Abstract

We introduce a type of LED light-gauge steel frame lamp with an adjustable illumination light field that does not require a diffusion plate. Base on the Monte Carlo ray tracing method, this lamp has a good glare rating (GR) of 17.5 at 3050 lm. Compared with the traditional LED light-gauge steel frame lamp (without diffusion plate), the new type has low GR. The adjustability of the illumination light field could improve the zebra effect caused by the inadequate illumination light field of the lamp. Meanwhile, we adopt the retinal image analysis to discuss the influence of GR on vision. High GR could reflect stray light on the retinal image, which will reduce vision clarity and hasten the feeling of eye fatigue.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013

H.-Y. Sun, H.-C. Wang, S.-F. Yang, “Vision correction via multi-layer pattern corneal surgery,” Opt. Commun. 300, 293–298 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

2008

2007

H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, T. Irikura, “Position Index for the matrix light source,” Light & Vis. Env. 31(3), 128–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. R. Boyce, C. M. Hunter, C. B. Carter, “Overhead glare and visual discomfort,” J. Illuminating Eng. Soc.73–87 (2003).

2000

P. Ngai, P. R. Boyce, “The effect of overhead glare on visual discomfort,” J. Illuminating Eng. Soc. 29(2), 29–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. A. Clarke, M. Janak, P. Ruyssevelt, “Assessing the overall performance of advanced glazing systems,” Sol. Energy 63(4), 231–241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. Heuer, G. Hollendiek, H. Kröger, T. Romer, “Dieruhelage der augen and ihreinflu β auf beobachtungsabatand and visuelle ermudung bei bildschirmarbeit (Rest position of the eyes and its effect on viewing distance and visual fatigue in computer display work),” Zeitschrift Fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psyologie No. 36, 538–566 (1989) (Journal of Experimental and Applied Psychology).

1984

M. G. Helander, B. A. Rupp, “An overview of standards and guidelines for visual display terminals,” Appl. Ergon. 15(3), 185–195 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1949

M. Luckiesh, S. K. Guth, “Brightnesses in visual field at borderline between comfort and discomfort,” Illum. Eng. 44(11), 650–670 (1949).
[PubMed]

Boyce, P. R.

P. R. Boyce, C. M. Hunter, C. B. Carter, “Overhead glare and visual discomfort,” J. Illuminating Eng. Soc.73–87 (2003).

P. Ngai, P. R. Boyce, “The effect of overhead glare on visual discomfort,” J. Illuminating Eng. Soc. 29(2), 29–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carter, C. B.

P. R. Boyce, C. M. Hunter, C. B. Carter, “Overhead glare and visual discomfort,” J. Illuminating Eng. Soc.73–87 (2003).

Chen, C. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, “The Effects of interior illuminance Distribution on Spatial impression,” Journal of Architecture of Taiwan 75, 81–98 (2011).

Chen, F.

Chen, J.-J.

Clarke, J. A.

J. A. Clarke, M. Janak, P. Ruyssevelt, “Assessing the overall performance of advanced glazing systems,” Sol. Energy 63(4), 231–241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z.

Guth, S. K.

M. Luckiesh, S. K. Guth, “Brightnesses in visual field at borderline between comfort and discomfort,” Illum. Eng. 44(11), 650–670 (1949).
[PubMed]

Han, Y.

Helander, M. G.

M. G. Helander, B. A. Rupp, “An overview of standards and guidelines for visual display terminals,” Appl. Ergon. 15(3), 185–195 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heuer, H.

H. Heuer, G. Hollendiek, H. Kröger, T. Romer, “Dieruhelage der augen and ihreinflu β auf beobachtungsabatand and visuelle ermudung bei bildschirmarbeit (Rest position of the eyes and its effect on viewing distance and visual fatigue in computer display work),” Zeitschrift Fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psyologie No. 36, 538–566 (1989) (Journal of Experimental and Applied Psychology).

Hollendiek, G.

