Abstract

Bragg scattering at one-dimensional corrugated substrates allows to improve the light outcoupling from top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The OLEDs rely on a highly efficient phosphorescent pin stack and contain metal electrodes that introduce pronounced microcavity effects. A corrugated photoresist layer underneath the bottom electrode introduces light scattering. Compared to optically optimized reference OLEDs without the corrugated substrate, the corrugation increases light outcoupling efficiency but does not adversely affect the electrical properties of the devices. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) is increased from 15 % for an optimized planar layer structure to 17.5 % for a corrugated OLED with a grating period of 1.0 μm and a modulation depth of about 70 nm. Detailed analysis and optical modeling of the angular resolved emission spectra of the OLEDs provide evidence for Bragg scattering of waveguided and surface plasmon modes that are normally confined within the OLED stack into the air-cone. We observe constructive and destructive interference between these scattered modes and the radiative cavity mode. This interference is quantitatively described by a complex summation of Lorentz-like resonances.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient and color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 707–713 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Schwab, S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Eliminating Micro-Cavity Effects in White Top-Emitting OLEDs by Ultra-Thin Metallic Top Electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 921–925 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, a. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Wedge, W. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films.” Opt. Express 12, 3673–3685 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Moeller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Greiner, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: Simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4125–4137 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. C. Rosenow, M. Furno, S. Reineke, S. Olthof, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on fluorescent blue emitters,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Patel, S. Cina, J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 346–361 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Saxena, V. Jain, D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 221–233 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. J. Scholz, J. Frischeisen, A. Jaeger, D. S. Setz, T. C. Reusch, W. Brütting, “Extraction of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes via high-index coupling,” Opt. Express 20, A205–A212 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films.” Nano Letters 12, 424–428 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, Q. Huang, “Efficiency enhancement in white PIN OLEDs by simple internal outcoupling methods,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 975–978 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Xiao, Q. Gong, “Enhancement of top emission for organic light-emitting diode via scattering surface plasmons by nano-aggregated outcoupling layer,” Org. Electron. 10, 341–345 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Frischeisen, Q. Niu, A. Abdellah, J. B. Kinzel, R. Gehlhaar, G. Scarpa, C. Adachi, P. Lugli, W. Brütting, “Light extraction from surface plasmons and waveguide modes in an organic light-emitting layer by nanoim-printed gratings.” Opt. Express 19, A7–A19 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron. 12, 1927–1935 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053304 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Bocksrocker, J. B. Preinfalk, J. Asche-Tauscher, A. Pargner, C. Eschenbaum, F. Maier-Flaig, U. Lemmer, “White organic light emitting diodes with enhanced internal and external outcoupling for ultra-efficient light extraction and Lambertian emission.” Opt. Express 20, A932–A940 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. Fuchs, T. Schwab, T. Roch, S. Eckardt, A. Lasagni, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, R. Scholz, “Quantitative allocation of Bragg scattering effects in highly efficient OLEDs fabricated on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 16319–16330 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Pfeiffer, “Doped organic semiconductors: Physics and application in light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 4, 89–103 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, “Performance improvement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by an organic capping layer: An experimental study,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115205 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. Rigneault, F. Lemarchand, A. Sentenac, “Dipole radiation into grating structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1048–1058 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A851–A858 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient and color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 707–713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Eliminating Micro-Cavity Effects in White Top-Emitting OLEDs by Ultra-Thin Metallic Top Electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 921–925 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Fuchs, T. Schwab, T. Roch, S. Eckardt, A. Lasagni, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, R. Scholz, “Quantitative allocation of Bragg scattering effects in highly efficient OLEDs fabricated on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 16319–16330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Bocksrocker, J. B. Preinfalk, J. Asche-Tauscher, A. Pargner, C. Eschenbaum, F. Maier-Flaig, U. Lemmer, “White organic light emitting diodes with enhanced internal and external outcoupling for ultra-efficient light extraction and Lambertian emission.” Opt. Express 20, A932–A940 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Scholz, J. Frischeisen, A. Jaeger, D. S. Setz, T. C. Reusch, W. Brütting, “Extraction of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes via high-index coupling,” Opt. Express 20, A205–A212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films.” Nano Letters 12, 424–428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, Q. Huang, “Efficiency enhancement in white PIN OLEDs by simple internal outcoupling methods,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 975–978 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Frischeisen, Q. Niu, A. Abdellah, J. B. Kinzel, R. Gehlhaar, G. Scarpa, C. Adachi, P. Lugli, W. Brütting, “Light extraction from surface plasmons and waveguide modes in an organic light-emitting layer by nanoim-printed gratings.” Opt. Express 19, A7–A19 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron. 12, 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Rosenow, M. Furno, S. Reineke, S. Olthof, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on fluorescent blue emitters,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

