Abstract

Two single-waveband low-light radiometers were developed to characterize properties of the underwater light field relevant to biological camouflage at mesopelagic ocean depths. Phenomena of interest were vertical changes in downward irradiance of ambient light at wavelengths near 470 nm and 560 nm, and flashes from bioluminescent organisms. Depth profiles were acquired at multiple deep stations in different geographic regions. Results indicate significant irradiance magnitudes at 560 nm, providing direct evidence of energy transfer as described by Raman scattering. Analysis of a night profile yielded multiple examples of bioluminescent flashes. The selection of high-sensitivity, high-speed silicon photomultipliers as detectors enabled measurement of spectrally-resolved irradiance to greater than 400 m depth.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  3. E. J. Denton and M. F. Land, “Mechanism of reflexion in silvery layers of fish and cephalopods,” P. R. Soc. B 178, 43–61 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Johnsen, “Cryptic and conspicuous coloration in the pelagic environment,” P. R. Soc. B 269, 243–256 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Johnsen, “Lifting the cloak of invisibility: The effects of changing optical conditions on pelagic crypsis,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43, 580–590 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Johnsen and H. M. Sosik, “Cryptic coloration and mirrored sides as camouflage strategies in near-surface pelagic habitats: Implications for foraging and predator avoidance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 1277–1288 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. L. Holt, A. M. Sweeney, S. Johnsen, and D. E. Morse, “A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid squid eyes,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8, 1386–1399 (2011).
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  9. L. Li, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Characterization of the solar light field within the ocean mesopelagic zone based on radiative transfer simulations,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 87, 53–69 (2014).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. G. L. Clarke and G. K. Wertheim, “Measurements of illumination at great depths and at night in the Atlantic Ocean by means of a new bathyphotometer,” Deep Sea Res. 3, 189–205 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. P. Boden, E. M. Kampa, and J. M. Snodgrass, “Underwater daylight measurements in the Bay of Biscay,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 39, 227–238 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. M. Kampa, “Underwater daylight and moonlight measurements in the eastern North Atlantic,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 50, 397–420 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Johnsen, “The red and the black: bioluminescence and the color of animals in the deep sea,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 45, 234–246 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. E. Nilsson, E J. Warrant, S. Johnsen, R. Hanlon, and N. Shashar, “A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid,” Curr. Biol. 22, 683–688 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. I. Latz, T. M. Frank, M. R. Bowlby, E. A. Widder, and J. F. Case, “Variability in flash characteristics of a bioluminescent copepod,” Biol. Bull. 173, 489–503 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. R. Bowlby and J. F. Case, “Flash kinetics and spatial patterns of bioluminescence in the copepod Gaussia princeps,” Mar. Biol. 110, 329–336 (1991).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  20. C. M. Herren, S. H. D. Haddock, C. Johnson, C. M. Orrico, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “A multi-platform bathyphotometer for fine-scale, coastal bioluminescence research,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 247–262 (2005).
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  26. E. Warrant, “Vision in the dimmest habitats on Earth,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 190, 765–789 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. Johnsen, M. Candeloro, J. Berge, and M. Moline, “Glowing in the dark: Discriminating patterns of bioluminescence from different taxa during the Arctic polar night,” Polar Biol. 37, 707–713 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. H. D. Haddock, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “Bioluminescence in the sea,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 2, 443–493 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  29. K. T. Son and C. C. Lee, “Multiple-target laser rangefinding receiver using a silicon photomultiplier array,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59, 3005–3011 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. Li, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Characterization of the solar light field within the ocean mesopelagic zone based on radiative transfer simulations,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 87, 53–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Johnsen, M. Candeloro, J. Berge, and M. Moline, “Glowing in the dark: Discriminating patterns of bioluminescence from different taxa during the Arctic polar night,” Polar Biol. 37, 707–713 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

