Abstract

We report on the development of super-resolution polarization (parameter) indirect microscopic imaging (PIMI) and its application to visualizing and quantifying graphene layer’s morphological and structural features. The PIMI system was built by modifying a conventional optical microcopy such that the variation of the polarization status of incident light can be precisely controlled, imaging was subsequently acquired by analyzing the dependence of the optical intensity transmitted through (or reflected from) the samples on the incident light polarization status. Measurements on the thickness as well as other structural features of graphene samples which had been prepared by different methods were performed. The results which were highly consistent to those measured by Raman spectroscopy indicate that the PIMI system is capable of characterizing graphene’s dimensional and structural features with super resolution.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

T. G. Browna, M. A. Alonso, and A. Vella, “Focused beam scatterometry for deep subwavelength metrology,” Proc. SPIE 8949, 89490Y1 (2014).

2013 (4)

C. Cong, K. Li, X. X. Zhang, and T. Yu, “Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1195 (2013).

S. T. Park, A. Yurtsever, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9277–9282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Rapid and non-destructive identification of graphene oxide thickness using white light contrast spectroscopy,” Carbon 5, 2528 (2013).

H. Gonçalves, L. Alves, C. Moura, M. Belsley, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancement of graphene visibility on transparent substrates by refractive index optimization,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12934–12941 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

P. K. Pandey, Y. Singh, and S. Tripathi, “Image processing using principle component analysis,” Int. J. Comput. Appl. 15, 37 (2011).

2010 (3)

O. G. Rodríguez-Herrera, D. Lara, and C. Dainty, “Far-field polarization-based sensitivity to sub-resolution displacements of a sub-resolution scatterer in tightly focused fields,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5609–5628 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, F. Kim, and J. Huang, “Seeing graphene-based sheets,” Mater. Today 13(3), 28–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063125 (2007).

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Echalier, R. L. Glazer, V. Fülöp, and M. A. Geday, “Assessing crystallization droplets using birefringence,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60(4), 696–702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

Abergel, D. S. L.

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063125 (2007).

Alonso, M. A.

T. G. Browna, M. A. Alonso, and A. Vella, “Focused beam scatterometry for deep subwavelength metrology,” Proc. SPIE 8949, 89490Y1 (2014).

Alves, L.

Baskin, J. S.

S. T. Park, A. Yurtsever, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9277–9282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckford, A. F.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belsley, M.

H. Gonçalves, L. Alves, C. Moura, M. Belsley, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancement of graphene visibility on transparent substrates by refractive index optimization,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12934–12941 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blake, P.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Booth, T. J.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

Browna, T. G.

T. G. Browna, M. A. Alonso, and A. Vella, “Focused beam scatterometry for deep subwavelength metrology,” Proc. SPIE 8949, 89490Y1 (2014).

Brus, L. E.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckley, D. A. H.

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Castro Neto, A. H.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chae, S. H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chae, S. J.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. Y.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cong, C.

C. Cong, K. Li, X. X. Zhang, and T. Yu, “Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1195 (2013).

Dainty, C.

Dikin, D. A.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dirksen, P.

Doi, Y.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duong, D. L.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebizuka, N.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Echalier, A.

A. Echalier, R. L. Glazer, V. Fülöp, and M. A. Geday, “Assessing crystallization droplets using birefringence,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60(4), 696–702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fal’ko, V. I.

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063125 (2007).

Fan, H. M.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Q.

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y. P.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flynn, G. W.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukagawa, M.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fülöp, V.

A. Echalier, R. L. Glazer, V. Fülöp, and M. A. Geday, “Assessing crystallization droplets using birefringence,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60(4), 696–702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gazzano, M.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geday, M. A.

A. Echalier, R. L. Glazer, V. Fülöp, and M. A. Geday, “Assessing crystallization droplets using birefringence,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60(4), 696–702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glazer, R. L.

A. Echalier, R. L. Glazer, V. Fülöp, and M. A. Geday, “Assessing crystallization droplets using birefringence,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60(4), 696–702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goncalves, H.

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gonçalves, H.

Gunes, F.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, G. H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hausner, M.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S. S.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, E. W.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

H. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Rapid and non-destructive identification of graphene oxide thickness using white light contrast spectroscopy,” Carbon 5, 2528 (2013).

Huang, J.

J. Kim, F. Kim, and J. Huang, “Seeing graphene-based sheets,” Mater. Today 13(3), 28–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hybertsen, M. S.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, Y.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, A. J. E. M.

