Abstract

Soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) and third-harmonic generation (THG) are observed in a four-hole As2S5 chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber (MOF). The As2S5 MOF is tapered to offer an ideal environment for SSFS. After tapering, the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) shifts from 2.02 to 1.61 μm, and the rate of SSFS can be enhanced by increasing the energy density of the pulse. By varying the average input power from 220 to 340 mW, SSFS of a soliton central wavelength from 2.206 to 2.600 μm in the mid-infrared is observed in the tapered segment, and THG at 632 nm is observed in the untapered segment.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

J. H. Lee, J. van Howe, X. Liu, C. Xu, “Soliton Self-Frequency Shift: Experimental Demonstrations and Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 713–723 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2004

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, “Fibre-based source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 40(24), 1523–1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton Self-Frequency Shift Cancellation in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1705–1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2567–2576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1998

Y. Tamaki, K. Midorikawa, M. Obara, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67(1), 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. K. Lucek, K. J. Blow, “Soliton self-frequency shift in telecommunications fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 45(9), 6666–6674 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1983

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-kadry, A. M.

Amraoui, M.

J. Fatome, B. Kibler, M. Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared extension of supercontinuum in a chalcogenide suspended core fibre through soliton gas pumping,” Electron. Lett. 47(6), 398–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Barviau, B.

Blow, K. J.

J. K. Lucek, K. J. Blow, “Soliton self-frequency shift in telecommunications fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 45(9), 6666–6674 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bragas, A. V.

Brambilla, G.

Brilland, L.

Broderick, N. G. R.

Buckley, J.

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, “Fibre-based source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 40(24), 1523–1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chandalia, J. K.

Chaudhari, C.

Cheng, T. L.

Chong, A.

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, “Fibre-based source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 40(24), 1523–1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Codemard, C. A.

Cormack, I. G.

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

Dekker, S. A.

Deng, D. H.

Desevedavy, F.

J. Fatome, B. Kibler, M. Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared extension of supercontinuum in a chalcogenide suspended core fibre through soliton gas pumping,” Electron. Lett. 47(6), 398–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ding, M.

Duan, Z. C.

Efimov, A.

Eggleton, B. J.

El-Amraoui, M.

Fatome, J.

Fortier, C.

Gabriagues, J. M.

Gadret, G.

Gaeta, A. L.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W. Q.

Ghalmi, S.

Gordon, J. P.

Grosz, D. F.

Judge, A. C.

Jules, J. C.

Jung, Y.

Kibler, B.

Kito, C.

Knight, J. C.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton Self-Frequency Shift Cancellation in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1705–1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2567–2576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Koch, K. W.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohoutek, T.

König, P. G.

Kosinski, S. G.

Kudlinski, A.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, T.

Liao, M.

Liao, M. S.

Lim, H.

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, “Fibre-based source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 40(24), 1523–1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, A.

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

J. H. Lee, J. van Howe, X. Liu, C. Xu, “Soliton Self-Frequency Shift: Experimental Demonstrations and Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 713–723 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Kosinski, R. S. Windeler, “Soliton self-frequency shift in a short tapered air-silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 358–360 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luan, F.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton Self-Frequency Shift Cancellation in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1705–1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucek, J. K.

J. K. Lucek, K. J. Blow, “Soliton self-frequency shift in telecommunications fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 45(9), 6666–6674 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mägi, E. C.

Martinez, O. E.

Masip, M. E.

Matsumoto, M.

Mélin, G.

Meng, X.

Messaddeq, Y.

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Tamaki, K. Midorikawa, M. Obara, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67(1), 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Misumi, T.

Mitschke, F. M.

Mizuno, S.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Müller, D.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mussot, A.

Obara, M.

Y. Tamaki, K. Midorikawa, M. Obara, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67(1), 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

Omenetto, F. G.

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pant, R.

Polacchini, C. F.

Qin, G.

Qin, W.

Quiquempois, Y.

Ramachandran, S.

Reid, D. T.

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Renversez, G.

Rieznik, A. A.

Rochette, M.

Russell, P. S. J.

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton Self-Frequency Shift Cancellation in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1705–1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2567–2576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryasnyanskiy, A.

