Abstract

We demonstrate full-field X-ray microscopy using crossed multilayer Laue lenses (MLL). Two partial MLLs are prepared out of a 48 μm high multilayer stack consisting of 2451 alternating zones of WSi2 and Si. They are assembled perpendicularly in series to obtain two-dimensional imaging. Experiments are done in a laboratory X-ray microscope using Cu-Kα radiation (E = 8.05 keV, focal length f = 8.0 mm). Sub-100 nm resolution is demonstrated without mixed-order imaging at an appropriate position of the image plane. Although existing deviations from design parameters still cause aberrations, MLLs are a promising approach to realize hard X-ray microscopy at high efficiencies with resolutions down to the sub-10 nm range in future.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  3. H. Kang, J. Maser, G. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. T. Liese, V. Radisch, and H. Krebs, “Fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses by a combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073710 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19, 15069 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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2011 (2)

2010 (3)

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Multilayer Laue lens: a path toward one nanometer x-ray focusing,” X-ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 401854 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Liese, V. Radisch, and H. Krebs, “Fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses by a combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073710 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 25, 2004 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, “Focusing hard x rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone plates,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033405 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attwood, D.

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[Crossref]

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boye, P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Braun, S.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.095 , in press.
[Crossref]

S. Braun and H. Mai, Metal Based Thin Films for Electronics (Wiley-VCH, 2006), chap. Multilayers for x-ray optical purposes, p. 309.

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Krüger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. G. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 425 (IOP Publishing, 2013), p. 052019.

Burghammer, M.

S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” in Optics & Photonics (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), p. 63181D-1.

Chao, W.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 25, 2004 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y. S.

Conley, R.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19, 15069 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Multilayer Laue lens: a path toward one nanometer x-ray focusing,” X-ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 401854 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proc. SPIEvol. 5539 (2004), p. 185.
[Crossref]

Cui, H.

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” in Optics & Photonics (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), p. 63181D-1.

David, C.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Duewer, F.

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” in Optics & Photonics (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), p. 63181D-1.

Feldkamp, J. M.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 25, 2004 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feser, M.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 25, 2004 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” in Optics & Photonics (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), p. 63181D-1.

Gawlitza, P.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.095 , in press.
[Crossref]

Giewekemeyer, K.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gulden, J.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guttman, P.

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttman, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards stacked zone plates,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 186 (IOP Publishing, 2009), p. 012079.

Harteneck, B. D.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heim, S.

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttman, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards stacked zone plates,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 186 (IOP Publishing, 2009), p. 012079.

Holt, M.

Hönig, S.

Hoppe, R.

S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jahedi, N.

Jefimovs, K.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kang, H.

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, H. C.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19, 15069 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Multilayer Laue lens: a path toward one nanometer x-ray focusing,” X-ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 401854 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proc. SPIEvol. 5539 (2004), p. 185.
[Crossref]

Krebs, H.

T. Liese, V. Radisch, and H. Krebs, “Fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses by a combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073710 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krüger, P.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.095 , in press.
[Crossref]

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Krüger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. G. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 425 (IOP Publishing, 2013), p. 052019.

Kubec, A.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.095 , in press.
[Crossref]

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Krüger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. G. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 425 (IOP Publishing, 2013), p. 052019.

Laas, R.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.095 , in press.
[Crossref]

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liese, T.

T. Liese, V. Radisch, and H. Krebs, “Fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses by a combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073710 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lima, E.

Liu, C.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19, 15069 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Multilayer Laue lens: a path toward one nanometer x-ray focusing,” X-ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 401854 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proc. SPIEvol. 5539 (2004), p. 185.
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

Lyon, A.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 25, 2004 (2007).
[Crossref]

Macrander, A.

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proc. SPIEvol. 5539 (2004), p. 185.
[Crossref]

Macrander, A. T.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19, 15069 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Multilayer Laue lens: a path toward one nanometer x-ray focusing,” X-ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 401854 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mai, H.

S. Braun and H. Mai, Metal Based Thin Films for Electronics (Wiley-VCH, 2006), chap. Multilayers for x-ray optical purposes, p. 309.

