported by a polarization stabilizer and an optical dispersion compensator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20(13), 1118–1120 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. R. McCormick, “1-Tb/s transmission experiment,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1264–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Heismann, M. S. Whalen, “Fast automatic polarization control system,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4(5), 503–505 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, “Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(7), 1199–1207 (1988).

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, “Polarization control for coherent optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(3), 438–458 (1990).

Y. Shen, X. Liu, S. Zhong, L. Zong, J. Veselka, P. Kim, J. Ferment, H. P. Sardesai, “Design of polarization de-multiplexer and PMD compensator for 112 Gb/s direct-detect PDM RZ-DQPSK systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3282–3293 (2010).

R. Noé, S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wust, “Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(10), 1469–1475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. B. Sahin, A. E. Willner, “Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizations and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme,” Photonics Technol. Lett. 13(8), 881–883 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, and H. Fukuyama, “20.4-Tb/s (204 × 111 Gb/s) transmission over 240 km using bandwidth-maximized hybrid Raman/EDFAs,” PDP20, OFC 2007, March 25, 2007, Anaheim, California, USA.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. Winzer, C. Doerr, J. Centanni, E. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, and K. Higuma, “25.6-Tb/s C+L-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals,” PDP19, OFC 2007, March 25, 2007, Anaheim, California, USA.

J.-X. Cai, O. V. Sinkin, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. J. Lucero, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, W. W. Patterson, and N. S. Bergano, “40 Gb/s transmission using polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RZ-DBPSK with automatic polarization tracking,” OFC2008, paper PDP4, San Diego, CA, USA, February 24–28, 2008.

Ciena Wavelogic 3, application note available on 11 Oct. 2013 at http://www.ciena.com/resources/application-notes/Enabling-a-Bigger-and-Smarter-Network-with-Cienas-WaveLogic-3-AN.html .

P. Krummrich, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in longhaul WDM transmission systems,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC2005, OThT6, March 6–11, 2005, Anaheim, CA, USA.

M. Reimer, D. Dumas, G. Soliman, D. Yevick, and M. O'Sullivan, “Polarization evolution in dispersion compensation modules,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009, San Diego, CA, Mar. 22–26, 2009, Paper OWD.

J. Zhang, X. Yuan, M. Lin, T. Jinjing, Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, X. Zhang, “Transmission of 112Gb/s PM-RZ-DQPSK over 960km with adaptive polarization tracking based on power difference,” Proc. ECOC2010, P2.09.

M. Yagi, S. Satomi, and S. Ryu, “Field Trial of 160-Gbit/s, Polarization-division multiplexed RZ-DQPSK transmission system using automatic polarization control,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008, San Diego, CA, Feb. 24–28, 2008, Paper OThT7.
[CrossRef]

T. Ito, S. Fujita, E. T. de Gabory, and K. Fukuchi, “Improvement of PMD Tolerance for 110 Gb/s Pol-Mux RZ-DQPSK Signal with optical pol-dmux using optical PMD compensation and asymetric symbol-synchronous chirp,” Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009, San Diego, CA, Mar. 22–26, 2009, Paper OThR5.

H. Wernz, S. Herbst, S. Bayer, H. Griesser, E. Martins, C. Fuerst, B. Koch, V. Mirvoda, R. Noé, A. Ehrhardt, L. Schuerer, S. Vorbeck, M. Schneiders, D. Breuer, and R. P. Braun, “Nonlinear behaviour of 112 Gb/s polarisation-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK with direct detection in a 630 km field trial,” Proc. European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC2009), Tu3.4.3, Vienna, Austria, 20-24 Sept. 2009.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, D. Lambert, V. Lal, A. Dentai, M. Kuntz, J. Rahn, H.-S. Tsai, R. Malendevich, G. Goldfarb, J. Tang, J. Zhang, T. Butrie, M. Raburn, B. Little, A. Nilsson, M. Reffle, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “10 channel, 45.6Gb/s per channel, polarization multiplexed DQPSK InP receiver photonic integrated circuit”, Proc. OFC 2010, PDP B2, 21–25 March 2010, San Diego, USA.
[CrossRef]

http://www.novoptel.de/Control/EPC1000_application_note_01.pdf , downloaded 30 Dec. 2013.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Polarization controller with optical power measurement in cross polarization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Coherent optical transmission setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simplified block diagram of polarization controller suitable for electrical power measurement in coherent receiver.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simplified block diagram of polarization controller with interference detection of polarization-multiplexed DQPSK signals.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Maximum intensity error, measured with maximum interference in PIN photoreceivers, as a function of optical input power, for 40 Gbaud PDM-DQPSK. Also shown is relative intensity error (RIE) at a constant −5 dBm optical input power as a function of polarization interference, expressed as an equivalent optical power. Note that all curves are normalized to the value 1 at −4 dBm optical power. Idealized quadratic and linear electrical detection is displayed for comparison.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Maximum (solid curve) achievable RIE using APD as function of optical input power, for 40 Gbaud PDM-DQPSK. This is compared with maximum RIE using PIN photodiodes. X-Axes are shown for PIN (top) and APD (bottom) photoreceivers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Setup for 20-Gb/s PDM-RZ-DPSK transmission. An endless, electrooptic polarization controller with interference detection demultiplexes the two polarization channels, enabling subsequent direct detection.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

BER as function of optical signal-to-noise ratio at 500 rad/s and 40 krad/s scrambling.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

BER as function of optical input power for 500 rad/s and 40 krad/s scrambling, starting for two different OSNRs which yielded BER 10−6 and 10−8 at 500 rad/s and −15 dBm input power.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

BER as function of maximum scrambling speed, starting from BER 10−6 and 10−8.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

BER over > 1.5 hours after transmission over 430 km with 40 krad/s scrambling.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Setup for high-precision polarization control.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Definition of polarization errors, shown at sample histograms of relative intensity error (RIE). Histogram bin width is ΔRIE = 3.3⋅10−5.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Mean and maximum polarization errors at 50% dithering.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Mean and maximum polarization errors at 38% dithering.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Mean and maximum polarization errors at 25% dithering.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Inverse cumulative distribution function of Relative Intensity Error (RIE) during long term measurements with 38% dithering and ATE = 4 at 50 and 1000 rad/s scrambling speeds.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Setup for polarization control with 1 THz bandwidth, including fast polarization scrambling for testing purposes.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Optical spectrum of 11 equispaced laser signals with a total bandwidth of 1 THz.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Complementary cumulative distribution function 1–F(RIE) of relative intensity error (RIE) for various polarization scrambling speeds.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Relative intensity error (RIE) surpassed with certain probabilities as a function of polarization scrambling speed.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Control iteration times, depending on RIE feedback sample averaging times

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

RI=( 1/2 )( 1+ S pol,1 T S S )=( 1/2 )( 1+cosδ )= cos 2 ( δ/2 ), RIE=1RI= sin 2 ( δ/2 ),
RI= | E LO,0 + E S,0 | 2 =( 1/2 )( 1+ S LO T S S )= cos 2 ( δ/2 ),
P 1 = 1 2 | E pol,1 + E S | 2 = 1 2 ( | E pol,1 + E S,1 | 2 +2Re( ( E pol,1 + E S,1 ) ( E pol,1 + E S,2 ) * )+ | E pol,1 + E S,2 | 2 ).
P 1,AC = P 1 P 1 =2 P S,1 P S,2 cos( δ 1 /2 )cos( δ 2 /2 )cos( ψ )=( P S /2 )sin( δ 1 )cos( ψ )
RIE= sin 2 δ 1 .

Metrics