Abstract

We propose a new technique to perform precise selective infiltration of an air hole in the photonic crystal fiber (PCF). To carry out the infiltration process, the end face of the PCF is covered by a mask, which is fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription from the lateral direction. This proposed method overcomes the conventional limitation of maximum mask thickness. An analytical model is further proposed and demonstrated accurate determinations of the fabricated channel diameter in the mask.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012

M. Vieweg, S. Pricking, T. Gissibl, Y. V. Kartashov, L. Torner, H. Giessen, “Tunable ultrafast nonlinear optofluidic coupler,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1058–1060 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. Shum, Y. Zhang, L. Xia, D. Liu, “Theoretical study of dual-core photonic crystal fibers with metal wire,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(4), 1178–1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

F. Wang, W. Yuan, O. Hansen, O. Bang, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibers using focused ion beam milled microchannels,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17585–17590 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2007

2006

2005

2004

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

Bang, O.

F. Wang, W. Yuan, O. Hansen, O. Bang, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibers using focused ion beam milled microchannels,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17585–17590 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canning, J.

Chen, X.

Couny, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demokan, M.

Eggleton, B.

Eggleton, B. J.

Giessen, H.

Gissibl, T.

Groothoff, N.

Hale, A.

Hansen, O.

Ho, H.

Hoo, Y.

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Kartashov, Y. V.

Kerbage, C.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lai, Y.

Liao, C. R.

Liu, D.

S. Zhang, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. Shum, Y. Zhang, L. Xia, D. Liu, “Theoretical study of dual-core photonic crystal fibers with metal wire,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(4), 1178–1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lyytikainen, K.

Martelli, C.

Petersen, D. H.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pricking, S.

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saitoh, K.

Savenko, A.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shum, P.

S. Zhang, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. Shum, Y. Zhang, L. Xia, D. Liu, “Theoretical study of dual-core photonic crystal fibers with metal wire,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(4), 1178–1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

Sugden, K.

Torner, L.

Vieweg, M.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, F.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, W. Yuan, O. Hansen, O. Bang, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibers using focused ion beam milled microchannels,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17585–17590 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Westbrook, P.

Windeler, R.

Wu, D. K. C.

Xia, L.

S. Zhang, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. Shum, Y. Zhang, L. Xia, D. Liu, “Theoretical study of dual-core photonic crystal fibers with metal wire,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(4), 1178–1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, L.

Xu, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

S. Zhang, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. Shum, Y. Zhang, L. Xia, D. Liu, “Theoretical study of dual-core photonic crystal fibers with metal wire,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(4), 1178–1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, W.

F. Wang, W. Yuan, O. Hansen, O. Bang, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibers using focused ion beam milled microchannels,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17585–17590 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. Shum, Y. Zhang, L. Xia, D. Liu, “Theoretical study of dual-core photonic crystal fibers with metal wire,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(4), 1178–1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

S. Zhang, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. Shum, Y. Zhang, L. Xia, D. Liu, “Theoretical study of dual-core photonic crystal fibers with metal wire,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(4), 1178–1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. Shum, Y. Zhang, L. Xia, D. Liu, “Theoretical study of dual-core photonic crystal fibers with metal wire,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(4), 1178–1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

Zhou, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, “Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5182–5184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J.

S. Zhang, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. Shum, Y. Zhang, L. Xia, D. Liu, “Theoretical study of dual-core photonic crystal fibers with metal wire,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(4), 1178–1187 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Detailed steps of the proposed method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Magnified microscope images of the PCF spliced with SMF. (a) The fiber sample after splicing. (b) The fiber sample after femtosecond laser inscription. (c) The fiber sample after HF etching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the femtosecond laser inscription on the transition region of the spliced fiber sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Magnified microscope images of the cross-section of the PCFs with single air hole in (a) the first ring and (b) the second ring selectively infiltrated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Side view of etched fibers. (a) Image of the fiber sample under microscope. (b) Schematic drawing for modeling. (c) SMF Sample 1. (d) SMF Sample 2.

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