D. E. Nilsson, E J. Warrant, S. Johnsen, R. Hanlon, and N. Shashar, “A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid,” Curr. Biol. 22, 683–688 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

A. L. Holt, A. M. Sweeney, S. Johnsen, and D. E. Morse, “A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid squid eyes,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8, 1386–1399 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

S. H. D. Haddock, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “Bioluminescence in the sea,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 2, 443–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. T. Son and C. C. Lee, “Multiple-target laser rangefinding receiver using a silicon photomultiplier array,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59, 3005–3011 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. M. Herren, S. H. D. Haddock, C. Johnson, C. M. Orrico, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “A multi-platform bathyphotometer for fine-scale, coastal bioluminescence research,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 247–262 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Johnsen, “The red and the black: bioluminescence and the color of animals in the deep sea,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 45, 234–246 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

E. J. Warrant and N. A. Locket, “Vision in the deep sea,” Biol. Rev. 79, 671–712 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Warrant, “Vision in the dimmest habitats on Earth,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 190, 765–789 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Johnsen, “Lifting the cloak of invisibility: The effects of changing optical conditions on pelagic crypsis,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43, 580–590 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Johnsen and H. M. Sosik, “Cryptic coloration and mirrored sides as camouflage strategies in near-surface pelagic habitats: Implications for foraging and predator avoidance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 1277–1288 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Johnsen, “Cryptic and conspicuous coloration in the pelagic environment,” P. R. Soc. B 269, 243–256 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. A. Widder and S. Johnsen, “3D spatial point patterns of bioluminescent plankton: A map of the ‘minefield’,” ,J. Plankton Res. 22, 409–420 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

M. R. Bowlby and J. F. Case, “Flash kinetics and spatial patterns of bioluminescence in the copepod Gaussia princeps,” Mar. Biol. 110, 329–336 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

M. I. Latz, T. M. Frank, M. R. Bowlby, E. A. Widder, and J. F. Case, “Variability in flash characteristics of a bioluminescent copepod,” Biol. Bull. 173, 489–503 (1987).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

J. J. Childress, “Effects of pressure, temperature and oxygen on the oxygen-consumption rate of the midwater copepod Gaussia princeps,” Mar. Biol. 39, 19–24 (1977).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

E. J. Denton and M. F. Land, “Mechanism of reflexion in silvery layers of fish and cephalopods,” P. R. Soc. B 178, 43–61 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (2)

E. J. Denton, “On the organization of reflecting surfaces in some marine animals,” Philos. T. R. Soc. B 258, 285–313 (1970).
[Crossref]

E. M. Kampa, “Underwater daylight and moonlight measurements in the eastern North Atlantic,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 50, 397–420 (1970).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

B. P. Boden, E. M. Kampa, and J. M. Snodgrass, “Underwater daylight measurements in the Bay of Biscay,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 39, 227–238 (1960).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

G. L. Clarke and G. K. Wertheim, “Measurements of illumination at great depths and at night in the Atlantic Ocean by means of a new bathyphotometer,” Deep Sea Res. 3, 189–205 (1956).
[Crossref]

Berge, J.

G. Johnsen, M. Candeloro, J. Berge, and M. Moline, “Glowing in the dark: Discriminating patterns of bioluminescence from different taxa during the Arctic polar night,” Polar Biol. 37, 707–713 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boden, B. P.

B. P. Boden, E. M. Kampa, and J. M. Snodgrass, “Underwater daylight measurements in the Bay of Biscay,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 39, 227–238 (1960).
[Crossref]

Bowlby, M. R.

M. R. Bowlby and J. F. Case, “Flash kinetics and spatial patterns of bioluminescence in the copepod Gaussia princeps,” Mar. Biol. 110, 329–336 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. I. Latz, T. M. Frank, M. R. Bowlby, E. A. Widder, and J. F. Case, “Variability in flash characteristics of a bioluminescent copepod,” Biol. Bull. 173, 489–503 (1987).
[Crossref]

Buzhan, P.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Caimi, F. M.

