Abstract

In 22nm optical lithography and beyond, source mask optimization (SMO) becomes vital for the continuation of advanced ArF technology node development. The pixel-based method permits a large solution space, but involves a time-consuming optimization procedure because of the large number of pixel variables. In this paper, we introduce the Zernike polynomials as basis functions to represent the source patterns, and propose an improved SMO algorithm with this representation. The source patterns are decomposed into the weighted superposition of some well-chosen Zernike polynomial functions, and the number of variables decreases significantly. We compare the computation efficiency and optimization performance between the proposed method and the conventional pixel-based algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the former can obtain substantial speedup of source optimization while improving the pattern fidelity at the same time.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013

2012

2011

Y. Peng, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Yu, “Gradient-based source and mask optimization in optical lithography,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20, 2856–2864 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Jia, E. Y. Lam, “Pixelated source mask optimization for process robustness in optical lithography,” Opt. Express 19, 19384–19398 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liu, X. Wu, W. Liu, C. Zhang, “Fast aerial image simulations using one basis mask pattern for optical proximity correction,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 06FH03 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

E. Y. Lam, A. K. Wong, “Nebulous hotspot and algorithm variability in computation lithography,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 9, 033002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Jia, E. Y. Lam, “Machine learning for inverse lithography: using stochastic gradient descent for robust photomask synthesis,” J. Opt. 12, 045601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Mülders, V. Domnenko, B. Küchler, T. Klimpel, H.-J. Stock, A. A. Poonawala, K. N. Taravade, W. A. Stanton, “Simultaneous source-mask optimization: a numerical combining method,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 78233X (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Poonawala, W. Stanton, C. Sawh, “Source mask optimization for advanced lithography nodes,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401M (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Y. Lam, A. K. Wong, “Computation lithography: virtual reality and virtual virtuality,” Opt. Express 17, 12259–12268 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. L. Sturtevant, L. Hong, S. Jayaram, S. P. Renwick, M. McCallum, P. D. Bisschop, “Impact of illumination source symmetrization in OPC,” Proc. SPIE 7028, 70283M (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Fühner, A. Erdmann, “Improved mask and source representations for automatic optimization of lithographic process conditions using a genetic algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5754, 415–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Granik, “Source optimization for image fidelity and throughput,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsys. 3, 509–522 (2004).

2002

A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bukofsky, C. Fonseca, M. Hibbs, K. Lai, A. F. Molless, R. N. Singh, A. K. K. Wong, “Optimum mask and source patterns to print a given shape,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsys. 1, 13 (2002).

1989

1980

Adam, K.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aluizio Prata, J.

Arce, G. R.

Bagheri, S.

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barahona, F.

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bekaert, J.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berger, G.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bhatara, G.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bisschop, P. D.

J. L. Sturtevant, L. Hong, S. Jayaram, S. P. Renwick, M. McCallum, P. D. Bisschop, “Impact of illumination source symmetrization in OPC,” Proc. SPIE 7028, 70283M (2008).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7 (Cambridge University, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, A.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bouman, W.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, S.

M. Grant, S. Boyd, “CVX: Matlab software for disciplined convex programming, version 2.0 beta,” http://cvxr.com/cvx (2013).

Bukofsky, S.

A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bukofsky, C. Fonseca, M. Hibbs, K. Lai, A. F. Molless, R. N. Singh, A. K. K. Wong, “Optimum mask and source patterns to print a given shape,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsys. 1, 13 (2002).

Burkhardt, M.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burr, G.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carpaij, R.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chao, H.-Y.

J.-C. Yu, P. Yu, H.-Y. Chao, “Library-based illumination synthesis for critical CMOS patterning,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 22, 2811–2821 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Yu, P. Yu, H.-Y. Chao, “Fast source optimization involving quadratic line-contour objectives for the resist image,” Opt. Express 20, 8161–8174 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corliss, D.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dave, A.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

Domnenko, V.

T. Mülders, V. Domnenko, B. Küchler, T. Klimpel, H.-J. Stock, A. A. Poonawala, K. N. Taravade, W. A. Stanton, “Simultaneous source-mask optimization: a numerical combining method,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 78233X (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Durgan, B.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dusa, M.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Endendijk, W.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Engelen, A.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, A.

T. Fühner, A. Erdmann, “Improved mask and source representations for automatic optimization of lithographic process conditions using a genetic algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5754, 415–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fakhry, M.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fakyry, M.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
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Faure, T.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
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Flagello, D.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flagello, D. G.

