Abstract

Terahertz (THz) waves have been exploited for the non-contact measurements of thickness and refractive index, which has enormous industrial applicability. In this work, we demonstrate a 1.3-μm dual-mode laser (DML)-based continuous-wave THz system for the real-time measurement of a commercial indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass. The system is compact, cost-effective, and capable of performing broadband measurement within a second at the setting resolution of 1 GHz. The thickness of the glass and the sheet conductivity of the ITO film were successfully measured, and the measurements agree well with those of broadband pulse-based time domain spectroscopy and Hall measurement results.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

N. Kim, H.-C. Ryu, D. Lee, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, K. Moon, J.-W. Park, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, “Monolithically integrated optical beat sources toward a single-chip broadband terahertz emitter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(8), 085805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1622 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

N. Kim, Y. A. Leem, H. Ko, M. Y. Jeon, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, D. Lee, K. H. Park, “Widely tunable 1.55-μm detuned dual-mode laser diode for compact continuous-wave THz emitter,” ETRI J. 33(5), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, M. Koch, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging – Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-Dependent Complex Conductivities and Dielectric Responses of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films from the Visible to the Far-Infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, K. Baaske, M. Koch, “Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high-responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “Optimization of Photomixers and Antennas for Continuous-Wave Terahertz Emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 717–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Renaudier, G.-H. Duan, J.-G. Provost, H. Debregeas-Sillard, P. Gallion, “Phase correlation between longitudinal modes in semiconductor self-pulsating DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 741–743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive Analysis of Tablet Coating Thicknesses Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pearce, H. Choi, D. M. Mittleman, J. White, D. Zimdars, “Terahertz wide aperture reflection tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1653–1655 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasui, T. Yasuda, K. Sawanaka, T. Araki, “Terahertz paintmeter for noncontact monitoring of thickness and drying progress in paint film,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6849–6856 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, M. Geva, “Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(1), 16–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, “Highly Tunable Fiber-Coupled Photomixers with Coherent Terahertz Output Power,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1301–1309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

M. M. Gitin, F. W. Wise, G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, R. C. Compton, “Broad-Band Characterization of Millimeter-Wave Log-Periodic Antennas by Photoconductive Sampling,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 42(3), 335–339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett. 16(16), 630–631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

Araki, T.

Arjavalingam, G.

M. M. Gitin, F. W. Wise, G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, R. C. Compton, “Broad-Band Characterization of Millimeter-Wave Log-Periodic Antennas by Photoconductive Sampling,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 42(3), 335–339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baaske, K.

M. Scheller, K. Baaske, M. Koch, “Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bach, H.-G.

Baker, C.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “Optimization of Photomixers and Antennas for Continuous-Wave Terahertz Emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 717–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, S.

Barkan, A.

Beere, H. E.

Berry, C. W.

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1622 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigourd, D.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blary, K.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bocquet, R.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, I. V.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “Optimization of Photomixers and Antennas for Continuous-Wave Terahertz Emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 717–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Breitfeld, F.

Brown, E. R.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, “Highly Tunable Fiber-Coupled Photomixers with Coherent Terahertz Output Power,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1301–1309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cannard, P. J.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high-responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, C.-L. Pan, “THz conductivities of indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as a graded-refractive-index structure,” Opt. Express 20(S4Suppl 4), A441–A451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-Dependent Complex Conductivities and Dielectric Responses of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films from the Visible to the Far-Infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-W.

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-Dependent Complex Conductivities and Dielectric Responses of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films from the Visible to the Far-Infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

Cole, B. E.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive Analysis of Tablet Coating Thicknesses Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Compton, R. C.

M. M. Gitin, F. W. Wise, G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, R. C. Compton, “Broad-Band Characterization of Millimeter-Wave Log-Periodic Antennas by Photoconductive Sampling,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 42(3), 335–339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, M. Koch, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging – Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coutaz, J.-L.

Cuisset, A.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, M. Geva, “Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(1), 16–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “Optimization of Photomixers and Antennas for Continuous-Wave Terahertz Emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 717–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Barkan, F. K. Tittel, D. M. Mittleman, R. Dengler, P. H. Siegel, G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, “Linewidth and tuning characteristics of terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 575–577 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debregeas-Sillard, H.