Z. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Xiao, Q. Gong, “Enhancement of top emission for organic light-emitting diode via scattering surface plasmons by nano-aggregated outcoupling layer,” Org. Electron. 10, 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Saxena, V. Jain, D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H. Greiner, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: Simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, “Performance improvement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by an organic capping layer: An experimental study,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, W. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films.” Opt. Express 12, 3673–3685 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Pfeiffer, “Doped organic semiconductors: Physics and application in light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 4, 89–103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

N. Patel, S. Cina, J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Moeller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, a. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Abdellah, A.

Adachi, C.

Asche-Tauscher, J.

Bai, Y.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron. 12, 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W.

Barnes, W. L.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, a. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bi, Y.-G.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bocksrocker, T.

Brütting, W.

Burroughes, J.

N. Patel, S. Cina, J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Canzler, T. W.

T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, Q. Huang, “Efficiency enhancement in white PIN OLEDs by simple internal outcoupling methods,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 975–978 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.-D.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron. 12, 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Z. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Xiao, Q. Gong, “Enhancement of top emission for organic light-emitting diode via scattering surface plasmons by nano-aggregated outcoupling layer,” Org. Electron. 10, 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, N.-F.

S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, T.-L.

S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cina, S.

N. Patel, S. Cina, J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, S.

Eschenbaum, C.

Fadhel, O.

T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, Q. Huang, “Efficiency enhancement in white PIN OLEDs by simple internal outcoupling methods,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 975–978 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron. 12, 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. Moeller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, P.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frischeisen, J.

Fröbel, M.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient and color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 707–713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, C.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient and color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 707–713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Fuchs, T. Schwab, T. Roch, S. Eckardt, A. Lasagni, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, R. Scholz, “Quantitative allocation of Bragg scattering effects in highly efficient OLEDs fabricated on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 16319–16330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furno, M.

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Rosenow, M. Furno, S. Reineke, S. Olthof, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on fluorescent blue emitters,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

C. Fuchs, T. Schwab, T. Roch, S. Eckardt, A. Lasagni, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, R. Scholz, “Quantitative allocation of Bragg scattering effects in highly efficient OLEDs fabricated on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 16319–16330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Eliminating Micro-Cavity Effects in White Top-Emitting OLEDs by Ultra-Thin Metallic Top Electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 921–925 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient and color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 707–713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gehlhaar, R.

Gerken, M.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, U.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gleiss, S.

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

Z. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Xiao, Q. Gong, “Enhancement of top emission for organic light-emitting diode via scattering surface plasmons by nano-aggregated outcoupling layer,” Org. Electron. 10, 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, H.

H. Greiner, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: Simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, M. T.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guetlein, J.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haldi, A.

T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, Q. Huang, “Efficiency enhancement in white PIN OLEDs by simple internal outcoupling methods,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 975–978 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hauss, J.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Helander, M. G.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y.-H.

S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, Q. Huang, “Efficiency enhancement in white PIN OLEDs by simple internal outcoupling methods,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 975–978 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, “Performance improvement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by an organic capping layer: An experimental study,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

C. Fuchs, T. Schwab, T. Roch, S. Eckardt, A. Lasagni, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, R. Scholz, “Quantitative allocation of Bragg scattering effects in highly efficient OLEDs fabricated on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 16319–16330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient and color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 707–713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, Q. Huang, “Efficiency enhancement in white PIN OLEDs by simple internal outcoupling methods,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 975–978 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, “Performance improvement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by an organic capping layer: An experimental study,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, Z. M.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, A.

Jain, V.

K. Saxena, V. Jain, D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron. 12, 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kinzel, J. B.

Lan, T.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasagni, A.

Lee, C.-K.

S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lemarchand, F.

Lemmer, U.