D. G. Flagello, D. G. Smith, “Calculation and uses of the lithographic aerial image,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 1, 237–248 (2012).

Fonseca, C.

A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bukofsky, C. Fonseca, M. Hibbs, K. Lai, A. F. Molless, R. N. Singh, A. K. K. Wong, “Optimum mask and source patterns to print a given shape,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsys. 1, 13 (2002).

Fühner, T.

T. Fühner, A. Erdmann, “Improved mask and source representations for automatic optimization of lithographic process conditions using a genetic algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 5754, 415–426 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, E.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gong, P.

Granik, Y.

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
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Y. Granik, “Source optimization for image fidelity and throughput,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsys. 3, 509–522 (2004).

Grant, M.

M. Grant, S. Boyd, “CVX: Matlab software for disciplined convex programming, version 2.0 beta,” http://cvxr.com/cvx (2013).

Groenendijk, R.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grupner, P.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haffner, H.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hageman, J.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Halle, S.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, C.

Hartung, F.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hennerkes, C.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hibbs, M.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bukofsky, C. Fonseca, M. Hibbs, K. Lai, A. F. Molless, R. N. Singh, A. K. K. Wong, “Optimum mask and source patterns to print a given shape,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsys. 1, 13 (2002).

Hoffnagle, J.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, L.

J. L. Sturtevant, L. Hong, S. Jayaram, S. P. Renwick, M. McCallum, P. D. Bisschop, “Impact of illumination source symmetrization in OPC,” Proc. SPIE 7028, 70283M (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jayaram, S.

J. L. Sturtevant, L. Hong, S. Jayaram, S. P. Renwick, M. McCallum, P. D. Bisschop, “Impact of illumination source symmetrization in OPC,” Proc. SPIE 7028, 70283M (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jia, N.

N. Jia, E. Y. Lam, “Pixelated source mask optimization for process robustness in optical lithography,” Opt. Express 19, 19384–19398 (2011).
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N. Jia, E. Y. Lam, “Machine learning for inverse lithography: using stochastic gradient descent for robust photomask synthesis,” J. Opt. 12, 045601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jürgens, D.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kazinczi, R.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-S.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klimpel, T.

T. Mülders, V. Domnenko, B. Küchler, T. Klimpel, H.-J. Stock, A. A. Poonawala, K. N. Taravade, W. A. Stanton, “Simultaneous source-mask optimization: a numerical combining method,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 78233X (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kneer, B.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Küchler, B.

T. Mülders, V. Domnenko, B. Küchler, T. Klimpel, H.-J. Stock, A. A. Poonawala, K. N. Taravade, W. A. Stanton, “Simultaneous source-mask optimization: a numerical combining method,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 78233X (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ladanyi, L.

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laenens, B.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lai, K.

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bukofsky, C. Fonseca, M. Hibbs, K. Lai, A. F. Molless, R. N. Singh, A. K. K. Wong, “Optimum mask and source patterns to print a given shape,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsys. 1, 13 (2002).

Lam, E. Y.

Lazzarino, F.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, Y.

Liu, H.-Y.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, W.

S. Liu, W. Liu, X. Zhou, P. Gong, “Kernel-based parametric analytical model of source intensity distributions in lithographic tools,” Appl. Opt. 51, 1479–1486 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liu, X. Wu, W. Liu, C. Zhang, “Fast aerial image simulations using one basis mask pattern for optical proximity correction,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, 06FH03 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Look, L. V.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lv, W.

Ma, X.

Mansfield, S.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maul, M.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCallum, M.

J. L. Sturtevant, L. Hong, S. Jayaram, S. P. Renwick, M. McCallum, P. D. Bisschop, “Impact of illumination source symmetrization in OPC,” Proc. SPIE 7028, 70283M (2008).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, G.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meiring, J.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

Melville, D.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Melville, D. O.

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molless, A. F.

A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bukofsky, C. Fonseca, M. Hibbs, K. Lai, A. F. Molless, R. N. Singh, A. K. K. Wong, “Optimum mask and source patterns to print a given shape,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsys. 1, 13 (2002).

Mouraille, O.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mulder, M.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mülders, T.

T. Mülders, V. Domnenko, B. Küchler, T. Klimpel, H.-J. Stock, A. A. Poonawala, K. N. Taravade, W. A. Stanton, “Simultaneous source-mask optimization: a numerical combining method,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 78233X (2010).
[CrossRef]

Muta, H.

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, J. T.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noordman, O.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Y.

Y. Peng, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Yu, “Gradient-based source and mask optimization in optical lithography,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 20, 2856–2864 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poonawala, A.

