Abstract

A 2D/3D switchable and rotatable autostereoscopic display using a high-resistance liquid-crystal (Hi-R LC) lens array is investigated in this paper. Using high-resistance layers in an LC cell, a gradient electric-field distribution can be formed, which can provide a better lens-like shape of the refractive-index distribution. The advantages of the Hi-R LC lens array are its 2D/3D switchability, rotatability (in the horizontal and vertical directions), low driving voltage (~2 volts) and fast response (~0.6 second). In addition, the Hi-R LC lens array requires only a very simple fabrication process.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

M. Lambooij, K. Hinnen, C. Varekamp, “Emulating autostereoscopic lenticular designs,” IEEE J. Displ. Technology 8(5Issue 5), 283–290 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, “Superzone fresnel liquid crystal lens for temporal scanning auto-stereoscopic display,”, ” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 8(11), 650–655 (2012).

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, P. C. Chen, “Dual direction overdriving method for fast switching liquid crystal lens on 2D/3D switchable auto-stereoscopic display,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 8(10), 559–561 (2012).

2011 (4)

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A threedimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on led arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Displ. Technol. 7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki, K. Tanaka, J. Nakamura, “Super multi-view display with a lower resolution flat-panel display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4129–4139 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

Y. Takaki, “Multi-view3-D display employing a flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 476–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Mphepo, Y.-P. Huang, H.-P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3d flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, J. H. Park, “Overview of 3D/2D switchable liquid crystal display technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7618, 761806 (2010).

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. W. Chen, “2-D/3-D switchable autostereoscopic display with multi-electrically driven liquid-crystal (MeD-LC) lenses,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 642–646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

H. K. Hong, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. H. Shin, “Electric-Field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Refai, “Static volumetric three-dimensional display,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 5(10), 391–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Refai, “Static volumetric three-dimensional display,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol 5(10), 391–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hong, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3D/2D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chen, Y.-P. Huang, S.-C. Chuang, C.-L. Wu, H.-P. D. Shieh, W. Mphepö, C.-T. Hsieh, S.-C. Hsu, “Liquid crystal panel for high efficiency barrier type autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Appl. Opt. 48(18), 3446–3454 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. W. Ren, D. W. Fox, B. Wu, S. T. Wu, “Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11328–11335 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, “Efficiency analysis for multi-view spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 2-D/3-D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(11), 873–881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, O. Willemsen, “2-D/3-D switchable displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, “Key design issue for autostereoscopic 2-D/3-D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(5), 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image methods based on multi-view images,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image methods based on multi-view images,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus cylindrical liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, D. Ezra, “Flat-panel autostereoscopic displays: characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1993 (1)

H. Okumura, H. FujiwaraH. Okumuraand H.Fujiwara, “A new low-image-lag drive method for large-size LCTVs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 1(3), 335–339 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens–cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, “Superzone fresnel liquid crystal lens for temporal scanning auto-stereoscopic display,”, ” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 8(11), 650–655 (2012).

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, P. C. Chen, “Dual direction overdriving method for fast switching liquid crystal lens on 2D/3D switchable auto-stereoscopic display,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 8(10), 559–561 (2012).

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. W. Chen, “2-D/3-D switchable autostereoscopic display with multi-electrically driven liquid-crystal (MeD-LC) lenses,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 642–646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, P. C.

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, P. C. Chen, “Dual direction overdriving method for fast switching liquid crystal lens on 2D/3D switchable auto-stereoscopic display,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 8(10), 559–561 (2012).

Chen, Y. C.

Y. C. Chen, L. Y. Liao, Y. P. Huang, H. P. Shieh, “Extremely-fast focusing gradient driven liquid crystal lens driven by ultra-low operating voltages,” International Display Manufacturing Conference2011, PS-028.

Chuang, S.-C.

De Zwart, S. T.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, O. Willemsen, “2-D/3-D switchable displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ezra, D.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, D. Ezra, “Flat-panel autostereoscopic displays: characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. H.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus cylindrical liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Fan, H. W. Ren, S. T. Wu, “Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3080–3086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, D. W.

Fujiwara, H.

H. Okumura, H. FujiwaraH. Okumuraand H.Fujiwara, “A new low-image-lag drive method for large-size LCTVs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 1(3), 335–339 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gately, M.

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A threedimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on led arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus cylindrical liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(2), 652–653 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harrold, J.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, “Efficiency analysis for multi-view spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 2-D/3-D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(11), 873–881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, “Key design issue for autostereoscopic 2-D/3-D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(5), 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, D. Ezra, “Flat-panel autostereoscopic displays: characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hiddink, M. G. H.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, O. Willemsen, “2-D/3-D switchable displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hinnen, K.

M. Lambooij, K. Hinnen, C. Varekamp, “Emulating autostereoscopic lenticular designs,” IEEE J. Displ. Technology 8(5Issue 5), 283–290 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hong, H. K.