T. Bocksrocker, J. B. Preinfalk, J. Asche-Tauscher, A. Pargner, C. Eschenbaum, F. Maier-Flaig, U. Lemmer, “White organic light emitting diodes with enhanced internal and external outcoupling for ultra-efficient light extraction and Lambertian emission.” Opt. Express 20, A932–A940 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

C. Fuchs, T. Schwab, T. Roch, S. Eckardt, A. Lasagni, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, R. Scholz, “Quantitative allocation of Bragg scattering effects in highly efficient OLEDs fabricated on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 16319–16330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient and color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 707–713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Eliminating Micro-Cavity Effects in White Top-Emitting OLEDs by Ultra-Thin Metallic Top Electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 921–925 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films.” Nano Letters 12, 424–428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Rosenow, M. Furno, S. Reineke, S. Olthof, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on fluorescent blue emitters,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, “Performance improvement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by an organic capping layer: An experimental study,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-F.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-W.

S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.-R.

S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.-F.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron. 12, 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z. H.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lugli, P.

Lupton, J. M.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, a. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

C. Fuchs, T. Schwab, T. Roch, S. Eckardt, A. Lasagni, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, R. Scholz, “Quantitative allocation of Bragg scattering effects in highly efficient OLEDs fabricated on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 16319–16330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films.” Nano Letters 12, 424–428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Rosenow, M. Furno, S. Reineke, S. Olthof, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on fluorescent blue emitters,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier-Flaig, F.

Matterson, B. J.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, a. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meerheim, R.

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, V. Jain, D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, S.

S. Moeller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Meskamp, L.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Eliminating Micro-Cavity Effects in White Top-Emitting OLEDs by Ultra-Thin Metallic Top Electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 921–925 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient and color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 707–713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Fuchs, T. Schwab, T. Roch, S. Eckardt, A. Lasagni, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, R. Scholz, “Quantitative allocation of Bragg scattering effects in highly efficient OLEDs fabricated on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 16319–16330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murano, S.

T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, Q. Huang, “Efficiency enhancement in white PIN OLEDs by simple internal outcoupling methods,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 975–978 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nien, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nitsche, R.

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Niu, Q.

Olthof, S.

T. C. Rosenow, M. Furno, S. Reineke, S. Olthof, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on fluorescent blue emitters,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pargner, A.

Patel, N.

N. Patel, S. Cina, J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pavicic, D.

T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, Q. Huang, “Efficiency enhancement in white PIN OLEDs by simple internal outcoupling methods,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 975–978 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, M.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, “Performance improvement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by an organic capping layer: An experimental study,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Pfeiffer, “Doped organic semiconductors: Physics and application in light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 4, 89–103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Preinfalk, J. B.

Puzzo, D. P.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films.” Nano Letters 12, 424–428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Rosenow, M. Furno, S. Reineke, S. Olthof, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on fluorescent blue emitters,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reusch, T. C.

Riedel, B.

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rigneault, H.

Roch, T.

Rosenow, T. C.

T. C. Rosenow, M. Furno, S. Reineke, S. Olthof, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on fluorescent blue emitters,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, C.

T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, Q. Huang, “Efficiency enhancement in white PIN OLEDs by simple internal outcoupling methods,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 975–978 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saafir, A. K.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Safonov, a. F.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, a. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salt, M. G.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, a. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, a. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. Jain, D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scarpa, G.

Scholz, B. J.

Scholz, R.

Schubert, S.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient and color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 707–713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Eliminating Micro-Cavity Effects in White Top-Emitting OLEDs by Ultra-Thin Metallic Top Electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 921–925 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schwab, T.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Eliminating Micro-Cavity Effects in White Top-Emitting OLEDs by Ultra-Thin Metallic Top Electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 921–925 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient and color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 707–713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Fuchs, T. Schwab, T. Roch, S. Eckardt, A. Lasagni, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, R. Scholz, “Quantitative allocation of Bragg scattering effects in highly efficient OLEDs fabricated on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 16319–16330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sentenac, A.

Setz, D. S.

Simonen, J.

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron. 12, 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-F.

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron. 12, 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron. 12, 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thomschke, M.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient and color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 707–713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films.” Nano Letters 12, 424–428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, “Performance improvement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by an organic capping layer: An experimental study,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Xiao, Q. Gong, “Enhancement of top emission for organic light-emitting diode via scattering surface plasmons by nano-aggregated outcoupling layer,” Org. Electron. 10, 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. B.

