Abstract

We report on the development of super-resolution polarization (parameter) indirect microscopic imaging (PIMI) and its application to visualizing and quantifying graphene layer’s morphological and structural features. The PIMI system was built by modifying a conventional optical microcopy such that the variation of the polarization status of incident light can be precisely controlled, imaging was subsequently acquired by analyzing the dependence of the optical intensity transmitted through (or reflected from) the samples on the incident light polarization status. Measurements on the thickness as well as other structural features of graphene samples which had been prepared by different methods were performed. The results which were highly consistent to those measured by Raman spectroscopy indicate that the PIMI system is capable of characterizing graphene’s dimensional and structural features with super resolution.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Cong, K. Li, X. X. Zhang, and T. Yu, “Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1195 (2013).
  3. S. T. Park, A. Yurtsever, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9277–9282 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063125 (2007).
  7. Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Rapid and non-destructive identification of graphene oxide thickness using white light contrast spectroscopy,” Carbon 5, 2528 (2013).
  9. I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Kim, F. Kim, and J. Huang, “Seeing graphene-based sheets,” Mater. Today 13(3), 28–38 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Gonçalves, L. Alves, C. Moura, M. Belsley, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancement of graphene visibility on transparent substrates by refractive index optimization,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12934–12941 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Zhan and J. R. Leger, “High-resolution imaging ellipsometer,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4443–4450 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. G. Browna, M. A. Alonso, and A. Vella, “Focused beam scatterometry for deep subwavelength metrology,” Proc. SPIE 8949, 89490Y1 (2014).
  16. J. J. M. Braat, S. van Haver, A. J. E. M. Janssen, and P. Dirksen, “Assessment of optical systems by means of point-spread functions,” in Progress in Optics, Emil Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2008).
  17. J. J. M. Braat, P. Dirksen, A. J. E. M. Janssen, S. van Haver, and A. S. van de Nes, “Extended Nijboer-Zernike approach to aberration and birefringence retrieval in a high-numerical-aperture optical system,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(12), 2635–2650 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. S. Tyo, “Enhancement of the point-spread function for imaging in scattering media by use of polarization-difference imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(1), 1–10 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. O. G. Rodríguez-Herrera, D. Lara, and C. Dainty, “Far-field polarization-based sensitivity to sub-resolution displacements of a sub-resolution scatterer in tightly focused fields,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5609–5628 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Echalier, R. L. Glazer, V. Fülöp, and M. A. Geday, “Assessing crystallization droplets using birefringence,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60(4), 696–702 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Collett, “Field guide to polarization,” in SPIE Field Guides, J. E. Greivenkamp, ed. (SPIE Press, 2005).
  26. G. McIntyre and A. Neureuther, “PSM polarimetry: monitoring polarization at 193nm high-NA and immersion with phase shifting masks,” MEMS MOEMS. 4, 031102 (2005).
  27. Q. Zhao, F. Liu, L. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “A comparative study on quality assessment of high resolution fingerprint images,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3089–3092.
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. K. Pandey, Y. Singh, and S. Tripathi, “Image processing using principle component analysis,” Int. J. Comput. Appl. 15, 37 (2011).

2014

T. G. Browna, M. A. Alonso, and A. Vella, “Focused beam scatterometry for deep subwavelength metrology,” Proc. SPIE 8949, 89490Y1 (2014).

2013

C. Cong, K. Li, X. X. Zhang, and T. Yu, “Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1195 (2013).

S. T. Park, A. Yurtsever, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9277–9282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Rapid and non-destructive identification of graphene oxide thickness using white light contrast spectroscopy,” Carbon 5, 2528 (2013).

H. Gonçalves, L. Alves, C. Moura, M. Belsley, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancement of graphene visibility on transparent substrates by refractive index optimization,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12934–12941 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

P. K. Pandey, Y. Singh, and S. Tripathi, “Image processing using principle component analysis,” Int. J. Comput. Appl. 15, 37 (2011).

2010

O. G. Rodríguez-Herrera, D. Lara, and C. Dainty, “Far-field polarization-based sensitivity to sub-resolution displacements of a sub-resolution scatterer in tightly focused fields,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5609–5628 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, F. Kim, and J. Huang, “Seeing graphene-based sheets,” Mater. Today 13(3), 28–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063125 (2007).

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Echalier, R. L. Glazer, V. Fülöp, and M. A. Geday, “Assessing crystallization droplets using birefringence,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60(4), 696–702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

Abergel, D. S. L.

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063125 (2007).

Alonso, M. A.