J. Renaudier, G.-H. Duan, J.-G. Provost, H. Debregeas-Sillard, P. Gallion, “Phase correlation between longitudinal modes in semiconductor self-pulsating DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 741–743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dengler, R.

Deninger, A.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dinatale, W. F.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duan, G.-H.

J. Renaudier, G.-H. Duan, J.-G. Provost, H. Debregeas-Sillard, P. Gallion, “Phase correlation between longitudinal modes in semiconductor self-pulsating DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 741–743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duvillaret, L.

Evans, M. J.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “Optimization of Photomixers and Antennas for Continuous-Wave Terahertz Emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 717–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Firth, R.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high-responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive Analysis of Tablet Coating Thicknesses Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallion, P.

J. Renaudier, G.-H. Duan, J.-G. Provost, H. Debregeas-Sillard, P. Gallion, “Phase correlation between longitudinal modes in semiconductor self-pulsating DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 741–743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garet, F.

Geva, M.

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, M. Geva, “Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(1), 16–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gitin, M. M.

M. M. Gitin, F. W. Wise, G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, R. C. Compton, “Broad-Band Characterization of Millimeter-Wave Log-Periodic Antennas by Photoconductive Sampling,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 42(3), 335–339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, I. S.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “Optimization of Photomixers and Antennas for Continuous-Wave Terahertz Emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 717–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grüninger, M.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Güsten, R.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-P.

N. Kim, H.-C. Ryu, D. Lee, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, K. Moon, J.-W. Park, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, “Monolithically integrated optical beat sources toward a single-chip broadband terahertz emitter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(8), 085805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Ryu, N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, J.-W. Park, K. Moon, K. H. Park, “Simple and cost-effective thickness measurement terahertz system based on a compact 1.55 μm λ/4 phase-shifted dual-mode laser,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25990–25999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kim, Y. A. Leem, H. Ko, M. Y. Jeon, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, D. Lee, K. H. Park, “Widely tunable 1.55-μm detuned dual-mode laser diode for compact continuous-wave THz emitter,” ETRI J. 33(5), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hashemi, M. R.

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1622 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemberger, J.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hindle, F.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. H.

Jagtap, V.

Jang, Y.

Jarrahi, M.

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1622 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, M. Y.

N. Kim, H.-C. Ryu, D. Lee, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, K. Moon, J.-W. Park, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, “Monolithically integrated optical beat sources toward a single-chip broadband terahertz emitter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(8), 085805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Kim, Y. A. Leem, H. Ko, M. Y. Jeon, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, D. Lee, K. H. Park, “Widely tunable 1.55-μm detuned dual-mode laser diode for compact continuous-wave THz emitter,” ETRI J. 33(5), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kim, J. Shin, E. Sim, C. W. Lee, D.-S. Yee, M. Y. Jeon, Y. Jang, K. H. Park, “Monolithic dual-mode distributed feedback semiconductor laser for tunable continuous-wave terahertz generation,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13851–13859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, M. Koch, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging – Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, R. H. Jacobsen, S. R. Keiding, “Generation and detection of terahertz pulses from biased semiconductor antennas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(11), 2424–2436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

Khanna, S. P.

Kikuchi, K.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett. 16(16), 630–631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N.

N. Kim, H.-C. Ryu, D. Lee, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, K. Moon, J.-W. Park, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, “Monolithically integrated optical beat sources toward a single-chip broadband terahertz emitter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(8), 085805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Ryu, N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, J.-W. Park, K. Moon, K. H. Park, “Simple and cost-effective thickness measurement terahertz system based on a compact 1.55 μm λ/4 phase-shifted dual-mode laser,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25990–25999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kim, Y. A. Leem, H. Ko, M. Y. Jeon, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, D. Lee, K. H. Park, “Widely tunable 1.55-μm detuned dual-mode laser diode for compact continuous-wave THz emitter,” ETRI J. 33(5), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kim, J. Shin, E. Sim, C. W. Lee, D.-S. Yee, M. Y. Jeon, Y. Jang, K. H. Park, “Monolithic dual-mode distributed feedback semiconductor laser for tunable continuous-wave terahertz generation,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13851–13859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, H.