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wedge, S.

Wei, M.-K.

S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.-C.

S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, L.

Z. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Xiao, Q. Gong, “Enhancement of top emission for organic light-emitting diode via scattering surface plasmons by nano-aggregated outcoupling layer,” Org. Electron. 10, 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-L.

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zi, J.

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron. 12, 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ziebarth, J. M.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 451–456 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. Jin, J. Feng, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Y. Bai, L. Chen, T. Lan, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Solving efficiency-stability tradeoff in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by employing periodically corrugated metallic cathode.” Adv. Mater. 24, 1187–1191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Matterson, J. M. Lupton, a. F. Safonov, M. G. Salt, W. L. Barnes, I. D. W. Samuel, “Increased efficiency and controlled light output from a microstructured light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 13, 123–127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient and color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 707–713 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, “Eliminating Micro-Cavity Effects in White Top-Emitting OLEDs by Ultra-Thin Metallic Top Electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1, 921–925 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253308 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-G. Bi, J. Feng, Y.-F. Li, Y. Jin, Y.-F. Liu, Q.-D. Chen, H.-B. Sun, “Enhanced efficiency of organic light-emitting devices with metallic electrodes by integrating periodically corrugated structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 053304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Nien, N.-F. Chiu, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, C.-W. Lin, K.-C. Wu, C.-K. Lee, J.-R. Lin, M.-K. Wei, T.-L. Chiu, “Directional photoluminescence enhancement of organic emitters via surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 103304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, U. Geyer, J. Guetlein, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Enhancing outcoupling efficiency of indium-tin-oxide-free organic light-emitting diodes via nanostructured high index layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 243302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomschke, R. Nitsche, M. Furno, K. Leo, “Optimized efficiency and angular emission characteristics of white top-emitting organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 083303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Patel, S. Cina, J. Burroughes, “High-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 346–361 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

T. C. Rosenow, M. Furno, S. Reineke, S. Olthof, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes based on fluorescent blue emitters,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 113113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Moeller, S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324–3327 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5048–5051 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, “Performance improvement of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by an organic capping layer: An experimental study,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 064507 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Geyer, J. Hauss, B. Riedel, S. Gleiss, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 093111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Greiner, “Light extraction from organic light emitting diode substrates: Simulation and experiment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 4125–4137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Letters (1)

M. Thomschke, S. Reineke, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Highly efficient white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes comprising laminated microlens films.” Nano Letters 12, 424–428 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Z. B. Wang, M. G. Helander, J. Qiu, D. P. Puzzo, M. T. Greiner, Z. M. Hudson, S. Wang, Z. W. Liu, Z. H. Lu, “Unlocking the full potential of organic light-emitting diodes on flexible plastic,” Nat. Photonics 5, 753–757 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency.” Nature 459, 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

S. Wedge, W. Barnes, “Surface plasmon-polariton mediated light emission through thin metal films.” Opt. Express 12, 3673–3685 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Scholz, J. Frischeisen, A. Jaeger, D. S. Setz, T. C. Reusch, W. Brütting, “Extraction of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes via high-index coupling,” Opt. Express 20, A205–A212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hauss, T. Bocksrocker, B. Riedel, U. Lemmer, M. Gerken, “On the interplay of waveguide modes and leaky modes in corrugated OLEDs,” Opt. Express 19, A851–A858 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fuchs, T. Schwab, T. Roch, S. Eckardt, A. Lasagni, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, M. C. Gather, R. Scholz, “Quantitative allocation of Bragg scattering effects in highly efficient OLEDs fabricated on periodically corrugated substrates,” Opt. Express 21, 16319–16330 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bocksrocker, J. B. Preinfalk, J. Asche-Tauscher, A. Pargner, C. Eschenbaum, F. Maier-Flaig, U. Lemmer, “White organic light emitting diodes with enhanced internal and external outcoupling for ultra-efficient light extraction and Lambertian emission.” Opt. Express 20, A932–A940 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Frischeisen, Q. Niu, A. Abdellah, J. B. Kinzel, R. Gehlhaar, G. Scarpa, C. Adachi, P. Lugli, W. Brütting, “Light extraction from surface plasmons and waveguide modes in an organic light-emitting layer by nanoim-printed gratings.” Opt. Express 19, A7–A19 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

