Abstract

We propose and demonstrate an optical flat datacenter network based on scalable optical switch system with optical flow control. Modular structure with distributed control results in port-count independent optical switch reconfiguration time. RF tone in-band labeling technique allowing parallel processing of the label bits ensures the low latency operation regardless of the switch port-count. Hardware flow control is conducted at optical level by re-using the label wavelength without occupying extra bandwidth, space, and network resources which further improves the performance of latency within a simple structure. Dynamic switching including multicasting operation is validated for a 4x4 system. Error free operation of 40 Gb/s data packets has been achieved with only 1 dB penalty. The system could handle an input load up to 0.5 providing a packet loss lower that 10−5 and an average latency less that 500ns when a buffer size of 16 packets is employed. Investigation on scalability also indicates that the proposed system could potentially scale up to large port count with limited power penalty.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Sakr, A. Liu, D. Batista, M. Alomari, “A survey on large scale data management approaches in cloud environments,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 13(3), 311–336 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Meeker and L. Wu, “2013 internet trends,” Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, Technical Report (2013).
  3. G. Astfalk, “Why optical data communications and why now?” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 933–940 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, P. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of data center traffic: measurements and analysis,” in Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement (ACM, New York, 2009), pp. 202–208.
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Oltsik, B. Laliberte, and B. Lundell, “Research report: Data center networking trend,” Enterprise Strategy Group (2006).
  6. L. A. Barroso and U. Hölze, The Datacenter as a Computer: An Introduction to the Design of Warehouse-Scale Machines (Morgan and Claypool, 2009).
  7. P. Gill, N. Jain, and N. Nagappan, “Understanding network failures in data centers: measurement, analysis, and implications,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2011 Conference (ACM, New York, 2011), pp. 350–361.
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Kachris, K. Bergman, and I. Tomkos, Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks (Springer, 2013), Chap. 1.
  9. A. Benner, “Optical interconnect opportunities in supercomputers and high end computing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTu2B.4.
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Kachris, I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 14(4), 1021–1036 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, A. Shacham, B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, H. Wang, C. P. Lai, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, “The data vortex optical packet switched interconnection network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(13), 1777–1789 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Ye, Y. Yin, S. J. B. Yoo, P. Mejia, R. Proietti, and V. Akella, “DOS: a scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ACM, New York, 2010), pp. 1–12.
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: The IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThP3.
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Luo, H. J. S. Dorren, N. Calabretta, “Optical RF tone in-band labeling for large-scale and low-latency optical packet switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(16), 2637–2645 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Miao, S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, H. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and efficient optical flow control for intra data center networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper Th.1.A.2.
  16. J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with highly distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3J.2.
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(1), 92–99 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

C. Kachris, I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 14(4), 1021–1036 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, H. J. S. Dorren, N. Calabretta, “Optical RF tone in-band labeling for large-scale and low-latency optical packet switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(16), 2637–2645 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

S. Sakr, A. Liu, D. Batista, M. Alomari, “A survey on large scale data management approaches in cloud environments,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 13(3), 311–336 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(1), 92–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

G. Astfalk, “Why optical data communications and why now?” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 933–940 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Akella, A.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(1), 92–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alomari, M.

S. Sakr, A. Liu, D. Batista, M. Alomari, “A survey on large scale data management approaches in cloud environments,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 13(3), 311–336 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anand, A.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(1), 92–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Astfalk, G.

G. Astfalk, “Why optical data communications and why now?” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 933–940 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Batista, D.

S. Sakr, A. Liu, D. Batista, M. Alomari, “A survey on large scale data management approaches in cloud environments,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 13(3), 311–336 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(1), 92–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

Biberman, A.

Calabretta, N.

Dorren, H. J. S.

Kachris, C.

C. Kachris, I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 14(4), 1021–1036 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. P.

Lee, B. G.

Liboiron-Ladouceur, O.

Liu, A.

S. Sakr, A. Liu, D. Batista, M. Alomari, “A survey on large scale data management approaches in cloud environments,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 13(3), 311–336 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Sakr, S.

S. Sakr, A. Liu, D. Batista, M. Alomari, “A survey on large scale data management approaches in cloud environments,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 13(3), 311–336 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shacham, A.

Small, B. A.

Tomkos, I.

C. Kachris, I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 14(4), 1021–1036 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Zhang, M.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(1), 92–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 40(1), 92–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.

G. Astfalk, “Why optical data communications and why now?” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 933–940 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials

C. Kachris, I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 14(4), 1021–1036 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakr, A. Liu, D. Batista, M. Alomari, “A survey on large scale data management approaches in cloud environments,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutorials 13(3), 311–336 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Other

M. Meeker and L. Wu, “2013 internet trends,” Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, Technical Report (2013).

X. Ye, Y. Yin, S. J. B. Yoo, P. Mejia, R. Proietti, and V. Akella, “DOS: a scalable optical switch for datacenters,” in Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE Symposium on Architectures for Networking and Communications Systems (ACM, New York, 2010), pp. 1–12.
[CrossRef]

J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, J. D. LeGrange, P. Bernasconi, and D. T. Neilson, “Photonic terabit routers: The IRIS project,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThP3.
[CrossRef]

W. Miao, S. Di Lucente, J. Luo, H. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and efficient optical flow control for intra data center networks,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper Th.1.A.2.

J. Luo, S. Di Lucente, J. Ramirez, H. J. S. Dorren, and N. Calabretta, “Low latency and large port count optical packet switch with highly distributed control,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW3J.2.
[CrossRef]

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, P. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of data center traffic: measurements and analysis,” in Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCOMM Conference on Internet Measurement (ACM, New York, 2009), pp. 202–208.
[CrossRef]

J. Oltsik, B. Laliberte, and B. Lundell, “Research report: Data center networking trend,” Enterprise Strategy Group (2006).

L. A. Barroso and U. Hölze, The Datacenter as a Computer: An Introduction to the Design of Warehouse-Scale Machines (Morgan and Claypool, 2009).

P. Gill, N. Jain, and N. Nagappan, “Understanding network failures in data centers: measurement, analysis, and implications,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2011 Conference (ACM, New York, 2011), pp. 350–361.
[CrossRef]

C. Kachris, K. Bergman, and I. Tomkos, Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks (Springer, 2013), Chap. 1.

A. Benner, “Optical interconnect opportunities in supercomputers and high end computing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTu2B.4.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed flat DCN architecture based on OPS with flow control.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectrum before and after label extractor for (a) Client1 and (b) Client2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dynamic operation of labels and payloads from (a) Cluster1 and (b) Cluster2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BER curves and eye diagrams for 40 Gb/s payload.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Packet loss vs. load with different buffer size. (b) Buffer queue occupancy for different input load. (c) Average latency with buffer size of 16 packets. (d) Retransmission rate with buffer size of 16 packets.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Set-up for scalability investigation. (b) Gain characteristic with bias current of the SOA switch (c) Penalty and OSNR vs. scale of 1 × N switch.

Metrics