H. Heuer, G. Hollendiek, H. Kröger, T. Romer, “Dieruhelage der augen and ihreinflu β auf beobachtungsabatand and visuelle ermudung bei bildschirmarbeit (Rest position of the eyes and its effect on viewing distance and visual fatigue in computer display work),” Zeitschrift Fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psyologie No. 36, 538–566 (1989) (Journal of Experimental and Applied Psychology).

Hsieh, M. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, “The Effects of interior illuminance Distribution on Spatial impression,” Journal of Architecture of Taiwan 75, 81–98 (2011).

Huang, K.-L.

Hunter, C. M.

P. R. Boyce, C. M. Hunter, C. B. Carter, “Overhead glare and visual discomfort,” J. Illuminating Eng. Soc.73–87 (2003).

Irikura, T.

H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, T. Irikura, “Position Index for the matrix light source,” Light & Vis. Env. 31(3), 128–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Janak, M.

J. A. Clarke, M. Janak, P. Ruyssevelt, “Assessing the overall performance of advanced glazing systems,” Sol. Energy 63(4), 231–241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, T. Irikura, “Position Index for the matrix light source,” Light & Vis. Env. 31(3), 128–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kröger, H.

H. Heuer, G. Hollendiek, H. Kröger, T. Romer, “Dieruhelage der augen and ihreinflu β auf beobachtungsabatand and visuelle ermudung bei bildschirmarbeit (Rest position of the eyes and its effect on viewing distance and visual fatigue in computer display work),” Zeitschrift Fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psyologie No. 36, 538–566 (1989) (Journal of Experimental and Applied Psychology).

Li, H.

Lin, C.-T.

Liu, S.

Liu, T.-S.

Liu, Z.

Luckiesh, M.

M. Luckiesh, S. K. Guth, “Brightnesses in visual field at borderline between comfort and discomfort,” Illum. Eng. 44(11), 650–670 (1949).
[PubMed]

Luo, X.

Luo, Y.

Ngai, P.

P. Ngai, P. R. Boyce, “The effect of overhead glare on visual discomfort,” J. Illuminating Eng. Soc. 29(2), 29–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Onda, S.

H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, T. Irikura, “Position Index for the matrix light source,” Light & Vis. Env. 31(3), 128–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pen, J.-W.

Qin, Z.

Ramane, D.

Romer, T.

H. Heuer, G. Hollendiek, H. Kröger, T. Romer, “Dieruhelage der augen and ihreinflu β auf beobachtungsabatand and visuelle ermudung bei bildschirmarbeit (Rest position of the eyes and its effect on viewing distance and visual fatigue in computer display work),” Zeitschrift Fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psyologie No. 36, 538–566 (1989) (Journal of Experimental and Applied Psychology).

Rupp, B. A.

M. G. Helander, B. A. Rupp, “An overview of standards and guidelines for visual display terminals,” Appl. Ergon. 15(3), 185–195 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruyssevelt, P.

J. A. Clarke, M. Janak, P. Ruyssevelt, “Assessing the overall performance of advanced glazing systems,” Sol. Energy 63(4), 231–241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shaligram, A.

Sun, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Sun, H.-C. Wang, S.-F. Yang, “Vision correction via multi-layer pattern corneal surgery,” Opt. Commun. 300, 293–298 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.-S.

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, T. Irikura, “Position Index for the matrix light source,” Light & Vis. Env. 31(3), 128–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-D.

Tsuei, C.-H.

Wang, H.-C.

H.-Y. Sun, H.-C. Wang, S.-F. Yang, “Vision correction via multi-layer pattern corneal surgery,” Opt. Commun. 300, 293–298 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Wang, S.

Wang, T.-Y.

Wu, D.

Yang, S.-F.

H.-Y. Sun, H.-C. Wang, S.-F. Yang, “Vision correction via multi-layer pattern corneal surgery,” Opt. Commun. 300, 293–298 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Ergon.

M. G. Helander, B. A. Rupp, “An overview of standards and guidelines for visual display terminals,” Appl. Ergon. 15(3), 185–195 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Illum. Eng.