E. A. Widder, F. M. Caimi, L. D. Taylor, and R. Tusting, “Design and development of an autocalibrating radiometer for deep sea biooptical studies,” in Proceedings of OCEANS ‘92, Mastering the Oceans Through Technology. (IEEE, 1992), pp. 525–530.
[Crossref]

Candeloro, M.

G. Johnsen, M. Candeloro, J. Berge, and M. Moline, “Glowing in the dark: Discriminating patterns of bioluminescence from different taxa during the Arctic polar night,” Polar Biol. 37, 707–713 (2014).
[Crossref]

Case, J. F.

S. H. D. Haddock, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “Bioluminescence in the sea,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 2, 443–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. M. Herren, S. H. D. Haddock, C. Johnson, C. M. Orrico, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “A multi-platform bathyphotometer for fine-scale, coastal bioluminescence research,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 247–262 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. R. Bowlby and J. F. Case, “Flash kinetics and spatial patterns of bioluminescence in the copepod Gaussia princeps,” Mar. Biol. 110, 329–336 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. I. Latz, T. M. Frank, M. R. Bowlby, E. A. Widder, and J. F. Case, “Variability in flash characteristics of a bioluminescent copepod,” Biol. Bull. 173, 489–503 (1987).
[Crossref]

Childress, J. J.

J. J. Childress, “Effects of pressure, temperature and oxygen on the oxygen-consumption rate of the midwater copepod Gaussia princeps,” Mar. Biol. 39, 19–24 (1977).
[Crossref]

Clarke, G. L.

G. L. Clarke and G. K. Wertheim, “Measurements of illumination at great depths and at night in the Atlantic Ocean by means of a new bathyphotometer,” Deep Sea Res. 3, 189–205 (1956).
[Crossref]

Denton, E. J.

E. J. Denton and M. F. Land, “Mechanism of reflexion in silvery layers of fish and cephalopods,” P. R. Soc. B 178, 43–61 (1971).
[Crossref]

E. J. Denton, “On the organization of reflecting surfaces in some marine animals,” Philos. T. R. Soc. B 258, 285–313 (1970).
[Crossref]

Dolgoshein, B.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Filatov, L.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Frank, T. M.

M. I. Latz, T. M. Frank, M. R. Bowlby, E. A. Widder, and J. F. Case, “Variability in flash characteristics of a bioluminescent copepod,” Biol. Bull. 173, 489–503 (1987).
[Crossref]

Fry, E. S.

Ginsberg, I. W.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance (National Bureau of Standards (U.S.), 1977), Monograph 160.

Guerrieri, F.

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haag, J. M.

Haddock, S. H. D.

S. H. D. Haddock, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “Bioluminescence in the sea,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 2, 443–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. M. Herren, S. H. D. Haddock, C. Johnson, C. M. Orrico, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “A multi-platform bathyphotometer for fine-scale, coastal bioluminescence research,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 247–262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hanlon, R.

D. E. Nilsson, E J. Warrant, S. Johnsen, R. Hanlon, and N. Shashar, “A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid,” Curr. Biol. 22, 683–688 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herren, C. M.

C. M. Herren, S. H. D. Haddock, C. Johnson, C. M. Orrico, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “A multi-platform bathyphotometer for fine-scale, coastal bioluminescence research,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 247–262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Holt, A. L.

A. L. Holt, A. M. Sweeney, S. Johnsen, and D. E. Morse, “A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid squid eyes,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8, 1386–1399 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsia, J. J.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance (National Bureau of Standards (U.S.), 1977), Monograph 160.

Ilyin, A.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jaffe, J. S.

Johnsen, G.

G. Johnsen, M. Candeloro, J. Berge, and M. Moline, “Glowing in the dark: Discriminating patterns of bioluminescence from different taxa during the Arctic polar night,” Polar Biol. 37, 707–713 (2014).
[Crossref]

Johnsen, S.