A. Poonawala, W. Stanton, C. Sawh, “Source mask optimization for advanced lithography nodes,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poonawala, A. A.

T. Mülders, V. Domnenko, B. Küchler, T. Klimpel, H.-J. Stock, A. A. Poonawala, K. N. Taravade, W. A. Stanton, “Simultaneous source-mask optimization: a numerical combining method,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 78233X (2010).
[CrossRef]

Renwick, S. P.

J. L. Sturtevant, L. Hong, S. Jayaram, S. P. Renwick, M. McCallum, P. D. Bisschop, “Impact of illumination source symmetrization in OPC,” Proc. SPIE 7028, 70283M (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rohmund, F.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbluth, A. E.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bukofsky, C. Fonseca, M. Hibbs, K. Lai, A. F. Molless, R. N. Singh, A. K. K. Wong, “Optimum mask and source patterns to print a given shape,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsys. 1, 13 (2002).

Rusch, W. V. T.

Russ, C.

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, M.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sawh, C.

A. Poonawala, W. Stanton, C. Sawh, “Source mask optimization for advanced lithography nodes,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scheinberg, K.

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schreel, K.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y.

Silva, D. E.

Singh, R. N.

A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bukofsky, C. Fonseca, M. Hibbs, K. Lai, A. F. Molless, R. N. Singh, A. K. K. Wong, “Optimum mask and source patterns to print a given shape,” J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsys. 1, 13 (2002).

Smith, D. G.

D. G. Flagello, D. G. Smith, “Calculation and uses of the lithographic aerial image,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 1, 237–248 (2012).

Socha, R.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, W.

A. Poonawala, W. Stanton, C. Sawh, “Source mask optimization for advanced lithography nodes,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401M (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, W. A.

T. Mülders, V. Domnenko, B. Küchler, T. Klimpel, H.-J. Stock, A. A. Poonawala, K. N. Taravade, W. A. Stanton, “Simultaneous source-mask optimization: a numerical combining method,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 78233X (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stock, H.-J.

T. Mülders, V. Domnenko, B. Küchler, T. Klimpel, H.-J. Stock, A. A. Poonawala, K. N. Taravade, W. A. Stanton, “Simultaneous source-mask optimization: a numerical combining method,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 78233X (2010).
[CrossRef]

Streutker, G.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sturtevant, J. L.

J. L. Sturtevant, L. Hong, S. Jayaram, S. P. Renwick, M. McCallum, P. D. Bisschop, “Impact of illumination source symmetrization in OPC,” Proc. SPIE 7028, 70283M (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taravade, K. N.

T. Mülders, V. Domnenko, B. Küchler, T. Klimpel, H.-J. Stock, A. A. Poonawala, K. N. Taravade, W. A. Stanton, “Simultaneous source-mask optimization: a numerical combining method,” Proc. SPIE 7823, 78233X (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tian, K.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tirapu-Azpiroz, J.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Lai, A. E. Rosenbluth, S. Bagheri, J. Hoffnagle, K. Tian, D. Melville, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, M. Fakhry, Y. Kim, S. Halle, G. McIntyre, A. Wagner, G. Burr, M. Burkhardt, D. Corliss, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, D. Flagello, J. Zimmermann, B. Kneer, F. Rohmund, F. Hartung, C. Hennerkes, M. Maul, R. Kazinczi, A. Engelen, R. Carpaij, R. Groenendijk, J. Hageman, C. Russ, “Experimental result and simulation analysis for the use of pixelated illumination from source mask optimization for 22-nm logic lithography process,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 72740A (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trauter, B.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tritchkov, A.

K. Tian, M. Fakyry, A. Dave, A. Tritchkov, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, A. E. Rosenbluth, D. Melville, M. Sakamoto, T. Inoue, S. Mansfield, A. Wei, Y. Kim, B. Durgan, K. Adam, G. Berger, G. Bhatara, J. Meiring, H. Haffner, B.-S. Kim, “Applicability of global source mask optimization to 22/20nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE 7973, 79730C (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Rosenbluth, D. O. Melville, K. Tian, S. Bagheri, J. Tirapu-Azpiroz, K. Lai, A. Waechter, T. Inoue, L. Ladanyi, F. Barahona, K. Scheinberg, M. Sakamoto, H. Muta, E. Gallagher, T. Faure, M. Hibbs, A. Tritchkov, Y. Granik, “Intensive optimization of masks and sources for 22nm lithography,” Proc. SPIE 7274, 727409 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trivkovic, D.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Adrichem, P.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Drieenhuizen, B.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Nuenen, C.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vandenberghe, G.