H. K. Hong, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3D/2D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hong, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. H. Shin, “Electric-Field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C.-T.

Hsu, S.-C.

Huang, Y. P.

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, P. C. Chen, “Dual direction overdriving method for fast switching liquid crystal lens on 2D/3D switchable auto-stereoscopic display,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 8(10), 559–561 (2012).

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, “Superzone fresnel liquid crystal lens for temporal scanning auto-stereoscopic display,”, ” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 8(11), 650–655 (2012).

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. W. Chen, “2-D/3-D switchable autostereoscopic display with multi-electrically driven liquid-crystal (MeD-LC) lenses,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 642–646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, L. Y. Liao, Y. P. Huang, H. P. Shieh, “Extremely-fast focusing gradient driven liquid crystal lens driven by ultra-low operating voltages,” International Display Manufacturing Conference2011, PS-028.

Huang, Y.-P.

W. Mphepo, Y.-P. Huang, H.-P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3d flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chen, Y.-P. Huang, S.-C. Chuang, C.-L. Wu, H.-P. D. Shieh, W. Mphepö, C.-T. Hsieh, S.-C. Hsu, “Liquid crystal panel for high efficiency barrier type autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Appl. Opt. 48(18), 3446–3454 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, A. M. S.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, D. Ezra, “Flat-panel autostereoscopic displays: characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image methods based on multi-view images,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image methods based on multi-view images,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. M.

H. K. Hong, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3D/2D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hong, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. H. Shin, “Electric-Field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lambooij, M.

M. Lambooij, K. Hinnen, C. Varekamp, “Emulating autostereoscopic lenticular designs,” IEEE J. Displ. Technology 8(5Issue 5), 283–290 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

B. Lee, J. H. Park, “Overview of 3D/2D switchable liquid crystal display technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7618, 761806 (2010).

Lee, B. J.

H. K. Hong, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. H. Shin, “Electric-Field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hong, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3D/2D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L. Y.

Y. P. Huang, L. Y. Liao, C. W. Chen, “2-D/3-D switchable autostereoscopic display with multi-electrically driven liquid-crystal (MeD-LC) lenses,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(9), 642–646 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, L. Y. Liao, Y. P. Huang, H. P. Shieh, “Extremely-fast focusing gradient driven liquid crystal lens driven by ultra-low operating voltages,” International Display Manufacturing Conference2011, PS-028.

Loktev, M. Yu.

Love, G. D.

Lu, J. G.

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Displ. Technol. 7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moseley, R. R.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, D. Ezra, “Flat-panel autostereoscopic displays: characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mphepo, W.

W. Mphepo, Y.-P. Huang, H.-P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3d flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mphepö, W.

Nakamura, J.

Naumov, A. F.

Okumura, H.

H. Okumura, H. FujiwaraH. Okumuraand H.Fujiwara, “A new low-image-lag drive method for large-size LCTVs,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 1(3), 335–339 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

B. Lee, J. H. Park, “Overview of 3D/2D switchable liquid crystal display technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7618, 761806 (2010).

Petrich, E.

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on led arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A threedimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Refai, H. H.

H. H. Refai, “Static volumetric three-dimensional display,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol 5(10), 391–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Refai, “Static volumetric three-dimensional display,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 5(10), 391–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H. W.

Sato, S.

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens–cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sawalha, L.

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A threedimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on led arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, H. P.

Y. C. Chen, L. Y. Liao, Y. P. Huang, H. P. Shieh, “Extremely-fast focusing gradient driven liquid crystal lens driven by ultra-low operating voltages,” International Display Manufacturing Conference2011, PS-028.

Shieh, H. P. D.

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Displ. Technol. 7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, H.-P. D.

W. Mphepo, Y.-P. Huang, H.-P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3d flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chen, Y.-P. Huang, S.-C. Chuang, C.-L. Wu, H.-P. D. Shieh, W. Mphepö, C.-T. Hsieh, S.-C. Hsu, “Liquid crystal panel for high efficiency barrier type autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” Appl. Opt. 48(18), 3446–3454 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, H. H.

H. K. Hong, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. H. Shin, “Electric-Field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hong, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3D/2D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image methods based on multi-view images,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Displ. Technol. 7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. F.

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Displ. Technol. 7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Vladimirov, F. L.

Willemsen, O.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, O. Willemsen, “2-D/3-D switchable displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Willemsen, O. H.

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, O. Willemsen, “2-D/3-D switchable displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woodgate, G. J.

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, “Efficiency analysis for multi-view spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 2-D/3-D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(11), 873–881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, D. Ezra, “Flat-panel autostereoscopic displays: characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Wu, C.-L.

Wu, S. T.

Yeary, M.

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on led arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A threedimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, Y.