Jiang, D.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jo, Y. W.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, I.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaifu, N.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasim, J.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, E. S.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, F.

J. Kim, F. Kim, and J. Huang, “Seeing graphene-based sheets,” Mater. Today 13(3), 28–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, F. Kim, and J. Huang, “Seeing graphene-based sheets,” Mater. Today 13(3), 28–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. T.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lara, D.

Lee, S. M.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leger, J. R.

Li, G.

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

C. Cong, K. Li, X. X. Zhang, and T. Yu, “Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1195 (2013).

Lim, S. C.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liscio, A.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Q. Zhao, F. Liu, L. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “A comparative study on quality assessment of high resolution fingerprint images,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3089–3092.

Liu, S.

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, P. W.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maultzsch, J.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIntyre, G.

G. McIntyre and A. Neureuther, “PSM polarimetry: monitoring polarization at 193nm high-NA and immersion with phase shifting masks,” MEMS MOEMS. 4, 031102 (2005).

Melucci, M.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moura, C.

H. Gonçalves, L. Alves, C. Moura, M. Belsley, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancement of graphene visibility on transparent substrates by refractive index optimization,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12934–12941 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murakawa, K.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Naoi, T.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neureuther, A.

G. McIntyre and A. Neureuther, “PSM polarimetry: monitoring polarization at 193nm high-NA and immersion with phase shifting masks,” MEMS MOEMS. 4, 031102 (2005).

Ni, Z. H.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oasa, Y.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Palermo, V.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandey, P. K.

P. K. Pandey, Y. Singh, and S. Tripathi, “Image processing using principle component analysis,” Int. J. Comput. Appl. 15, 37 (2011).

Park, M. H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. T.

S. T. Park, A. Yurtsever, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9277–9282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelton, M.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, A.

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piner, R.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Potter, S. B.

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramsay, E.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rim, K. T.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez-Herrera, O. G.

Romero-Colmenero, E.

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruoff, R. S.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russell, A.

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063125 (2007).

Ryu, S.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samorì, P.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schellenberg, P.

H. Gonçalves, L. Alves, C. Moura, M. Belsley, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancement of graphene visibility on transparent substrates by refractive index optimization,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12934–12941 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Serrels, K. A.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, Y.

P. K. Pandey, Y. Singh, and S. Tripathi, “Image processing using principle component analysis,” Int. J. Comput. Appl. 15, 37 (2011).

So, K. P.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stankovich, S.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stauber, T.

H. Gonçalves, L. Alves, C. Moura, M. Belsley, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancement of graphene visibility on transparent substrates by refractive index optimization,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12934–12941 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stolyarova, E.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suto, H.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ta, Q. H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamura, M.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teng, X.

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Treossi, E.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tripathi, S.

P. K. Pandey, Y. Singh, and S. Tripathi, “Image processing using principle component analysis,” Int. J. Comput. Appl. 15, 37 (2011).

Tyo, J. S.

van de Nes, A. S.

van Haver, S.

Vella, A.

T. G. Browna, M. A. Alonso, and A. Vella, “Focused beam scatterometry for deep subwavelength metrology,” Proc. SPIE 8949, 89490Y1 (2014).

Wang, H. M.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

H. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Rapid and non-destructive identification of graphene oxide thickness using white light contrast spectroscopy,” Carbon 5, 2528 (2013).

Warburton, R. J.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watcharotone, S.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watson, C. A.

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. H.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Rapid and non-destructive identification of graphene oxide thickness using white light contrast spectroscopy,” Carbon 5, 2528 (2013).

Yang, R.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. J.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T.

H. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Rapid and non-destructive identification of graphene oxide thickness using white light contrast spectroscopy,” Carbon 5, 2528 (2013).

C. Cong, K. Li, X. X. Zhang, and T. Yu, “Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1195 (2013).

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurtsever, A.

S. T. Park, A. Yurtsever, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9277–9282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zewail, A. H.

S. T. Park, A. Yurtsever, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9277–9282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, D.

Q. Zhao, F. Liu, L. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “A comparative study on quality assessment of high resolution fingerprint images,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3089–3092.

Zhang, L.

Q. Zhao, F. Liu, L. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “A comparative study on quality assessment of high resolution fingerprint images,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3089–3092.

Zhang, X. X.

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Zhao, Q.

Q. Zhao, F. Liu, L. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “A comparative study on quality assessment of high resolution fingerprint images,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3089–3092.

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Q. Zhao, F. Liu, L. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “A comparative study on quality assessment of high resolution fingerprint images,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3089–3092.

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