Silcox, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skripatchev, I.

Skryabin, D. V.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton Self-Frequency Shift Cancellation in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1705–1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smektala, F.

Suzuki, T.

Szpulak, M.

Tamaki, Y.

Y. Tamaki, K. Midorikawa, M. Obara, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67(1), 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Thomas, M. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toulouse, J.

Troles, J.

van Howe, J.

Vanvincq, O.

Venkataraman, N.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, “Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2567–2576 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Wise, F.

Wise, F. W.

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, “Fibre-based source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 40(24), 1523–1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Yan, M. F.

Yan, X.

Yin, F.

Zhao, D.

Zhou, S.

Appl. Phys. B

Y. Tamaki, K. Midorikawa, M. Obara, “Phase-matched third-harmonic generation by nonlinear phase shift in a hollow fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67(1), 59–63 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, F. W. Wise, “Fibre-based source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3 μm,” Electron. Lett. 40(24), 1523–1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Cormack, D. T. Reid, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, “Observation of soliton self-frequency shift in photonic crystal fiber,” Electron. Lett. 38(4), 167–169 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Fatome, B. Kibler, M. Amraoui, J. C. Jules, G. Gadret, F. Desevedavy, F. Smektala, “Mid-infrared extension of supercontinuum in a chalcogenide suspended core fibre through soliton gas pumping,” Electron. Lett. 47(6), 398–400 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. H. Lee, J. van Howe, X. Liu, C. Xu, “Soliton Self-Frequency Shift: Experimental Demonstrations and Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(3), 713–723 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

J. van Howe, J. H. Lee, S. Zhou, F. Wise, C. Xu, S. Ramachandran, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, “Demonstration of soliton self-frequency shift below 1300 nm in higher-order mode, solid silica-based fiber,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 340–342 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Masip, A. A. Rieznik, P. G. König, D. F. Grosz, A. V. Bragas, O. E. Martinez, “Femtosecond soliton source with fast and broad spectral tunability,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 842–844 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Qin, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, X. Yan, C. Kito, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, “Second and third harmonics and flattened supercontinuum generation in tellurite microstructured fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 58–60 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Gabriagues, “Third-harmonic and three-wave sum-frequency light generation in an elliptical-core optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 8(3), 183–185 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, “Discovery of the soliton self-frequency shift,” Opt. Lett. 11(10), 659–661 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Gordon, “Theory of the soliton self-frequency shift,” Opt. Lett. 11(10), 662–664 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, C. Xu, W. H. Knox, J. K. Chandalia, B. J. Eggleton, S. G. Kosinski, R. S. Windeler, “Soliton self-frequency shift in a short tapered air-silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 358–360 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, X. Meng, F. Yin, M. Liao, D. Zhao, G. Qin, Y. Ohishi, W. Qin, “Soliton self-frequency shift controlled by a weak seed laser in tellurite photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2851–2854 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lin, A. Ryasnyanskiy, J. Toulouse, “Tunable third-harmonic generation in a solid-core tellurite glass fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3437–3439 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

J. K. Lucek, K. J. Blow, “Soliton self-frequency shift in telecommunications fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 45(9), 6666–6674 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, A. L. Gaeta, “Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1702–1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton Self-Frequency Shift Cancellation in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1705–1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Transmission spectra of As2S5 and As2S3 glasses with the thickness of 1 mm. (b) Structure of the tapered and untapered segments of the As2S5 MOF. (c) Fundamental mode effective refractive indices of the tapered and untapered segments. (d) Calculated chromatic dispersions of the tapered and untapered segments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for SSFS and THG in the As2S5 MOF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SSFS spectra for a pump wavelength of ~1900 nm with the pump average powers of ~220, 280, 310, and 340 mW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Soliton wavelength shift corresponding to the pump average powers of ~220, 280, 310, and 340 mW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrum of a 7.8 cm-long untapered As2S5 MOF at a pump average power of ~340 mW.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) THG spectra at the pump wavelength of ~1900 nm corresponding to ~280, 310, and 340 mW. (b) Red light of TH wave from the untapered segment.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Sellmeier coefficients of As2S5 glass.

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