Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel ultra-long range and sensitive distributed fiber vibration sensor. Only one unidirectional Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is employed in this scheme as the sensing element. In this sensor structure, we utilize chromatic dispersion-induced walk-off effect between the vibration signals sensed by two distributed feedback (DFB) lasers at different wavelengths to locate the vibration position. Vibration signals with frequencies up to 9MHz can be detected and the spatial resolution of 31m is achieved over 320km of the standard single mode fiber. Monitoring multiple vibration sources can also be realized using this scheme.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Lan, C. Zhang, L. Li, G. Luo, C. Li, “Perimeter security system based on fiber optic disturbance sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6830, Advanced Sensor Systems and Applications III, 68300J (2007).
  3. J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 838, 325–328 (1987).
  4. A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, B. M. Lacquet, “Modified Sagnac/Mach-Zehnder interferometer for distributed disturbance sensing,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 34–36 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. J. Russell, K. R. C. Brady, J. P. Dakin, “Real-time location of multiple time-varying strain disturbances acting over a 40km fiber section using a novel dual-Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(2), 205–213 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Fang, “Fiber-optic distributed sensing by a two-loop Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21(6), 444–446 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Kondrat, M. Szustakowski, N. Palka, W. Ciurapinski, M. Zyczkowski, “A Sagnac-Michelson fiber optic interferometer: signal processing for disturtance localization,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 15(3), 127–132 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Hong, J. Wu, C. Zuo, F. Liu, H. Guo, K. Xu, “Dual Michelson interferometers for distributed vibration detection,” Appl. Opt. 50(22), 4333–4338 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (1)

2011 (2)

X. Hong, J. Wu, C. Zuo, F. Liu, H. Guo, K. Xu, “Dual Michelson interferometers for distributed vibration detection,” Appl. Opt. 50(22), 4333–4338 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yuan, Y. Dong, “Loop topology based white light interferometric fiber optic sensor network for application of perimeter security,” Photonic Sensors 1(3), 260–267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

M. Kondrat, M. Szustakowski, N. Palka, W. Ciurapinski, M. Zyczkowski, “A Sagnac-Michelson fiber optic interferometer: signal processing for disturtance localization,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 15(3), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Lan, C. Zhang, L. Li, G. Luo, C. Li, “Perimeter security system based on fiber optic disturbance sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6830, Advanced Sensor Systems and Applications III, 68300J (2007).

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, B. M. Lacquet, “Modified Sagnac/Mach-Zehnder interferometer for distributed disturbance sensing,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 34–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

X. Fang, “A variable-loop Sagnac interferometer for distributed impact sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2250–2254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Fang, “Fiber-optic distributed sensing by a two-loop Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21(6), 444–446 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 838, 325–328 (1987).

Bao, X.

Bernini, R.

Brady, K. R. C.

Chen, L.

Choi, K. N.

Chtcherbakov, A. A.

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, B. M. Lacquet, “Modified Sagnac/Mach-Zehnder interferometer for distributed disturbance sensing,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 34–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ciurapinski, W.

M. Kondrat, M. Szustakowski, N. Palka, W. Ciurapinski, M. Zyczkowski, “A Sagnac-Michelson fiber optic interferometer: signal processing for disturtance localization,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 15(3), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dakin, J. P.

S. J. Russell, K. R. C. Brady, J. P. Dakin, “Real-time location of multiple time-varying strain disturbances acting over a 40km fiber section using a novel dual-Sagnac interferometer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(2), 205–213 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 838, 325–328 (1987).

Dong, Y.

L. Yuan, Y. Dong, “Loop topology based white light interferometric fiber optic sensor network for application of perimeter security,” Photonic Sensors 1(3), 260–267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X.

X. Fang, “A variable-loop Sagnac interferometer for distributed impact sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(10), 2250–2254 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Fang, “Fiber-optic distributed sensing by a two-loop Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 21(6), 444–446 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

He, Q.

Hong, X.

Juarez, J. C.

Kondrat, M.

M. Kondrat, M. Szustakowski, N. Palka, W. Ciurapinski, M. Zyczkowski, “A Sagnac-Michelson fiber optic interferometer: signal processing for disturtance localization,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 15(3), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lacquet, B. M.

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, B. M. Lacquet, “Modified Sagnac/Mach-Zehnder interferometer for distributed disturbance sensing,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 34–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lan, T.

T. Lan, C. Zhang, L. Li, G. Luo, C. Li, “Perimeter security system based on fiber optic disturbance sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6830, Advanced Sensor Systems and Applications III, 68300J (2007).

Li, C.

T. Lan, C. Zhang, L. Li, G. Luo, C. Li, “Perimeter security system based on fiber optic disturbance sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6830, Advanced Sensor Systems and Applications III, 68300J (2007).