K. Saxena, V. Jain, D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32, 221–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (3)

Z. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Xiao, Q. Gong, “Enhancement of top emission for organic light-emitting diode via scattering surface plasmons by nano-aggregated outcoupling layer,” Org. Electron. 10, 341–345 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, J. Feng, Y.-F. Liu, J.-F. Song, J. Simonen, Y. Jin, Q.-D. Chen, J. Zi, H.-B. Sun, “Outcoupling of trapped optical modes in organic light-emitting devices with one-step fabricated periodic corrugation by laser ablation,” Org. Electron. 12, 1927–1935 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Pfeiffer, “Doped organic semiconductors: Physics and application in light emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 4, 89–103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Furno, R. Meerheim, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, K. Leo, “Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115205 (2012).
[CrossRef]

SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers (1)

T. W. Canzler, S. Murano, D. Pavicic, O. Fadhel, C. Rothe, A. Haldi, M. Hofmann, Q. Huang, “Efficiency enhancement in white PIN OLEDs by simple internal outcoupling methods,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Papers 42, 975–978 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of the phosphorescent top-emitting OLEDs investigated in this study, comprising a corrugated photoresist layer directly underneath the double-layer bottom contact of the device. The red arrow marks the direction of emission. (b), (c) Atomic force microscopy data of the lithographically structured photoresist layers prior to deposition of the OLED stack for layers with a corrugation period of 1.0 μm (b) and 0.6 μm (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Current-voltage-luminance characteristics in forward direction and (b) angular corrected current-efficiency characteristics of the planar and corrugated top-emitting OLEDs. The nominal period of corrugation was ΛB,mask = 1.0 μm and ΛC,mask = 0.6 μm, respectively. The grating structure improved the device efficiency even though the electrical performance of all devices remained comparable.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured angular dependent emission spectra for planar reference Device A in spolarization (a) and p-polarization (b), corrugated OLEDs Device B (c) and (d), and Device C (e) and (f). All spectra recorded under electrical operation with constant current driving at 14.8 mA/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured spectral radiant intensity (false color scale) of Device B (a) in spolarization and (b) p-polarization, along with the simulated power dissipation spectra of a planar microcavity (grayscale) outside the experimentally accessible region. Air and organic light line (dash-dotted lines), expected position of the dispersion of the radiative mode and waveguided modes (white dashed lines) are also indicated. Bragg scattering of these modes leads to additional features in the emission spectrum (highlighted by black and purple dashed lines). Black arrows indicate the reciprocal lattice vector G and link the modes of the planar microcavity to modes arising from Bragg scattering.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Simulated normalized spectral radiant intensity for the planar reference (Device A). The fitted positions k′x of the resonance are highlighted by black crosses. The positions match the dispersion relation for an optical waveguide within an dielectric slab (black line). (b) Spectra from (a) at fixed energies of 1.752 eV, 1.851 eV, and 1.95 eV with the corresponding intensity of the fitted resonance. (c) Dependence of the damping coefficient k″x on the resonance position k′x. The dependence predicted by the model is fitted to the data (black line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured s-polarized spectral radiant intensity of Device C from Fig. 3(e) for a photon energy of 1.755 eV (corresponding to a wavelength of 705 nm) along with a fit to the data based on the interference of three resonances, each described according to Eq. (2). The interference corresponds to the complex sum of the three resonances, the kx dependence of the individual resonance is also shown for completeness. (b) Symbols: Center position of resonances fitted to the complete s-polarized angular resolved emission spectrum of Device C. Up to 5 interfering resonances were allowed at each energy. False color scale data to the left of the air light line represents measured angular emission spectra. Grayscale data to the right of the air light represents the calculated power dissipation spectrum. The dotted line indicates the expected dispersion of the radiative cavity mode. The dash-dotted lines represent the dispersion of the coupled cavity and WGs1 mode, and the dashed lines indicate wave-guided modes (WGs1: long-dashed, WGs2: short-dashed).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k x = k x , int m G .
E ( k x ) = E 0 ( e ι ϕ k x k x + i k x + e ι ϕ k x + k x i k x ) .
r + r = exp { 2 d opt k x tan θ } .

Metrics