T. G. Browna, M. A. Alonso, and A. Vella, “Focused beam scatterometry for deep subwavelength metrology,” Proc. SPIE 8949, 89490Y1 (2014).

Alves, L.

Baskin, J. S.

S. T. Park, A. Yurtsever, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9277–9282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckford, A. F.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Belsley, M.

H. Gonçalves, L. Alves, C. Moura, M. Belsley, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancement of graphene visibility on transparent substrates by refractive index optimization,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12934–12941 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blake, P.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Booth, T. J.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

Browna, T. G.

T. G. Browna, M. A. Alonso, and A. Vella, “Focused beam scatterometry for deep subwavelength metrology,” Proc. SPIE 8949, 89490Y1 (2014).

Brus, L. E.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckley, D. A. H.

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Castro Neto, A. H.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chae, S. H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chae, S. J.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. Y.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cong, C.

C. Cong, K. Li, X. X. Zhang, and T. Yu, “Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1195 (2013).

Dainty, C.

Dikin, D. A.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dirksen, P.

Doi, Y.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duong, D. L.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebizuka, N.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Echalier, A.

A. Echalier, R. L. Glazer, V. Fülöp, and M. A. Geday, “Assessing crystallization droplets using birefringence,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60(4), 696–702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fal’ko, V. I.

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063125 (2007).

Fan, H. M.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Q.

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y. P.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flynn, G. W.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukagawa, M.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fülöp, V.

A. Echalier, R. L. Glazer, V. Fülöp, and M. A. Geday, “Assessing crystallization droplets using birefringence,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60(4), 696–702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gazzano, M.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geday, M. A.

A. Echalier, R. L. Glazer, V. Fülöp, and M. A. Geday, “Assessing crystallization droplets using birefringence,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60(4), 696–702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Glazer, R. L.

A. Echalier, R. L. Glazer, V. Fülöp, and M. A. Geday, “Assessing crystallization droplets using birefringence,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60(4), 696–702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goncalves, H.

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gonçalves, H.

Gunes, F.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, G. H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hausner, M.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S. S.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, E. W.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

H. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Rapid and non-destructive identification of graphene oxide thickness using white light contrast spectroscopy,” Carbon 5, 2528 (2013).

Huang, J.

J. Kim, F. Kim, and J. Huang, “Seeing graphene-based sheets,” Mater. Today 13(3), 28–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hybertsen, M. S.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, Y.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, A. J. E. M.

Jiang, D.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jo, Y. W.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, I.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaifu, N.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasim, J.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, E. S.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, F.

J. Kim, F. Kim, and J. Huang, “Seeing graphene-based sheets,” Mater. Today 13(3), 28–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, F. Kim, and J. Huang, “Seeing graphene-based sheets,” Mater. Today 13(3), 28–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, P.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. T.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lara, D.

Lee, S. M.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leger, J. R.

Li, G.

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

C. Cong, K. Li, X. X. Zhang, and T. Yu, “Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1195 (2013).

Lim, S. C.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liscio, A.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Q. Zhao, F. Liu, L. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “A comparative study on quality assessment of high resolution fingerprint images,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3089–3092.
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, P. W.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maultzsch, J.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIntyre, G.

G. McIntyre and A. Neureuther, “PSM polarimetry: monitoring polarization at 193nm high-NA and immersion with phase shifting masks,” MEMS MOEMS. 4, 031102 (2005).

Melucci, M.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moura, C.

H. Gonçalves, L. Alves, C. Moura, M. Belsley, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancement of graphene visibility on transparent substrates by refractive index optimization,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12934–12941 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murakawa, K.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Naoi, T.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neureuther, A.

G. McIntyre and A. Neureuther, “PSM polarimetry: monitoring polarization at 193nm high-NA and immersion with phase shifting masks,” MEMS MOEMS. 4, 031102 (2005).

Ni, Z. H.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oasa, Y.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Palermo, V.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pandey, P. K.

P. K. Pandey, Y. Singh, and S. Tripathi, “Image processing using principle component analysis,” Int. J. Comput. Appl. 15, 37 (2011).

Park, M. H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. T.

S. T. Park, A. Yurtsever, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9277–9282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelton, M.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, A.

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piner, R.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Potter, S. B.

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramsay, E.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rim, K. T.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodríguez-Herrera, O. G.

Romero-Colmenero, E.

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruoff, R. S.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russell, A.

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063125 (2007).

Ryu, S.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samorì, P.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schellenberg, P.