Li, L.

T. Lan, C. Zhang, L. Li, G. Luo, C. Li, “Perimeter security system based on fiber optic disturbance sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6830, Advanced Sensor Systems and Applications III, 68300J (2007).

Liu, F.

Lu, Y.

Luo, G.

T. Lan, C. Zhang, L. Li, G. Luo, C. Li, “Perimeter security system based on fiber optic disturbance sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6830, Advanced Sensor Systems and Applications III, 68300J (2007).

Maier, E. W.

Minardo, A.

Palka, N.

M. Kondrat, M. Szustakowski, N. Palka, W. Ciurapinski, M. Zyczkowski, “A Sagnac-Michelson fiber optic interferometer: signal processing for disturtance localization,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 15(3), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, D. A. J.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 838, 325–328 (1987).

Russell, S. J.

Spammer, S. J.

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, B. M. Lacquet, “Modified Sagnac/Mach-Zehnder interferometer for distributed disturbance sensing,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 34–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Strong, A. P.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 838, 325–328 (1987).

Swart, P. L.

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, B. M. Lacquet, “Modified Sagnac/Mach-Zehnder interferometer for distributed disturbance sensing,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 34–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Szustakowski, M.

M. Kondrat, M. Szustakowski, N. Palka, W. Ciurapinski, M. Zyczkowski, “A Sagnac-Michelson fiber optic interferometer: signal processing for disturtance localization,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 15(3), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

Wade, C. A.

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 838, 325–328 (1987).

Wu, J.

Xiao, X.

Xu, K.

Yuan, L.

L. Yuan, Y. Dong, “Loop topology based white light interferometric fiber optic sensor network for application of perimeter security,” Photonic Sensors 1(3), 260–267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeni, L.

Zhang, C.

T. Lan, C. Zhang, L. Li, G. Luo, C. Li, “Perimeter security system based on fiber optic disturbance sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6830, Advanced Sensor Systems and Applications III, 68300J (2007).

Zhang, Z.

Zhu, T.

Zuo, C.

Zyczkowski, M.

M. Kondrat, M. Szustakowski, N. Palka, W. Ciurapinski, M. Zyczkowski, “A Sagnac-Michelson fiber optic interferometer: signal processing for disturtance localization,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 15(3), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. A. Chtcherbakov, P. L. Swart, S. J. Spammer, B. M. Lacquet, “Modified Sagnac/Mach-Zehnder interferometer for distributed disturbance sensing,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 20(1), 34–36 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

M. Kondrat, M. Szustakowski, N. Palka, W. Ciurapinski, M. Zyczkowski, “A Sagnac-Michelson fiber optic interferometer: signal processing for disturtance localization,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 15(3), 127–132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Photonic Sensors (1)

L. Yuan, Y. Dong, “Loop topology based white light interferometric fiber optic sensor network for application of perimeter security,” Photonic Sensors 1(3), 260–267 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. P. Dakin, D. A. J. Pearce, A. P. Strong, C. A. Wade, “A novel distributed optical fibre sensing system enabling location of disturbances in a Sagnac loop interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 838, 325–328 (1987).

Proc. SPIE 6830, Advanced Sensor Systems and Applications (1)

T. Lan, C. Zhang, L. Li, G. Luo, C. Li, “Perimeter security system based on fiber optic disturbance sensor,” Proc. SPIE 6830, Advanced Sensor Systems and Applications III, 68300J (2007).

Other (2)

B. Kizlik, “Fibre optic distributed sensor in Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration,” in Modern Problems of Radio Engineering, TCSET, Proceedings of the International Conference (2002), 128–130.

S. M. Kay, Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing: Estimation Theory (Prentice-Hall, 1993).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Operation principle and experimental setup of distributed vibration sensor.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of signal processing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-correlation values of burst mode vibration signal for different locations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The location error results for variable vibration signals (b) and (c) estimation variance of time delay and location errors at different SNRs and vibration frequency as the vibration source placed at 50km, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Cross-correlation values output from the correlator. The estimation errors obtained from the experiment at different (b) vibration frequencies and (c) vibration locations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Superimposed cross-correlation values for dual vibration signals.

Equations (5)

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I( t )=R [ Re( E r + E s ) ] MeanSquare =R[ 1 2 | A r | 2 + 1 2 | A s | 2 +| A s A r |cos(ξ(t)) ]
L m = ΔT / D| λ 2 λ 1 | .
V a r ( Δ T ) 1 ε N 0 / 2 F 2 = 1 SNR F 2
ε = I 2 ( t ) d t
F 2 = ( 2 π f ) 2 | I ( f ) | 2 d f / | I ( f ) | 2 d f

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