D. E. Nilsson, E J. Warrant, S. Johnsen, R. Hanlon, and N. Shashar, “A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid,” Curr. Biol. 22, 683–688 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Holt, A. M. Sweeney, S. Johnsen, and D. E. Morse, “A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid squid eyes,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8, 1386–1399 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Johnsen, “The red and the black: bioluminescence and the color of animals in the deep sea,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 45, 234–246 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Johnsen, “Lifting the cloak of invisibility: The effects of changing optical conditions on pelagic crypsis,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43, 580–590 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Johnsen and H. M. Sosik, “Cryptic coloration and mirrored sides as camouflage strategies in near-surface pelagic habitats: Implications for foraging and predator avoidance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 1277–1288 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Johnsen, “Cryptic and conspicuous coloration in the pelagic environment,” P. R. Soc. B 269, 243–256 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. A. Widder and S. Johnsen, “3D spatial point patterns of bioluminescent plankton: A map of the ‘minefield’,” ,J. Plankton Res. 22, 409–420 (2000).
[Crossref]

Johnson, C.

C. M. Herren, S. H. D. Haddock, C. Johnson, C. M. Orrico, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “A multi-platform bathyphotometer for fine-scale, coastal bioluminescence research,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 247–262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kampa, E. M.

E. M. Kampa, “Underwater daylight and moonlight measurements in the eastern North Atlantic,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 50, 397–420 (1970).
[Crossref]

B. P. Boden, E. M. Kampa, and J. M. Snodgrass, “Underwater daylight measurements in the Bay of Biscay,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 39, 227–238 (1960).
[Crossref]

Kantzerov, V.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kaplin, V.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Karakash, A.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kasunic, K. J.

K. J. Kasunic, Optical Systems Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 2011).

Kayumov, F.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Klemin, S.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Land, M. F.

E. J. Denton and M. F. Land, “Mechanism of reflexion in silvery layers of fish and cephalopods,” P. R. Soc. B 178, 43–61 (1971).
[Crossref]

Latz, M. I.

M. I. Latz, T. M. Frank, M. R. Bowlby, E. A. Widder, and J. F. Case, “Variability in flash characteristics of a bioluminescent copepod,” Biol. Bull. 173, 489–503 (1987).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. C.

K. T. Son and C. C. Lee, “Multiple-target laser rangefinding receiver using a silicon photomultiplier array,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59, 3005–3011 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Characterization of the solar light field within the ocean mesopelagic zone based on radiative transfer simulations,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 87, 53–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

Limperis, T.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance (National Bureau of Standards (U.S.), 1977), Monograph 160.

Locket, N. A.

E. J. Warrant and N. A. Locket, “Vision in the deep sea,” Biol. Rev. 79, 671–712 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

Moline, M.

G. Johnsen, M. Candeloro, J. Berge, and M. Moline, “Glowing in the dark: Discriminating patterns of bioluminescence from different taxa during the Arctic polar night,” Polar Biol. 37, 707–713 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moline, M. A.

S. H. D. Haddock, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “Bioluminescence in the sea,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 2, 443–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. M. Herren, S. H. D. Haddock, C. Johnson, C. M. Orrico, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “A multi-platform bathyphotometer for fine-scale, coastal bioluminescence research,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 247–262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Morse, D. E.

A. L. Holt, A. M. Sweeney, S. Johnsen, and D. E. Morse, “A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid squid eyes,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8, 1386–1399 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicodemus, F. E.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance (National Bureau of Standards (U.S.), 1977), Monograph 160.

Nilsson, D. E.

D. E. Nilsson, E J. Warrant, S. Johnsen, R. Hanlon, and N. Shashar, “A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid,” Curr. Biol. 22, 683–688 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orrico, C. M.

C. M. Herren, S. H. D. Haddock, C. Johnson, C. M. Orrico, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “A multi-platform bathyphotometer for fine-scale, coastal bioluminescence research,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 247–262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pope, R. M.