J. Bekaert, P. van Adrichem, R. Socha, O. Mouraille, J. Zimmermann, P. Grupner, K. Schreel, S. Hsu, B. Laenens, S. Verhaegen, H.-Y. Liu, M. Dusa, J. T. Neumann, L. V. Look, D. Trivkovic, F. Lazzarino, G. Vandenberghe, “Experimental verification of source-mask optimization and freeform illumination for 22-nm node static random access memory cells,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 10, 013008 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Verbeeck, J.

M. Mulder, A. Engelen, O. Noordman, G. Streutker, B. van Drieenhuizen, C. van Nuenen, W. Endendijk, J. Verbeeck, W. Bouman, A. Bouma, R. Kazinczi, R. Socha, D. Jürgens, J. Zimmermann, B. Trauter, J. Bekaert, B. Laenens, D. Corliss, G. McIntyre, “Performance of FlexRay: a fully programmable illumination system for generation of freeform sources on high NA immersion systems,” Proc. SPIE 7640, 76401P (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verhaegen, S.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Source representation methods in optical lithography.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The sampling method of the source patterns and the Zernike polynomial functions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The first 21 Zernike polynomial functions chosen to represent the source patterns.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theory of aerial image simulation with Zernike polynomial-based source representation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The tradeoff between optimization performance and computation speed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two test mask patterns for source mask optimization.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulation results of SMO for the brick contact array.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulation results of SMO for the regular contact array.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of process window for (a) brick contact array and (b) regular contact array.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the optimization performance and efficiency.

Equations (24)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( x , y ) = + J ( f , g ) | 𝔉 [ O ( f , g ) H ( f + f , g + g ) ] | 2 d f d g ,
I ( x , y ) = + T ( f 1 , g 1 ; f 2 , g 2 ) O ( f 1 , g 1 ) O ( f 2 , g 2 ) e i 2 π [ ( f 1 f 2 ) x + ( g 1 g 2 ) y ] d f 1 d g 1 d f 2 d g 2 ,
T ( f 1 , g 1 ; f 2 , g 2 ) = + J ( f , g ) H ( f + f 1 , g + g 1 ) H ( f + f 2 , g + g 2 ) d f d g .
J ( f , g ) = l = 1 P ψ l Z l ( f , g ) ,
J = Z Ψ ,
I ( x , y ) = l = 1 P ψ l I ^ l ( x , y ) ,
I ^ l ( x , y ) = + Z l ( f , g ) | 𝔉 [ O ( f , g ) H ( f + f , g + g ) ] | 2 d f d g .
I = I ^ Ψ .
T ( f 1 , g 1 ; f 2 , g 2 ) = l = 1 P ψ l T ^ l ( f 1 , g 1 ; f 2 , g 2 ) ,
T ^ l ( f 1 , g 1 ; f 2 , g 2 ) = + Z l ( f , g ) H ( f + f 1 , g + g 1 ) H ( f + f 2 , g + g 2 ) d f d g .
T = T ^ Ψ .
T ( f 1 , g 1 ; f 2 , g 2 ) = n = 1 K λ n ϕ n ( f 1 , g 1 ) ϕ n ( f 2 , g 2 ) ,
I ( x , y ) = n = 1 K λ n | 𝔉 [ O ( f , g ) ϕ n ( f , g ) ] | 2
= n = 1 K λ n | M ( x , y ) * Φ n ( x , y ) | 2 ,
I r ( x , y ) = sig { I ( x , y ) } = 1 1 + e α [ I ( x , y ) t r ] ,
m { M ( x , y ) } = x , y I r ( x , y ) I t ( x , y ) 2 2 .
a { M ( x , y ) } = x , y I ( x , y ) 2 t r I t ( x , y ) 2 2 .
m { M ( x , y ) } = m { M ( x , y ) } + τ a { M ( x , y ) } ,
M ^ ( x , y ) = arg min M m { M ( x , y ) } .
c { Ψ } = I ^ c Ψ t r 2 2 ,
0 { Ψ } = I ^ 0 Ψ 2 2 ,
s { Ψ } = c { Ψ } + μ 0 { Ψ } ,
s { Ψ } = ( I ^ c Ψ t r ) T ( I ^ c Ψ t r ) + ( I ^ c Ψ ) T ( I ^ c Ψ ) = Ψ T Q Ψ b T Ψ + c ,
minimize Ψ s { Ψ } , subject to 0 Z Ψ S max EZ Ψ D max .

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