N. Kim, H.-C. Ryu, D. Lee, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, K. Moon, J.-W. Park, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, “Monolithically integrated optical beat sources toward a single-chip broadband terahertz emitter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(8), 085805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Ryu, N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, J.-W. Park, K. Moon, K. H. Park, “Simple and cost-effective thickness measurement terahertz system based on a compact 1.55 μm λ/4 phase-shifted dual-mode laser,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25990–25999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kim, Y. A. Leem, H. Ko, M. Y. Jeon, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, D. Lee, K. H. Park, “Widely tunable 1.55-μm detuned dual-mode laser diode for compact continuous-wave THz emitter,” ETRI J. 33(5), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, M. Koch, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging – Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, K. Baaske, M. Koch, “Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Wilk, F. Breitfeld, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, “Continuous wave terahertz spectrometer as a noncontact thickness measuring device,” Appl. Opt. 47(16), 3023–3026 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunkel, R.

Künzel, H.

Lampin, J. F.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. W.

N. Kim, Y. A. Leem, H. Ko, M. Y. Jeon, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, D. Lee, K. H. Park, “Widely tunable 1.55-μm detuned dual-mode laser diode for compact continuous-wave THz emitter,” ETRI J. 33(5), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kim, J. Shin, E. Sim, C. W. Lee, D.-S. Yee, M. Y. Jeon, Y. Jang, K. H. Park, “Monolithic dual-mode distributed feedback semiconductor laser for tunable continuous-wave terahertz generation,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13851–13859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

N. Kim, H.-C. Ryu, D. Lee, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, K. Moon, J.-W. Park, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, “Monolithically integrated optical beat sources toward a single-chip broadband terahertz emitter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(8), 085805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Kim, Y. A. Leem, H. Ko, M. Y. Jeon, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, D. Lee, K. H. Park, “Widely tunable 1.55-μm detuned dual-mode laser diode for compact continuous-wave THz emitter,” ETRI J. 33(5), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leem, Y. A.

N. Kim, Y. A. Leem, H. Ko, M. Y. Jeon, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, D. Lee, K. H. Park, “Widely tunable 1.55-μm detuned dual-mode laser diode for compact continuous-wave THz emitter,” ETRI J. 33(5), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M.-H.

Lin, Y.-C.

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-Dependent Complex Conductivities and Dielectric Responses of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films from the Visible to the Far-Infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

Lippens, D.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manquest, C.

Matton, S.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mayorga, I. C.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, “Highly Tunable Fiber-Coupled Photomixers with Coherent Terahertz Output Power,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1301–1309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mikulics, M.

Missous, M.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “Optimization of Photomixers and Antennas for Continuous-Wave Terahertz Emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 717–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

Molvar, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moon, K.

N. Kim, H.-C. Ryu, D. Lee, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, K. Moon, J.-W. Park, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, “Monolithically integrated optical beat sources toward a single-chip broadband terahertz emitter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(8), 085805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Ryu, N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, J.-W. Park, K. Moon, K. H. Park, “Simple and cost-effective thickness measurement terahertz system based on a compact 1.55 μm λ/4 phase-shifted dual-mode laser,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25990–25999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, R.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high-responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mouret, G.

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, A.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett. 16(16), 630–631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, M. Geva, “Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(1), 16–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett. 16(16), 630–631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.-L.

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, C.-L. Pan, “THz conductivities of indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as a graded-refractive-index structure,” Opt. Express 20(S4Suppl 4), A441–A451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-Dependent Complex Conductivities and Dielectric Responses of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films from the Visible to the Far-Infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-W.

N. Kim, H.-C. Ryu, D. Lee, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, K. Moon, J.-W. Park, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, “Monolithically integrated optical beat sources toward a single-chip broadband terahertz emitter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(8), 085805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Ryu, N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, J.-W. Park, K. Moon, K. H. Park, “Simple and cost-effective thickness measurement terahertz system based on a compact 1.55 μm λ/4 phase-shifted dual-mode laser,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25990–25999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K. H.

