Abstract

We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that Fano resonances can be obtained in terahertz metamaterials that are composed of periodic continuous metallic wires dressed with periodic split ring resonators. An asymmetric Fano lineshape has been found in a narrow frequency range of the transmission curve. By using a transmission line combined with lumped element model, we are able to not only fit the transmission spectra of Fano resonance which is attributed to the coupling and interference between the transmission continuum of continuous metallic wires and the bright resonant mode of split ring resonators, but also reveal the capacitance change of the split ring resonators induced frequency shift of the Fano resonance. Therefore, the proposed theoretical model shows more capabilities than conventional coupled oscillator model in the design of Fano structures. The effective parameters of group refractive index of the Fano structure are retrieved, and a large group index more than 800 is obtained at the Fano resonance, which could be used for slow light devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

B. Abasahl, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Quantitative extraction of equivalent lumped circuit elements for complex plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Photon. 1(5), 403–407 (2014).

A. Gorodetsky, A. D. Koulouklidis, M. Massaouti, and S. Tzortzakis, “Physics of the conical broadband terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033838 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

Z. Li, M. Gokkavas, and E. Ozbay, “Manipulation of asymmetric transmission in planar chiral nanostructures by anisotropic loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 482–488 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, F. Meng, F. Zhang, J. Fu, Q. Wu, X. Ding, and J. L.-W. Li, “An ultra-low loss split ring resonator by suppressing the electric dipole moment approach,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 137, 239–254 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, C. Fan, J. He, P. Ding, E. Liang, and Q. Xue, “Double Fano resonances due to interplay of electric and magnetic plasmon modes in planar plasmonic structure with high sensing sensitivity,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2236–2244 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lovera, B. Gallinet, P. Nordlander, and O. J. F. Martin, “Mechanisms of Fano resonances in coupled plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4527–4536 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

W. S. Chang, J. B. Lassiter, P. Swanglap, H. Sobhani, S. Khatua, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and S. Link, “A plasmonic Fano switch,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4977–4982 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Piao, S. Yu, and N. Park, “Control of Fano asymmetry in plasmon induced transparency and its application to plasmonic waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18994–18999 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 2101–2106 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, B. Edwards, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Experimental realization of optical lumped nanocircuits at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 208–212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (11)

V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: A parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83(23), 235427 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, and G. Shvets, “Broadband slow light metamaterial based on a double-continuum Fano resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(10), 107403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dregely, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Excitation and tuning of higher-order Fano resonances in plasmonic oligomer clusters,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8202–8211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. G. Yin, C. P. Huang, Q. J. Wang, W. X. Huang, L. Zhou, C. Zhang, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Fanolike resonance due to plasmon excitation in linear chains of metal bumps,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10485–10493 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, D. Dregely, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, and N. Liu, “Plasmonic oligomers: the role of individual particles in collective behavior,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2042–2050 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Directional double Fano resonances in plasmonic hetero-oligomers,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3694–3700 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Fang, J. Cai, Z. Yan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and X. Zhu, “Removing a wedge from a metallic nanodisk reveals a Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4475–4479 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: A route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (12)

K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Symmetry breaking and strong coupling in planar optical metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13407–13417 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Hu, S. J. Noelck, and R. A. Drezek, “Symmetry breaking in gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1521–1528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(3), 2257–2298 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ruan and S. Fan, “Temporal coupled-mode theory for Fano resonance in light scattering by a single obstacle,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7324–7329 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, “Transmission spectra and the effective parameters for planar metamaterials with omega shaped metallic inclusions,” Opt. Commun. 283(12), 2547–2551 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14553–14567 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

Z. Li, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, “Determination of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(2), 026610 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 173902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Mingaleev, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Coupled-resonator-induced reflection in photonic-crystal waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11647–11659 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, “Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011119 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science 317(5845), 1698–1702 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

Y. S. Joe, A. M. Satanin, and C. S. Kim, “Classical analogy of Fano resonances,” Phys. Scr. 74(2), 259–266 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, C. T. Chan, J. Zi, M. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Diamagnetic response of metallic photonic crystals at infrared and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(22), 223901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Brandl, N. A. Mirin, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon modes of nanosphere trimers and quadrumers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(25), 12302–12310 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, “A new condition to identify isotropic dielectric-magnetic materials displaying negative phase velocity,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41(4), 315–316 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1961 (1)

U. Fano, “Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1866–1878 (1961).
[Crossref]

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S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: A route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lassiter, J. B.

W. S. Chang, J. B. Lassiter, P. Swanglap, H. Sobhani, S. Khatua, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and S. Link, “A plasmonic Fano switch,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4977–4982 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, D. Y.

M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 2101–2106 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, J. L.-W.