M. Luckiesh, S. K. Guth, “Brightnesses in visual field at borderline between comfort and discomfort,” Illum. Eng. 44(11), 650–670 (1949).
[PubMed]

J. Illuminating Eng. Soc.

P. Ngai, P. R. Boyce, “The effect of overhead glare on visual discomfort,” J. Illuminating Eng. Soc. 29(2), 29–38 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Boyce, C. M. Hunter, C. B. Carter, “Overhead glare and visual discomfort,” J. Illuminating Eng. Soc.73–87 (2003).

Journal of Architecture of Taiwan

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Chen, “The Effects of interior illuminance Distribution on Spatial impression,” Journal of Architecture of Taiwan 75, 81–98 (2011).

Light & Vis. Env.

H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, T. Irikura, “Position Index for the matrix light source,” Light & Vis. Env. 31(3), 128–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H.-Y. Sun, H.-C. Wang, S.-F. Yang, “Vision correction via multi-layer pattern corneal surgery,” Opt. Commun. 300, 293–298 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Sol. Energy

J. A. Clarke, M. Janak, P. Ruyssevelt, “Assessing the overall performance of advanced glazing systems,” Sol. Energy 63(4), 231–241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeitschrift Fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psyologie

H. Heuer, G. Hollendiek, H. Kröger, T. Romer, “Dieruhelage der augen and ihreinflu β auf beobachtungsabatand and visuelle ermudung bei bildschirmarbeit (Rest position of the eyes and its effect on viewing distance and visual fatigue in computer display work),” Zeitschrift Fur Experimentelle und Angewandte Psyologie No. 36, 538–566 (1989) (Journal of Experimental and Applied Psychology).

Other

The Illuminating Engineering Institute of Japan, Lighting Handbook (2006).

CIE 117–1995 Discomfort Glare in Interior Lighting. CIE. (1995).

C. M. Lee, H. Kim, and D. S. Choi, “A study on the estimation of discomfort glare for LED luminaires,” Conf. Proc. 26th Session of the CIE, Beijing, D3–33–D3–36 (2007).

J. Lin, “A light diet for a giant appetite: An assessment of China's proposed fluorescent lamp standard,” Conference: Right Light 5, Nice (FR) (2002).

National Research Council, Video Displays, Work, and Vision (National Academy Press, 1983).

http://www.lenalighting.pl/en/knowledge/light-distribution/

Dialux 4.9, Light building software, DIAL GmbH, www.dial.de/

W. D. van Driel and X. J. Fan, Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems (Springer, 2012).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Establishment of lamp module and flowchart of optical calculation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Luminous intensity distribution curve of lamps and direction of lamp axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D chart on the relevant position between lamp and human eyes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CAD models on the specification of three lamps (a) LGSFFL, (b) LGSFLL, (c) nLGSFLL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Composition of self-designed LED lamp (nLGSFLL), (b) Crosswise view of nLGSGLL.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distribution curve at different angles of the skew plate (a) 5°, (b) 15°, (c) 30°, (d) 45°, (e) 60°, (f) 75°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulation of LED lamp lighting scenario (a) LGSFLL. (b) nLGSFLL.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relationship chart on the luminous flux and UGR of three types of lamps. The illustration is the enlarged details.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Lamp lighting space when human eyes look straight into E-chart.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Lighting space of the lamp when human eyes observe E-chart at an angle of 45° and E-chart lies horizontally on the working plane

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Retinal image when human eyes look straight into the E-chart, (a) LGSFFL. (b) LGSFLL. (c) nLGSFLL.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Retinal image when human eyes observe the E-chart at an angle of 45°, (a) LGSFFL. (b) LGSFLL. (c) nLGSFLL.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Distribution curve, average brightness, total luminous flux, actual measurement of glare value, and calculated glare

Tables Icon

Table 2 Illumination distribution, illumination, total luminous flux, uniformity and average uniformity of three types of lamps on 1.2 m x 1.2 m working plane

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U G R = 8 log 0.25 L b L 2 ω P 2
L = I θ A s cos θ
θ = tan 1 H D
ω = A s cos θ Q 2
Q = D 2 + H 2
E w ( D ) = D F w × F L × M F A w
L b = E w E w ( D ) π
Uniformity = E 0 E a

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