Popova, E.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, R. A.

L. Li, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Characterization of the solar light field within the ocean mesopelagic zone based on radiative transfer simulations,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 87, 53–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

Richmond, J. C.

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance (National Bureau of Standards (U.S.), 1977), Monograph 160.

Shashar, N.

D. E. Nilsson, E J. Warrant, S. Johnsen, R. Hanlon, and N. Shashar, “A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid,” Curr. Biol. 22, 683–688 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smirnov, S.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Snodgrass, J. M.

B. P. Boden, E. M. Kampa, and J. M. Snodgrass, “Underwater daylight measurements in the Bay of Biscay,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 39, 227–238 (1960).
[Crossref]

Son, K. T.

K. T. Son and C. C. Lee, “Multiple-target laser rangefinding receiver using a silicon photomultiplier array,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59, 3005–3011 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sosik, H. M.

S. Johnsen and H. M. Sosik, “Cryptic coloration and mirrored sides as camouflage strategies in near-surface pelagic habitats: Implications for foraging and predator avoidance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 1277–1288 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stramski, D.

L. Li, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Characterization of the solar light field within the ocean mesopelagic zone based on radiative transfer simulations,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 87, 53–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sweeney, A. M.

J. M. Haag, J. S. Jaffe, and A. M. Sweeney, “Measurement system for marine animal reflectance functions,” Opt. Express 21, 3603–3616 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Holt, A. M. Sweeney, S. Johnsen, and D. E. Morse, “A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid squid eyes,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8, 1386–1399 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, L. D.

E. A. Widder, F. M. Caimi, L. D. Taylor, and R. Tusting, “Design and development of an autocalibrating radiometer for deep sea biooptical studies,” in Proceedings of OCEANS ‘92, Mastering the Oceans Through Technology. (IEEE, 1992), pp. 525–530.
[Crossref]

Tisa, S.

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tosi, A.

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tusting, R.

E. A. Widder, F. M. Caimi, L. D. Taylor, and R. Tusting, “Design and development of an autocalibrating radiometer for deep sea biooptical studies,” in Proceedings of OCEANS ‘92, Mastering the Oceans Through Technology. (IEEE, 1992), pp. 525–530.
[Crossref]

Warrant, E J.

D. E. Nilsson, E J. Warrant, S. Johnsen, R. Hanlon, and N. Shashar, “A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid,” Curr. Biol. 22, 683–688 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warrant, E.

E. Warrant, “Vision in the dimmest habitats on Earth,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 190, 765–789 (2004).
[Crossref]

Warrant, E. J.

E. J. Warrant and N. A. Locket, “Vision in the deep sea,” Biol. Rev. 79, 671–712 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wertheim, G. K.

G. L. Clarke and G. K. Wertheim, “Measurements of illumination at great depths and at night in the Atlantic Ocean by means of a new bathyphotometer,” Deep Sea Res. 3, 189–205 (1956).
[Crossref]

Widder, E. A.

E. A. Widder and S. Johnsen, “3D spatial point patterns of bioluminescent plankton: A map of the ‘minefield’,” ,J. Plankton Res. 22, 409–420 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. I. Latz, T. M. Frank, M. R. Bowlby, E. A. Widder, and J. F. Case, “Variability in flash characteristics of a bioluminescent copepod,” Biol. Bull. 173, 489–503 (1987).
[Crossref]

E. A. Widder, F. M. Caimi, L. D. Taylor, and R. Tusting, “Design and development of an autocalibrating radiometer for deep sea biooptical studies,” in Proceedings of OCEANS ‘92, Mastering the Oceans Through Technology. (IEEE, 1992), pp. 525–530.
[Crossref]

Zappa, F.