L. Zhu, F. Meng, F. Zhang, J. Fu, Q. Wu, X. Ding, and J. L.-W. Li, “An ultra-low loss split ring resonator by suppressing the electric dipole moment approach,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 137, 239–254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

X. Hu, C. T. Chan, J. Zi, M. Li, and K. M. Ho, “Diamagnetic response of metallic photonic crystals at infrared and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(22), 223901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, M. Gokkavas, and E. Ozbay, “Manipulation of asymmetric transmission in planar chiral nanostructures by anisotropic loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 482–488 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, “Transmission spectra and the effective parameters for planar metamaterials with omega shaped metallic inclusions,” Opt. Commun. 283(12), 2547–2551 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, “Determination of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(2), 026610 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, E.

Liew, T. Y. F.

M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 2101–2106 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Link, S.

W. S. Chang, J. B. Lassiter, P. Swanglap, H. Sobhani, S. Khatua, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and S. Link, “A plasmonic Fano switch,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4977–4982 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, D. Dregely, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, and N. Liu, “Plasmonic oligomers: the role of individual particles in collective behavior,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2042–2050 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, L. L.

Lovera, A.

A. Lovera, B. Gallinet, P. Nordlander, and O. J. F. Martin, “Mechanisms of Fano resonances in coupled plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4527–4536 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk’yanchuk, B.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lukiyanchuk, B.

M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 2101–2106 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 2101–2106 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: A parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manoharan, V. N.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

B. Abasahl, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Quantitative extraction of equivalent lumped circuit elements for complex plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Photon. 1(5), 403–407 (2014).

A. Lovera, B. Gallinet, P. Nordlander, and O. J. F. Martin, “Mechanisms of Fano resonances in coupled plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4527–4536 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 83(23), 235427 (2011).
[Crossref]

Martinez, M. A. G.

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
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Martin-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(1), 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

Massaouti, M.

A. Gorodetsky, A. D. Koulouklidis, M. Massaouti, and S. Tzortzakis, “Physics of the conical broadband terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033838 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meng, F.

L. Zhu, F. Meng, F. Zhang, J. Fu, Q. Wu, X. Ding, and J. L.-W. Li, “An ultra-low loss split ring resonator by suppressing the electric dipole moment approach,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 137, 239–254 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mingaleev, S. F.

Mirin, N. A.

D. W. Brandl, N. A. Mirin, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon modes of nanosphere trimers and quadrumers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(25), 12302–12310 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

Moshchalkov, V. V.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noelck, S. J.

Y. Hu, S. J. Noelck, and R. A. Drezek, “Symmetry breaking in gold-silica-gold multilayer nanoshells,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1521–1528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

A. Lovera, B. Gallinet, P. Nordlander, and O. J. F. Martin, “Mechanisms of Fano resonances in coupled plasmonic systems,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4527–4536 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Chang, J. B. Lassiter, P. Swanglap, H. Sobhani, S. Khatua, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and S. Link, “A plasmonic Fano switch,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4977–4982 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Fang, J. Cai, Z. Yan, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and X. Zhu, “Removing a wedge from a metallic nanodisk reveals a Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4475–4479 (2011).
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S. Zhang, K. Bao, N. J. Halas, H. Xu, and P. Nordlander, “Substrate-induced Fano resonances of a plasmonic nanocube: A route to increased-sensitivity localized surface plasmon resonance sensors revealed,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1657–1663 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Brandl, N. A. Mirin, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmon modes of nanosphere trimers and quadrumers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(25), 12302–12310 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nussenzveig, P.

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37–41 (2002).
[Crossref]

O’Hara, J. F.

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, “Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011119 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ordal, M. A.

Ozbay, E.

Z. Li, M. Gokkavas, and E. Ozbay, “Manipulation of asymmetric transmission in planar chiral nanostructures by anisotropic loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(7), 482–488 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, “Transmission spectra and the effective parameters for planar metamaterials with omega shaped metallic inclusions,” Opt. Commun. 283(12), 2547–2551 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, “Determination of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 79(2), 026610 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, N.

Pendry, J. B.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfau, T.

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, C. C.

V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: A parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piao, X.

Pryce, I. M.

Querry, M. R.

Rahmani, M.

M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 2101–2106 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ranjbar, M.

M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 2101–2106 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruan, Z.

Z. Ruan and S. Fan, “Temporal coupled-mode theory for Fano resonance in light scattering by a single obstacle,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(16), 7324–7329 (2010).
[Crossref]

Saliba, M.

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santschi, C.

B. Abasahl, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Quantitative extraction of equivalent lumped circuit elements for complex plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Photon. 1(5), 403–407 (2014).

Satanin, A. M.