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A threedimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on led arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Displ. Technol (2)

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image methods based on multi-view images,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Refai, “Static volumetric three-dimensional display,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol 5(10), 391–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Displ. Technol. (7)

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A threedimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Huang, C. W. Chen, “Superzone fresnel liquid crystal lens for temporal scanning auto-stereoscopic display,”, ” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 8(11), 650–655 (2012).

C. W. Chen, Y. P. Huang, P. C. Chen, “Dual direction overdriving method for fast switching liquid crystal lens on 2D/3D switchable auto-stereoscopic display,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 8(10), 559–561 (2012).

H. H. Refai, “Static volumetric three-dimensional display,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 5(10), 391–397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on led arrays,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 7(9), 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Son, B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image methods based on multi-view images,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Mphepo, Y.-P. Huang, H.-P. D. Shieh, “Enhancing the brightness of parallax barrier based 3d flat panel mobile displays without compromising power consumption,” IEEE J. Displ. Technol. 6(2), 60–64 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Displ. Technology (1)

M. Lambooij, K. Hinnen, C. Varekamp, “Emulating autostereoscopic lenticular designs,” IEEE J. Displ. Technology 8(5Issue 5), 283–290 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Displ. Technol. (1)

J. G. Lu, X. F. Sun, Y. Song, H. P. D. Shieh, “2-D/3-D switchable display by Fresnel-type LC lens,” J. Displ. Technol. 7(4), 215–219 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (8)

Y. Takaki, “Multi-view3-D display employing a flat-panel display with slanted pixel arrangement,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 476–482 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, “Key design issue for autostereoscopic 2-D/3-D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(5), 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, “Efficiency analysis for multi-view spatially multiplexed autostereoscopic 2-D/3-D displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 15(11), 873–881 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. H. Willemsen, S. T. De Zwart, M. G. H. Hiddink, O. Willemsen, “2-D/3-D switchable displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(8), 715–722 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hong, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. H. Shin, “Electric-field-driven LC lens for 3D/2D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Hong, S. M. Jung, B. J. Lee, H. H. Shin, “Electric-Field-driven LC lens for 3-D/2-D autostereoscopic display,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(5), 399–406 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (2)

B. Lee, J. H. Park, “Overview of 3D/2D switchable liquid crystal display technologies,” Proc. SPIE 7618, 761806 (2010).

G. J. Woodgate, J. Harrold, A. M. S. Jacobs, R. R. Moseley, D. Ezra, “Flat-panel autostereoscopic displays: characterization and enhancement,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 153–164 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, L. Y. Liao, Y. P. Huang, H. P. Shieh, “Extremely-fast focusing gradient driven liquid crystal lens driven by ultra-low operating voltages,” International Display Manufacturing Conference2011, PS-028.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MP4 (43006 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A sketch of rotatable functionality.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two electric-field-driven LC lenses (ELC lenses): (a) a structure with external electrodes and (b) a structure with internal electrodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sketches of the high-resistance liquid-crystal lens (Hi-R LC lens): (a) the structure in perspective view, (b) the driving method for the lenticular lens, and (c) the driving method for the flat electrode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The R-C circuit model of the high-resistance LC lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sketch of the rotatable high-resistance liquid-crystal lens (Hi-R LC lens): (a) without high-resistance layer, (b) with high-resistance layer, (c) the structure in the X-Z(horizontal) plane, and Y-Z(vertical) plane.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The experimental results of a fringe pattern in a cross-electrode LC lens (a) with high-resistance layers and (b) without high-resistance layers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Test of the focusing ability the Hi-R LC Lens: (a) without any driving voltage, (b) operating the Hi-R LC lens in the horizontal direction, and (c) operating the Hi-R LC lens in the vertical direction (Media 1).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The angular distribution of the Hi-R LC Lens in (a) the vertical direction and (b) the horizontal direction.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The comparison of the effective refractive index between ideal lens and Hi-R LC Lens.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The influence of the ratio of electrode width on the effective refractive index (neff): (a) structure of low ratio of electrode width, (b) structure of high ratio of electrode width, (c) various ratios of electrode width and (d) the ideal case.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The sequential photograph of focusing of LC lens driven by over-drive method: (a) 0 sec, (b) 0.2 sec, (c) 0.4 sec and (d) 0.6 sec.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Review of 2D/3D Switchable Technology

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Table 2 Specification of Hi-R LC Lens and Panel

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Table 3 Specification of Hi-R LC Lens on Simulation

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R= ρ r A r l r = ρ r t r w r l r = R s l r w r
P z =| P |sinθ+| P |cosθ= ε 0 ( χ sin 2 θ+ χ cos 2 θ )E
χ z = P z ε 0 E = χ sin 2 θ+ χ cos 2 θ
C= εA d = 1+ χ z d A
τ rise = γ 1 d 2 /K π 2 ( V/ V th ) 2 1
τ rise = γ 1 d 2 /K π 2 ( V/ V th ) 2 1

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