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
[Crossref]

,J. Plankton Res. (1)

E. A. Widder and S. Johnsen, “3D spatial point patterns of bioluminescent plankton: A map of the ‘minefield’,” ,J. Plankton Res. 22, 409–420 (2000).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (1)

S. H. D. Haddock, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “Bioluminescence in the sea,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 2, 443–493 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biol. Bull. (1)

M. I. Latz, T. M. Frank, M. R. Bowlby, E. A. Widder, and J. F. Case, “Variability in flash characteristics of a bioluminescent copepod,” Biol. Bull. 173, 489–503 (1987).
[Crossref]

Biol. Rev. (1)

E. J. Warrant and N. A. Locket, “Vision in the deep sea,” Biol. Rev. 79, 671–712 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Biol. (1)

D. E. Nilsson, E J. Warrant, S. Johnsen, R. Hanlon, and N. Shashar, “A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid,” Curr. Biol. 22, 683–688 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deep Sea Res. (1)

G. L. Clarke and G. K. Wertheim, “Measurements of illumination at great depths and at night in the Atlantic Ocean by means of a new bathyphotometer,” Deep Sea Res. 3, 189–205 (1956).
[Crossref]

Deep Sea Res., Part I (1)

L. Li, D. Stramski, and R. A. Reynolds, “Characterization of the solar light field within the ocean mesopelagic zone based on radiative transfer simulations,” Deep Sea Res., Part I 87, 53–69 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photon. J. 2, 759–774 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

K. T. Son and C. C. Lee, “Multiple-target laser rangefinding receiver using a silicon photomultiplier array,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 59, 3005–3011 (2010).
[Crossref]

Integr. Comp. Biol. (2)

S. Johnsen, “The red and the black: bioluminescence and the color of animals in the deep sea,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 45, 234–246 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Johnsen, “Lifting the cloak of invisibility: The effects of changing optical conditions on pelagic crypsis,” Integr. Comp. Biol. 43, 580–590 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Physiol. A (1)

E. Warrant, “Vision in the dimmest habitats on Earth,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 190, 765–789 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. (2)

B. P. Boden, E. M. Kampa, and J. M. Snodgrass, “Underwater daylight measurements in the Bay of Biscay,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 39, 227–238 (1960).
[Crossref]

E. M. Kampa, “Underwater daylight and moonlight measurements in the eastern North Atlantic,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U. K. 50, 397–420 (1970).
[Crossref]

J. R. Soc. Interface (1)

A. L. Holt, A. M. Sweeney, S. Johnsen, and D. E. Morse, “A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid squid eyes,” J. R. Soc. Interface 8, 1386–1399 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

S. Johnsen and H. M. Sosik, “Cryptic coloration and mirrored sides as camouflage strategies in near-surface pelagic habitats: Implications for foraging and predator avoidance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 1277–1288 (2003).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods (1)

C. M. Herren, S. H. D. Haddock, C. Johnson, C. M. Orrico, M. A. Moline, and J. F. Case, “A multi-platform bathyphotometer for fine-scale, coastal bioluminescence research,” Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 3, 247–262 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mar. Biol. (2)

J. J. Childress, “Effects of pressure, temperature and oxygen on the oxygen-consumption rate of the midwater copepod Gaussia princeps,” Mar. Biol. 39, 19–24 (1977).
[Crossref]

M. R. Bowlby and J. F. Case, “Flash kinetics and spatial patterns of bioluminescence in the copepod Gaussia princeps,” Mar. Biol. 110, 329–336 (1991).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A (1)

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantzerov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 504, 48–52 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

P. R. Soc. B (2)

E. J. Denton and M. F. Land, “Mechanism of reflexion in silvery layers of fish and cephalopods,” P. R. Soc. B 178, 43–61 (1971).
[Crossref]

S. Johnsen, “Cryptic and conspicuous coloration in the pelagic environment,” P. R. Soc. B 269, 243–256 (2002).
[Crossref]

Philos. T. R. Soc. B (1)

E. J. Denton, “On the organization of reflecting surfaces in some marine animals,” Philos. T. R. Soc. B 258, 285–313 (1970).
[Crossref]

Polar Biol. (1)

G. Johnsen, M. Candeloro, J. Berge, and M. Moline, “Glowing in the dark: Discriminating patterns of bioluminescence from different taxa during the Arctic polar night,” Polar Biol. 37, 707–713 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

K. J. Kasunic, Optical Systems Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 2011).

F. E. Nicodemus, J. C. Richmond, J. J. Hsia, I. W. Ginsberg, and T. Limperis, Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance (National Bureau of Standards (U.S.), 1977), Monograph 160.