N. Kim, H.-C. Ryu, D. Lee, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, K. Moon, J.-W. Park, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, “Monolithically integrated optical beat sources toward a single-chip broadband terahertz emitter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(8), 085805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Ryu, N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, J.-W. Park, K. Moon, K. H. Park, “Simple and cost-effective thickness measurement terahertz system based on a compact 1.55 μm λ/4 phase-shifted dual-mode laser,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25990–25999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kim, Y. A. Leem, H. Ko, M. Y. Jeon, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, D. Lee, K. H. Park, “Widely tunable 1.55-μm detuned dual-mode laser diode for compact continuous-wave THz emitter,” ETRI J. 33(5), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kim, J. Shin, E. Sim, C. W. Lee, D.-S. Yee, M. Y. Jeon, Y. Jang, K. H. Park, “Monolithic dual-mode distributed feedback semiconductor laser for tunable continuous-wave terahertz generation,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13851–13859 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pastol, Y.

M. M. Gitin, F. W. Wise, G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, R. C. Compton, “Broad-Band Characterization of Millimeter-Wave Log-Periodic Antennas by Photoconductive Sampling,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 42(3), 335–339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, J.

Provost, J.-G.

J. Renaudier, G.-H. Duan, J.-G. Provost, H. Debregeas-Sillard, P. Gallion, “Phase correlation between longitudinal modes in semiconductor self-pulsating DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 741–743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ravaro, M.

Renaud, C. C.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high-responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renaudier, J.

J. Renaudier, G.-H. Duan, J.-G. Provost, H. Debregeas-Sillard, P. Gallion, “Phase correlation between longitudinal modes in semiconductor self-pulsating DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 741–743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

Robertson, M.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high-responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roehle, H.

Rogers, D.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high-responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roggenbuck, A.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.-C.

N. Kim, H.-C. Ryu, D. Lee, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, K. Moon, J.-W. Park, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, “Monolithically integrated optical beat sources toward a single-chip broadband terahertz emitter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(8), 085805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Ryu, N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, J.-W. Park, K. Moon, K. H. Park, “Simple and cost-effective thickness measurement terahertz system based on a compact 1.55 μm λ/4 phase-shifted dual-mode laser,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25990–25999 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santarelli, G.

Sartorius, B.

Sawanaka, K.

Scalari, G.

Schell, M.

Scheller, M.

M. Scheller, K. Baaske, M. Koch, “Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schlak, M.

Schmidt, D.

Schmitz, H.

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seeds, A. J.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high-responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, J.-M.

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-Dependent Complex Conductivities and Dielectric Responses of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films from the Visible to the Far-Infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

Siegel, P. H.

Sim, E.

Sirtori, C.

Stanze, D.

Taday, P. F.

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive Analysis of Tablet Coating Thicknesses Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

Tribe, W. R.

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “Optimization of Photomixers and Antennas for Continuous-Wave Terahertz Emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 717–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Unlu, M.

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1622 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, “Highly Tunable Fiber-Coupled Photomixers with Coherent Terahertz Output Power,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1301–1309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wada, O.

Wang, N.

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1622 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

Wilk, R.

Wise, F. W.

M. M. Gitin, F. W. Wise, G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, R. C. Compton, “Broad-Band Characterization of Millimeter-Wave Log-Periodic Antennas by Photoconductive Sampling,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 42(3), 335–339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-S.

Yasuda, T.

Yasui, T.

Yee, D.-S.

Yu, P.

C.-S. Yang, C.-H. Chang, M.-H. Lin, P. Yu, O. Wada, C.-L. Pan, “THz conductivities of indium-tin-oxide nanowhiskers as a graded-refractive-index structure,” Opt. Express 20(S4Suppl 4), A441–A451 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-Dependent Complex Conductivities and Dielectric Responses of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films from the Visible to the Far-Infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

S. Wang, X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zimdars, D.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Mouret, S. Matton, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, J. F. Lampin, K. Blary, D. Lippens, “THz media characterization by means of coherent homodyne detection, results and potential applications,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 395–399 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss, M. Geva, “Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(1), 16–18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, K. Baaske, M. Koch, “Multifrequency continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy for absolute thickness determination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett. 16(16), 630–631 (1980).
[CrossRef]

ETRI J. (1)