H. Gonçalves, L. Alves, C. Moura, M. Belsley, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancement of graphene visibility on transparent substrates by refractive index optimization,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12934–12941 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Serrels, K. A.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, Y.

P. K. Pandey, Y. Singh, and S. Tripathi, “Image processing using principle component analysis,” Int. J. Comput. Appl. 15, 37 (2011).

So, K. P.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stankovich, S.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stauber, T.

H. Gonçalves, L. Alves, C. Moura, M. Belsley, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancement of graphene visibility on transparent substrates by refractive index optimization,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12934–12941 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stolyarova, E.

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suto, H.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ta, Q. H.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamura, M.

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teng, X.

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Treossi, E.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tripathi, S.

P. K. Pandey, Y. Singh, and S. Tripathi, “Image processing using principle component analysis,” Int. J. Comput. Appl. 15, 37 (2011).

Tyo, J. S.

van de Nes, A. S.

van Haver, S.

Vella, A.

T. G. Browna, M. A. Alonso, and A. Vella, “Focused beam scatterometry for deep subwavelength metrology,” Proc. SPIE 8949, 89490Y1 (2014).

Wang, H. M.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

H. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Rapid and non-destructive identification of graphene oxide thickness using white light contrast spectroscopy,” Carbon 5, 2528 (2013).

Warburton, R. J.

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watcharotone, S.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watson, C. A.

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. H.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Rapid and non-destructive identification of graphene oxide thickness using white light contrast spectroscopy,” Carbon 5, 2528 (2013).

Yang, R.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. J.

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T.

H. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Rapid and non-destructive identification of graphene oxide thickness using white light contrast spectroscopy,” Carbon 5, 2528 (2013).

C. Cong, K. Li, X. X. Zhang, and T. Yu, “Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1195 (2013).

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurtsever, A.

S. T. Park, A. Yurtsever, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9277–9282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zewail, A. H.

S. T. Park, A. Yurtsever, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9277–9282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, D.

Q. Zhao, F. Liu, L. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “A comparative study on quality assessment of high resolution fingerprint images,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3089–3092.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Q. Zhao, F. Liu, L. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “A comparative study on quality assessment of high resolution fingerprint images,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3089–3092.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. X.

C. Cong, K. Li, X. X. Zhang, and T. Yu, “Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1195 (2013).

Zhao, Q.

Q. Zhao, F. Liu, L. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “A comparative study on quality assessment of high resolution fingerprint images,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3089–3092.
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.

A. Echalier, R. L. Glazer, V. Fülöp, and M. A. Geday, “Assessing crystallization droplets using birefringence,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60(4), 696–702 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Goncalves, M. Belsley, C. Moura, T. Stauber, and P. Schellenberg, “Enhancing visibility of graphene on arbitrary substrates by microdroplet condensation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231905 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. Castro Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal’ko, “Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063125 (2007).

Carbon

H. Yang, H. Hu, Y. Wang, and T. Yu, “Rapid and non-destructive identification of graphene oxide thickness using white light contrast spectroscopy,” Carbon 5, 2528 (2013).

Int. J. Comput. Appl.

P. K. Pandey, Y. Singh, and S. Tripathi, “Image processing using principle component analysis,” Int. J. Comput. Appl. 15, 37 (2011).

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

E. Treossi, M. Melucci, A. Liscio, M. Gazzano, P. Samorì, and V. Palermo, “High-contrast visualization of graphene oxide on dye-sensitized glass, quartz, and silicon by fluorescence quenching,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15576–15577 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Mater. Today

J. Kim, F. Kim, and J. Huang, “Seeing graphene-based sheets,” Mater. Today 13(3), 28–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

C. Ye, S. Liu, X. Teng, Q. Fang, and G. Li, “Morphological and optical characteristics of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by quantitative optical anisotropy and imaging techniques,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(2), 436–440 (2006).
[CrossRef]

MEMS MOEMS.

G. McIntyre and A. Neureuther, “PSM polarimetry: monitoring polarization at 193nm high-NA and immersion with phase shifting masks,” MEMS MOEMS. 4, 031102 (2005).

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.

