Abstract

A refractive index sensor based on slot waveguide Young interferometer was developed in this work. The interferometer was fabricated on a polymer platform and operates at a visible wavelength of 633 nm. The phase shift of the interference pattern was measured with various concentrations of glucose-water solutions, utilizing both TE and TM polarization states. The sensor was experimentally observed to detect a refractive index difference of 6.4 × 10−6 RIU. Furthermore, the slot Young interferometer was found to compensate for temperature variations. The results of this work demonstrate that high performance sensing capability can be obtained with a polymeric slot Young interferometer, which can be fabricated by a simple molding process.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

R. Gupta, N. J. Goddard, “A polymeric waveguide resonant mirror (RM) device for detection in microfluidic flow cells,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(11), 3209–3215 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” Photonics Journal 5, 2200808 (2013).

2012

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, L. Hakalahti, R. Myllylä, “An integrated Young interferometer based on UV-imprinted polymer waveguides for label-free biosensing applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public 7, 12019 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20309–20317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, J. Petäjä, E. Heinonen, P. Vahimaa, P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide at visible wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4449–4451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bettotti, A. Pitanti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, L. Pavesi, “Modeling of slot waveguide sensors based on polymeric materials,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 7327–7340 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel) 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, A. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Enhanced evanescent confinement in multiple-slot waveguides and its application in biochemical sensing,” Photonics Journal 1(1), 48–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonator for biochemical sensing applications,” J. of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated optical sensors for the chemical domain,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), R93–R116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, R. G. Heideman, “Realization of a multichannel integrated Young interferometer chemical sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5649–5660 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Prieto, B. Sep lveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Abad, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sep lveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Almeida, V. R.

Armenise, M. N.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel) 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bañuls Polo, M. J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartolozzi, I.

Bettotti, P.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitanti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, L. Pavesi, “Modeling of slot waveguide sensors based on polymeric materials,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 7327–7340 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruck, R.

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calle, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sep lveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carlborg, C. F.

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlie, N.

Casquel, R.

Cha, K.

A. F. Fucaloro, Y. Pu, K. Cha, A. Williams, K. Conrad, “Partial molar volumes and refractions of aqueous solutions of fructose, glucose, mannose and sucrose at 15.00, 20.00 and 25.00°C,” J. Solution Chem. 36(1), 61–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. Y.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonator for biochemical sensing applications,” J. of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M.

Chen, A.

H. Sun, A. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Enhanced evanescent confinement in multiple-slot waveguides and its application in biochemical sensing,” Photonics Journal 1(1), 48–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ciminelli, C.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel) 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claes, T.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

Conrad, K.

A. F. Fucaloro, Y. Pu, K. Cha, A. Williams, K. Conrad, “Partial molar volumes and refractions of aqueous solutions of fructose, glucose, mannose and sucrose at 15.00, 20.00 and 25.00°C,” J. Solution Chem. 36(1), 61–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daimon, M.

Dalton, L. R.

H. Sun, A. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Enhanced evanescent confinement in multiple-slot waveguides and its application in biochemical sensing,” Photonics Journal 1(1), 48–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Leonardis, F.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitanti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, L. Pavesi, “Modeling of slot waveguide sensors based on polymeric materials,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 7327–7340 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Vos, K.

Dell’olio, F.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel) 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dell’Olio, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4977–4993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dominguez, C.

F. Prieto, B. Sep lveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dortu, F.

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A Review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, N. N.

Fucaloro, A. F.

A. F. Fucaloro, Y. Pu, K. Cha, A. Williams, K. Conrad, “Partial molar volumes and refractions of aqueous solutions of fructose, glucose, mannose and sucrose at 15.00, 20.00 and 25.00°C,” J. Solution Chem. 36(1), 61–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fung, W.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonator for biochemical sensing applications,” J. of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goddard, N. J.

R. Gupta, N. J. Goddard, “A polymeric waveguide resonant mirror (RM) device for detection in microfluidic flow cells,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(11), 3209–3215 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

Griol, A.

Guo, L. J.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonator for biochemical sensing applications,” J. of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

R. Gupta, N. J. Goddard, “A polymeric waveguide resonant mirror (RM) device for detection in microfluidic flow cells,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(11), 3209–3215 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gylfason, K. B.

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hainberger, R.

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakalahti, L.

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, L. Hakalahti, R. Myllylä, “An integrated Young interferometer based on UV-imprinted polymer waveguides for label-free biosensing applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public 7, 12019 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20309–20317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, X.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

Heideman, R. G.

Heinonen, E.

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” Photonics Journal 5, 2200808 (2013).

M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, J. Petäjä, E. Heinonen, P. Vahimaa, P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide at visible wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4449–4451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiltunen, J.

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” Photonics Journal 5, 2200808 (2013).

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, L. Hakalahti, R. Myllylä, “An integrated Young interferometer based on UV-imprinted polymer waveguides for label-free biosensing applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public 7, 12019 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, J. Petäjä, E. Heinonen, P. Vahimaa, P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide at visible wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4449–4451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20309–20317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiltunen, M.

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” Photonics Journal 5, 2200808 (2013).

M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, J. Petäjä, E. Heinonen, P. Vahimaa, P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide at visible wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4449–4451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holgado, M.

Hu, J. J.

Jian, X.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

Kanger, J. S.

Karioja, P.

Kazmierczak, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L.

Kresbach, G. M.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ksendzov, A.

Lambeck, P. V.

Lämmerhofer, M.

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lappalainen, J.

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” Photonics Journal 5, 2200808 (2013).

Lechuga, L. M.

F. Prieto, B. Sep lveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liedert, C.

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, L. Hakalahti, R. Myllylä, “An integrated Young interferometer based on UV-imprinted polymer waveguides for label-free biosensing applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public 7, 12019 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20309–20317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

Lipson, M.