E. A. Widder, F. M. Caimi, L. D. Taylor, and R. Tusting, “Design and development of an autocalibrating radiometer for deep sea biooptical studies,” in Proceedings of OCEANS ‘92, Mastering the Oceans Through Technology. (IEEE, 1992), pp. 525–530.
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of predator-prey visual ecology problem described in text. Solar radiance Ls incident on the sea surface results in a transmitted radiance Lt, which contributes to the underwater background radiance Lb. Background radiance Lb is scattered by the prey animal, resulting in a reflected radiance Lr. A potential predator may detect both radiance quantities, such that perfect camouflage occurs for Lr = Lb.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic showing system components, including acrylic optical port (window) P, engineered diffuser D, lenses L1 and L2, spectral filter S, and detector module M.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral response data for both radiometer systems. Response curves are included for the acrylic port (red line), blue and green filters (dark blue and green dashed lines), and MPPC detectors (light blue and green solid lines). Gray shaded regions represent total spectral response for each system (dark blue and green solid lines).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured nonlinear response for each radiometer system. Input power is normalized to saturation level of the blue-filtered radiometer. Nonlinear curves are included for the blue-filtered radiometer (blue dash-cross line) with saturation level (blue solid line) and green-filtered radiometer (green dash-cross line) with saturation level (green solid line).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross-calibration results from comparing downward irradiance measurements from Satlantic radiometer package (light blue and green solid lines) with low-light radiometer values (dark blue and green dashed lines). Low-light radiometer values are shown after adjustment by the estimated absolute scale factor.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mesopelagic light meter (MLM) field deployment package, including two low-light radiometers, absorption/attenuation meter with data handler, and rechargeable battery pack. (a) Actual photograph. (b) Component diagram.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Irradiance depth profiles for mesopelagic light meter system deployed in the San Diego Trough. (a) Log irradiance. (b) Diffuse attenuation functions. (c) Log ratio of blue and green irradiance profiles. (d) Optical signal-to-noise ratio calculated over 10 cm depth intervals.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Irradiance depth profiles for mesopelagic light meter system deployed in the western Atlantic, east of Guadeloupe. (a) Log irradiance. (b) Diffuse attenuation functions. (c) Log ratio of blue and green irradiance profiles. (d) Optical signal-to-noise ratio calculated over 10 cm depth intervals.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Example segments from irradiance time series of in situ bioluminescence observed at depth under a moonlit sky. Subfigures are sorted in order of descending peak magnitude. Noise level represents limitations of the system as configured.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Radiometer optical and detector design specifications.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Radiometer measurement-derived specifications.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E d ( x , t , λ ) = ϕ = 0 2 π θ = 0 π / 2 L ( x , t , θ , ϕ , λ ) | cos θ | sin θ d θ d ϕ
Φ = T λ L λ A p Ω p d λ T λ L λ A p Ω p Δ λ
Φ = T λ ( ρ E λ π ) ( π D p 2 4 ) ( d f ) 2 Δ λ = T λ ρ E λ ( D p d 2 f ) 2 Δ λ
Φ = T λ ρ E λ Δ λ ( d 2 f / # ) 2 ( d f / # ) 2
E λ = Φ T λ ρ Δ λ ( 2 f / # d ) 2
K d ( z , λ ) = d ln E d ( z , λ ) d z

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