S. B. Potter, E. Romero-Colmenero, C. A. Watson, D. A. H. Buckley, and A. Phillips, “Stokes imaging, Doppler mapping and Roche tomography of the AM Herculis system V834 Cen,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348(1), 316–324 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Lucas, M. Fukagawa, M. Tamura, A. F. Beckford, Y. Itoh, K. Murakawa, H. Suto, S. S. Hayashi, Y. Oasa, T. Naoi, Y. Doi, N. Ebizuka, and N. Kaifu, “High-resolution imaging polarimetry of HL Tau and magnetic field structure,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 352(4), 1347–1364 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

I. Jung, M. Pelton, R. Piner, D. A. Dikin, S. Stankovich, S. Watcharotone, M. Hausner, and R. S. Ruoff, “Simple approach for high-contrast optical imaging and characterization of graphene-based sheets,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3569–3575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

K. A. Serrels, E. Ramsay, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, “Nanoscale optical microscopy in the vectorial focusing regime,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 311–314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. L. Duong, G. H. Han, S. M. Lee, F. Gunes, E. S. Kim, S. T. Kim, H. Kim, Q. H. Ta, K. P. So, S. J. Yoon, S. J. Chae, Y. W. Jo, M. H. Park, S. H. Chae, S. C. Lim, J. Y. Choi, and Y. H. Lee, “Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy,” Nature 490(7419), 235–239 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

S. T. Park, A. Yurtsever, J. S. Baskin, and A. H. Zewail, “Graphene-layered steps and their fields visualized by 4D electron microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(23), 9277–9282 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Stolyarova, K. T. Rim, S. Ryu, J. Maultzsch, P. Kim, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, M. S. Hybertsen, and G. W. Flynn, “High-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging of mesoscopic graphene sheets on an insulating surface,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9209–9212 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

T. G. Browna, M. A. Alonso, and A. Vella, “Focused beam scatterometry for deep subwavelength metrology,” Proc. SPIE 8949, 89490Y1 (2014).

Sci. Rep.

C. Cong, K. Li, X. X. Zhang, and T. Yu, “Visualization of arrangements of carbon atoms in graphene layers by Raman mapping and atomic-resolution TEM,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1195 (2013).

Other

E. Collett, “Field guide to polarization,” in SPIE Field Guides, J. E. Greivenkamp, ed. (SPIE Press, 2005).

J. J. M. Braat, S. van Haver, A. J. E. M. Janssen, and P. Dirksen, “Assessment of optical systems by means of point-spread functions,” in Progress in Optics, Emil Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, 2008).

Q. Zhao, F. Liu, L. Zhang, and D. Zhang, “A comparative study on quality assessment of high resolution fingerprint images,” in Proceedings of 17th IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 3089–3092.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration diagram of (a) an exaggerated round spot on an anisotropic SUM, (b) the variable Huygens PSFs from (a) under the illumination of various polarization, (c) the field-polarization data fitting to sinusoidal variation at pixels at the PSF shown in (b), and (d) the adjusted R-square value (for fitting merit indication) varying with pixel position, i.e., only a part of pixels (pixel47-52) qualify the best fit value (>0.95) and can be selected for being associated with the object point shown in (a), those pixels happened to be at the center of the unpolarized PSF (Unpol in b)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the coordinate system, ray and polarization directions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Illustration diagram of (a) modulated polarization parameter imaging system, (b) measured points and fitted curve of single pixel intensity variation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bright (a to d) and dark (e to f) field images taken by the modulated polarization parameter imaging system using 100x objective, direct grey scale image of a chemically prepared graphene overlapped to 1 to 6 layers on a glass slide (a, e), its indirect polarization parameter images of polarization averaged intensity Idp (b, f), polarization phase difference (c, g) and polarization angle of slow axis ϕ to horizontal axis (d, h)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Imaging analysis result of chemically prepared 1-3 layers graphene flakes on silicon substrate,(a) polarization parameter Idp and direct image intensity I00 pixel variation curves through the line intersecting graphene flakes of different overlapping thickness; (b) measured Raman spectra of the flakes on the same sample, its peak intensity variation confirms number of overlapping layers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Image quality and resolution analysis result of direct (a), and PIMI Idp (b) and S0 (c) images from a monolayers graphene in the sample.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Line pixel variations of direct gray scale image I00 (a), PIMI images of polarization average intensity Idp (b), total degree of polarization S0 (c), angle of polarization ϕ (d), and the Idp at a grain boundary (e) along the intersection lines across CVD made graphene grains in corresponding images (above the curves).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I i I dp = a 0 + a 1 sin2α+ a 2 cos2α
( S 0 S 1 S 2 S 3 )=( E x E x + E y E y E x E x E y E y E x E y E y E * x i( E x E y E y E * x ) )=( I dp (1+sinδ) I dp (1+sinδ)cos2ϕ 2 I dp (1+sinδ) sin2ϕ cosδ 2 I dp (1+sinδ) sin2ϕ sinδ )

Metrics