Llobera, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sep lveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maquieira Catala, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masumura, A.

Melnik, E.

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moh, T.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montoya, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sep lveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morthier, G.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

Muellner, P.

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myllylä, R.

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, L. Hakalahti, R. Myllylä, “An integrated Young interferometer based on UV-imprinted polymer waveguides for label-free biosensing applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public 7, 12019 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20309–20317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

Passaro, V. M. N.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitanti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, L. Pavesi, “Modeling of slot waveguide sensors based on polymeric materials,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 7327–7340 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel) 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Dell’Olio, V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4977–4993 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavesi, L.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitanti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, L. Pavesi, “Modeling of slot waveguide sensors based on polymeric materials,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 7327–7340 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearce, S.

Petäjä, J.

Petit, L.

Pitanti, A.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitanti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, L. Pavesi, “Modeling of slot waveguide sensors based on polymeric materials,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 7327–7340 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popplewell, J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prieto, F.

F. Prieto, B. Sep lveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pu, Y.

A. F. Fucaloro, Y. Pu, K. Cha, A. Williams, K. Conrad, “Partial molar volumes and refractions of aqueous solutions of fructose, glucose, mannose and sucrose at 15.00, 20.00 and 25.00°C,” J. Solution Chem. 36(1), 61–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Puustinen, J.

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” Photonics Journal 5, 2200808 (2013).

Ren, J.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

Richardson, K.

Rigo, E.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitanti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, L. Pavesi, “Modeling of slot waveguide sensors based on polymeric materials,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 7327–7340 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ronan, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez, B.

Schacht, E.

Sep lveda, B.

F. Prieto, B. Sep lveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A Review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohlström, H.

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stemme, G.

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenberg, P.

Sun, H.

H. Sun, A. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Enhanced evanescent confinement in multiple-slot waveguides and its application in biochemical sensing,” Photonics Journal 1(1), 48–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A Review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A Review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahimaa, P.

van der Wijngaart, W.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

Wang, M.

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20309–20317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, L. Hakalahti, R. Myllylä, “An integrated Young interferometer based on UV-imprinted polymer waveguides for label-free biosensing applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public 7, 12019 (2012).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A Review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wijn, R.

Williams, A.

A. F. Fucaloro, Y. Pu, K. Cha, A. Williams, K. Conrad, “Partial molar volumes and refractions of aqueous solutions of fructose, glucose, mannose and sucrose at 15.00, 20.00 and 25.00°C,” J. Solution Chem. 36(1), 61–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Ymeti, A.

Zhao, M.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A Review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A Review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.)

R. Gupta, N. J. Goddard, “A polymeric waveguide resonant mirror (RM) device for detection in microfluidic flow cells,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(11), 3209–3215 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biosens. Bioelectron.

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, L. Hakalahti, R. Myllylä, “An integrated Young interferometer based on UV-imprinted polymer waveguides for label-free biosensing applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public 7, 12019 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonator for biochemical sensing applications,” J. of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Solution Chem.

A. F. Fucaloro, Y. Pu, K. Cha, A. Williams, K. Conrad, “Partial molar volumes and refractions of aqueous solutions of fructose, glucose, mannose and sucrose at 15.00, 20.00 and 25.00°C,” J. Solution Chem. 36(1), 61–80 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated optical sensors for the chemical domain,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), R93–R116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

F. Prieto, B. Sep lveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photonics Journal

H. Sun, A. Chen, L. R. Dalton, “Enhanced evanescent confinement in multiple-slot waveguides and its application in biochemical sensing,” Photonics Journal 1(1), 48–57 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” Photonics Journal 5, 2200808 (2013).

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

Sensors (Basel)

P. Bettotti, A. Pitanti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, L. Pavesi, “Modeling of slot waveguide sensors based on polymeric materials,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 7327–7340 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel) 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Ormocer datasheet, MicroResistsTechnology.

FimmWave Software, Photon Design Ltd, Oxford, UK.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic image of the slot Young interferometer and the measurement set-up. The left arm includes a slot waveguide part, which produces the phase difference between the waveguide arms, and the right arm acts as a reference ridge waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of the cross section of a) the sensing slot waveguide, and b) the reference ridge waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Image captured at the end of the slot Young interferometer waveguide. The left mode intensity profile consists of a waveguide with a 5-mm-long slot section and the right mode intensity profile consist of a ridge waveguide. b) The interferogram generated at a 1.35 mm distance from the waveguide facet.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The measured phase response at TM polarization for three different glucose concentrations, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%, ran continuously and was flushed with DI water after each addition of glucose-water solution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The phase shift response at TE and TM polarizations measured at various glucose-water concentrations as a function of time, when glucose-water solution is applied to the sensing window. The dashed red line is a repeated measurement for TM polarization. The dotted line indicates the slope of the phase shift in one minute of time. The molar concentration (mol/L) and the corresponding ΔnB with respect to the RI of DI water are marked above the glucose concentration. Glucose concentrations are a) 0.01%, b) 0.03%, and c) 0.05%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of the measured slopes of the phase shifts in a one-minute time period, starting at the moment of glucose solution applied in the sensing window. Measurements for TM and TE polarizations are marked as blue and red squares, respectively. The blue (TM polarization) and the red (TE polarization) triangle markers represent the simulated phase shifts at the same glucose concentrations of the fabricated structure.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured and simulated phase shifts for temperature change

Tables Icon

Table 2 Simulated phase shift for ambient change from DI water to 1% glucose-water solution

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n B =1.4014×( n g n DI ),
δ = 2 π L λ 0 Δ n e f f ,

Metrics