Y. S. Joe, A. M. Satanin, and C. S. Kim, “Classical analogy of Fano resonances,” Phys. Scr. 74(2), 259–266 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, and G. Shvets, “Broadband slow light metamaterial based on a double-continuum Fano resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(10), 107403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, K. Bao, C. Wu, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, G. Shvets, P. Nordlander, and F. Capasso, “Fano-like interference in self-assembled plasmonic quadrumer clusters,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4680–4685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

Smirnova, E.

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, “Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011119 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sobhani, H.

W. S. Chang, J. B. Lassiter, P. Swanglap, H. Sobhani, S. Khatua, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and S. Link, “A plasmonic Fano switch,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4977–4982 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonnefraud, Y.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

R. Zhao, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Chiral metamaterials: retrieval of the effective parameters with and without substrate,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14553–14567 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, B. Edwards, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, “Experimental realization of optical lumped nanocircuits at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 208–212 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanglap, P.

W. S. Chang, J. B. Lassiter, P. Swanglap, H. Sobhani, S. Khatua, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and S. Link, “A plasmonic Fano switch,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4977–4982 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, E. Smirnova, and J. F. O’Hara, “Characterization and analysis of terahertz metamaterials based on rectangular split-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011119 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tzortzakis, S.

A. Gorodetsky, A. D. Koulouklidis, M. Massaouti, and S. Tzortzakis, “Physics of the conical broadband terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced plasma filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033838 (2014).
[Crossref]

Van Dorpe, P.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. Van Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verellen, N.

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogelgesang, R.

M. Hentschel, D. Dregely, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, and N. Liu, “Plasmonic oligomers: the role of individual particles in collective behavior,” ACS Nano 5(3), 2042–2050 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, M. Saliba, R. Vogelgesang, H. Giessen, A. P. Alivisatos, and N. Liu, “Transition from isolated to collective modes in plasmonic oligomers,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2721–2726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, Q. J.

Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Hentschel, T. Weiss, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional plasmon rulers,” Science 332(6036), 1407–1410 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wong, C. W.

X. Yang, M. Yu, D. L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 173902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, R. Adato, N. Arju, A. A. Yanik, H. Altug, and G. Shvets, “Fano-resonant asymmetric metamaterials for ultrasensitive spectroscopy and identification of molecular monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 69–75 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, A. B. Khanikaev, and G. Shvets, “Broadband slow light metamaterial based on a double-continuum Fano resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(10), 107403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The schematics of the metallic planar Fano structure on a quartz substrate with a thickness of 0.38 mm. (b) The unit cell of the metallic Fano structure, which can be regarded as the combination of (c) A unit cell of purely continuous metallic wires structure, and (d) A unit cell of purely SRR structure. The dimensions of the Fano structures are as following: Ax = Ay = 40 μm, W1 = 8 μm, W2 = 6 μm, L = 24 μm, H = 22 μm, and S is the slit width that can be tuned. The thickness of gold for the Fano structure is 200 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The simulation results of the transmission magnitude spectra for the Fano structure of Fig. 1(a) with a varied slit width S = 1,3,5,and 7 μm, as shown in the inset. Asymmetric lineshapes of Fano resonances can be clearly seen, and the resonant frequency can be tuned by varying the slit width S.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The simulation results of the transmission and absorption spectra for the Fano structure with slit width S = 3 μm. (b), (c), and (d) are the current distribution corresponding to the three frequencies indicated by the colored dots on the transmission spectrum. (e) is the electric field |E| distribution at Fano resonance on the cut plane at the middle thickness of the Fano structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The TLLE-model for the Fano structure. (b), (c), and (d) are the comparison between the results of TLLE-model and the results of simulation for the continuous wires structure, SRR structure, and Fano structure, respectively. Both the magnitude and phase information are presented. The transmission magnitudes of samples are all normalized to the results of a bare substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The retrieved effective index n (real and imaginary parts) of the Fano structure and the wires structure, respectively. (b) The calculated effective group index ng (real and imaginary parts) of the Fano structure based on the data of (a). (c) The retrieved results of permittivity ε (real and imaginary parts) for the Fano structure and the wires structure. (d) The retrieved results of permittivity μ (real and imaginary parts) for the Fano structure and the wires structure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The fabricated Fano structures with slit width (a) S = 3 μm, and (b) S = 5 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) A typical time domain signal in the measurement truncated at 5.2 ps for the Fano structure with slit width S = 3 μm. (b) The transmission spectra of experimental results for two Fano structures with slit width S = 3 μm and 5 μm. (c) The transmission spectra of simulation results with the time domain signal truncated at 20 ps. (d) The transmission spectra of simulation results with the time domain signal truncated at 5.2 ps.

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