Abstract

We present a GPU accelerated toolbox for shaping the light propagation through multimode fibre using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The light is modulated before being coupled to the proximal end of the fibre in order to achieve arbitrary light patterns at the distal end of the fibre. First, the toolbox optimises the acquisition time of the transformation matrix of the fibre by synchronous operation of CCD and SLM. Second, it uses the acquired transformation matrix retained within the GPU memory to design, in real-time, the desired holographic mask for on-the-fly modulation of the output light field. We demonstrate the functionality of the toolbox by acquiring the transformation matrix at the maximum refresh rate of the SLM - 204Hz, and using it to display an on-demand oriented cube, at the distal end of the fibre. The user-controlled orientation of the cube and the corresponding holographic mask are obtained in 20ms intervals. Deleterious interference effects between the neighbouring points are eliminated by incorporating an acousto-optic deflector (AOD) into the system. We remark that the usage of the toolbox is not limited to multimode fibres and can be readily used to acquire transformation matrix and implement beam-shaping in any other linear optical system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Di Leonardo, S. Bianchi, “Hologram transmission through multi-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 247–254 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Čižmár, K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, J. Yang, W. Choi, “Disorder-mediated enhancement of fiber numerical aperture,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2253–2255 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Bianchi, R. Di Leonardo, “A multi-mode fiber probe for holographic micromanipulation and microscopy,” Lab Chip 12, 635–639 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, E. Niv, D. B. Conkey, R. Piestun, “Real-time resilient focusing through a bending multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 12881–12887 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, R. Piestun, “High-speed scattering medium characterization with application to focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Express 20, 1733–1740 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Cui, “A high speed wavefront determination method based on spatial frequency modulations for focusing light through random scattering media,” Opt. Express 19, 2989–2995 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Preece, R. Bowman, A. Linnenberger, G. Gibson, S. Serati, M. Padgett, “Increasing trap stiffness with position clamping in holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 17, 22718–22725 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (5)

2012 (5)

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, R. Piestun, “High-speed scattering medium characterization with application to focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Express 20, 1733–1740 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. N. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, D. Psaltis, “Focusing and scanning light through a multimode optical fiber using digital phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 20, 10583–10590 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Čižmár, K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bianchi, R. Di Leonardo, “A multi-mode fiber probe for holographic micromanipulation and microscopy,” Lab Chip 12, 635–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (1)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2005 (2)

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2, 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Jung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2272–2274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. P.

Bianchi, S.

S. Bianchi, R. Di Leonardo, “A multi-mode fiber probe for holographic micromanipulation and microscopy,” Lab Chip 12, 635–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Di Leonardo, S. Bianchi, “Hologram transmission through multi-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 247–254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boccara, A. C.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowman, R.

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, E. L. M.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2, 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, J. Yang, W. Choi, “Disorder-mediated enhancement of fiber numerical aperture,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2253–2255 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, J. Yang, W. Choi, “Disorder-mediated enhancement of fiber numerical aperture,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2253–2255 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cižmár, T.

Cocker, E. D.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2, 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Jung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2272–2274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conkey, D. B.

Cui, M.

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

Di Leonardo, R.

S. Bianchi, R. Di Leonardo, “A multi-mode fiber probe for holographic micromanipulation and microscopy,” Lab Chip 12, 635–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Di Leonardo, S. Bianchi, “Hologram transmission through multi-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 247–254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunsby, C.

Fang-Yen, C.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farahi, S.

Fink, M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flusberg, B. A.

B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Jung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2272–2274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2, 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P. M.

Gibson, G.

Gigan, S.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, R. Y.

Jung, J. C.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2, 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Jung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2272–2274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahn, J. M.

Kim, M.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, J. Yang, W. Choi, “Disorder-mediated enhancement of fiber numerical aperture,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2253–2255 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. J.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerosey, G.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linnenberger, A.

Mahalati,

Moser, C.

Nasiri, R.

Neil, M. A.

Niv, E.

Padgett, M.

Papadopoulos, I. N.

Paterson, C.

Piestun, R.

Piyawattanametha, W.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2, 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popoff, S. M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preece, D.

Psaltis, D.

Schnitzer, M. J.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2, 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Jung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2272–2274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serati, S.

Thompson, A. J.

Yang, J.

Yang, T. D.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, C.

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, J. Yang, W. Choi, “Disorder-mediated enhancement of fiber numerical aperture,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2253–2255 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Lab Chip (1)

S. Bianchi, R. Di Leonardo, “A multi-mode fiber probe for holographic micromanipulation and microscopy,” Lab Chip 12, 635–639 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. Čižmár, K. Dholakia, “Exploiting multimode waveguides for pure fibre-based imaging,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1027 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. M. Cheung, M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2, 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

D. Preece, R. Bowman, A. Linnenberger, G. Gibson, S. Serati, M. Padgett, “Increasing trap stiffness with position clamping in holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 17, 22718–22725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Di Leonardo, S. Bianchi, “Hologram transmission through multi-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19, 247–254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cui, “A high speed wavefront determination method based on spatial frequency modulations for focusing light through random scattering media,” Opt. Express 19, 2989–2995 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, E. Niv, D. B. Conkey, R. Piestun, “Real-time resilient focusing through a bending multimode fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 12881–12887 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Čižmár, K. Dholakia, “Shaping the light transmission through a multimode optical fibre: complex transformation analysis and applications in biophotonics,” Opt. Express 19, 18871–18884 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, R. Piestun, “High-speed scattering medium characterization with application to focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Express 20, 1733–1740 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. N. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, D. Psaltis, “Focusing and scanning light through a multimode optical fiber using digital phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 20, 10583–10590 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nasiri, Mahalati, R. Y. Gu, J. M. Kahn, “Resolution limits for imaging through multi-mode fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 1656–1668 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Y. Choi, C. Yoon, M. Kim, T. D. Yang, C. Fang-Yen, R. R. Dasari, K. J. Lee, W. Choi, “Scanner-free and wide-field endoscopic imaging by using a single multimode optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 203901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: An approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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