N. Kim, Y. A. Leem, H. Ko, M. Y. Jeon, C. W. Lee, S.-P. Han, D. Lee, K. H. Park, “Widely tunable 1.55-μm detuned dual-mode laser diode for compact continuous-wave THz emitter,” ETRI J. 33(5), 810–813 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, “Optimization of Photomixers and Antennas for Continuous-Wave Terahertz Emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(5), 717–728 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, Y.-C. Lin, C.-H. Chang, P. Yu, J.-M. Shieh, C.-L. Pan, “Frequency-Dependent Complex Conductivities and Dielectric Responses of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films from the Visible to the Far-Infrared,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1746–1754 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Renaudier, G.-H. Duan, J.-G. Provost, H. Debregeas-Sillard, P. Gallion, “Phase correlation between longitudinal modes in semiconductor self-pulsating DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 741–743 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (1)

M. M. Gitin, F. W. Wise, G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, R. C. Compton, “Broad-Band Characterization of Millimeter-Wave Log-Periodic Antennas by Photoconductive Sampling,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 42(3), 335–339 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, “Highly Tunable Fiber-Coupled Photomixers with Coherent Terahertz Output Power,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45(8), 1301–1309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, B. E. Cole, P. F. Taday, “Nondestructive Analysis of Tablet Coating Thicknesses Using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging,” J. Pharm. Sci. 94(1), 177–183 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Wang, X.-C. Zhang, “Pulsed terahertz tomography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(4), R1–R36 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, M. Koch, “Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging – Modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Kim, H.-C. Ryu, D. Lee, S.-P. Han, H. Ko, K. Moon, J.-W. Park, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, “Monolithically integrated optical beat sources toward a single-chip broadband terahertz emitter,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(8), 085805 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1622 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

A. Roggenbuck, H. Schmitz, A. Deninger, I. C. Mayorga, J. Hemberger, R. Güsten, M. Grüninger, “Coherent broadband continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy on solid-state samples,” New J. Phys. 12(4), 043017 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high-responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-traveling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 6194, 61940C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995), Chap. 5.

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Mode beat frequency as a function of the power dissipation of the μ-heaters. Since the resistance of the μ-heater is centered at 100 Ω, 0.4 W of power dissipation corresponds to the current of 20 mA. Blue lines represent the linear fittings for the measurements. (b) The electrical spectra of the optical beating between one of the lasing mode of the DML output and a reference tunable laser, shown as a function of the μ-heater current.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A schematic of the 1.3μm DML-based CW THz system. (b) Frequency-scan results as a function of the lock-in amplifier time constant, which is identical to the measurement time for a single point. The setting resolution was 1 GHz, and the number of measurement points for a single scan is 830. The pure measurement time for a bandwidth of 0.8 THz is less than 3 seconds for a time constant of 0.1 ms. (c) Single-frame excerpts from vided recordings for tc = 10 ms measurement (Media 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A photograph of the experimental setup. The inset shows a photograph of the DML module. (b) Frequency scanning results. The time constant (tc) of the lock-in amplifier was 300ms. A single measurement requires 4 min at tc = 300 ms. At 10 ms of time constant, full bandwidth measurement took about 5 seconds.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Amplitude and (b) phase spectra measured for air, glass, and ITO coated glass, obtained at tc = 300 ms. After correction, the phase spectra show good linearity. The inset of (a) compares measured raw data for tc = 300 ms (solid lines) and tc = 10 ms (dashed lines).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Complex refractive index of the ITO layer. The dotted lines are reference TDS measurement results, and the solid lines are results from the CW THz system. (b) Sheet conductivity of the ITO layer. The black dashed line represents the reference TDS results, and the red squares represent the CW THz spectroscopy results at a time constant of 300 ms. The Blue triangles and green diamonds represent results for time constants of 10 ms and 3 ms, respectively.

Equations (6)

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E THz (ω)= 4nA(ω) e iφ(ω) e i ω c 0 [ L opt +(n1) d sample ] (n+1) 2 + (n1) 2 e i 2ω c 0 n d sample
E opt (ω)= B 0 e i ω c 0 ( L opt +ΔL) ,
δ=[ (n1) d sample ΔL ]ω/ c 0 +φ(ω).
d sample = c 0 ( S sample S air )/(n1),
Δ f Δδ=π = c 0 2 [ (n1) d sample ΔL ] 1 .
E ITO E glass = 4 n ITO e iω d ITO ( n ITO 1 )/ c 0 ( n ITO +1 ) 2 + ( n ITO 1 ) 2 e 2iω n ITO d ITO / c 0

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