Mancuso, A. P.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maser, J.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19, 15069 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Multilayer Laue lens: a path toward one nanometer x-ray focusing,” X-ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 401854 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proc. SPIEvol. 5539 (2004), p. 185.
[Crossref]

Melzer, K.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.095 , in press.
[Crossref]

Menzel, M.

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Krüger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. G. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 425 (IOP Publishing, 2013), p. 052019.

Niese, S.

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Krüger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. G. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 425 (IOP Publishing, 2013), p. 052019.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.095 , in press.
[Crossref]

Patommel, J.

S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Krüger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. G. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 425 (IOP Publishing, 2013), p. 052019.

Pilvi, T.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Raabe, J.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Radisch, V.

T. Liese, V. Radisch, and H. Krebs, “Fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses by a combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073710 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rehbein, S.

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttman, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards stacked zone plates,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 186 (IOP Publishing, 2009), p. 012079.

Rishton, S.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 25, 2004 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ritala, M.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rose, V.

Salditt, T.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Samberg, D.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sassolini, S.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 25, 2004 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schneider, G.

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttman, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards stacked zone plates,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 186 (IOP Publishing, 2009), p. 012079.

Schoder, S.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schöder, S.

Schroer, C.

Schroer, C. G.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. G. Schroer, “Focusing hard x rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone plates,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033405 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Krüger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. G. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 425 (IOP Publishing, 2013), p. 052019.

Schropp, A.

S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seiboth, F.

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Krüger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. G. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 425 (IOP Publishing, 2013), p. 052019.

Shu, D.

Stephan, S.

S. Hönig, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, A. Schropp, S. Stephan, S. Schöder, M. Burghammer, and C. Schroer, “Full optical characterization of coherent x-ray nanobeams by ptychographic imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 16324 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stephenson, G.

Stephenson, G. B.

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Multilayer Laue lens: a path toward one nanometer x-ray focusing,” X-ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 401854 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proc. SPIEvol. 5539 (2004), p. 185.
[Crossref]

Tkachuk, A.

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” in Optics & Photonics (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), p. 63181D-1.

Vartanyants, I. A.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vila-Comamala, J.

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vogt, S.

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proc. SPIEvol. 5539 (2004), p. 185.
[Crossref]

Weckert, E.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Werner, S.

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttman, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards stacked zone plates,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 186 (IOP Publishing, 2009), p. 012079.

Wilke, R. N.

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

H. Yan, V. Rose, D. Shu, E. Lima, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, N. Jahedi, A. T. Macrander, G. Stephenson, M. Holt, Y. S. Chu, M. Lu, and J. Maser, “Two dimensional hard x-ray nanofocusing with crossed multilayer Laue lenses,” Opt. Express 19, 15069 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Multilayer Laue lens: a path toward one nanometer x-ray focusing,” X-ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 401854 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yun, W.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 25, 2004 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proc. SPIEvol. 5539 (2004), p. 185.
[Crossref]

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” in Optics & Photonics (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), p. 63181D-1.

Zeng, X.

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 25, 2004 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zschech, E.

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.095 , in press.
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Schropp, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, R. Hoppe, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, S. Stephan, K. Giewekemeyer, R. N. Wilke, T. Salditt, J. Gulden, A. P. Mancuso, I. A. Vartanyants, E. Weckert, S. Schoder, M. Burghammer, and C. G. Schroer, “Hard x-ray nanobeam characterization by coherent diffraction microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 091102 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. (1)

Y. Feng, M. Feser, A. Lyon, S. Rishton, X. Zeng, S. Chen, S. Sassolini, and W. Yun, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio 24 nm x-ray zone plates for x-ray imaging applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct. 25, 2004 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. G. Schroer, “Focusing hard x rays to nanometer dimensions using Fresnel zone plates,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 033405 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. Jefimovs, J. Vila-Comamala, T. Pilvi, J. Raabe, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Zone-doubling technique to produce ultrahigh-resolution x-ray optics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 264801 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, J. Maser, G. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. Macrander, and S. Vogt, “Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Liese, V. Radisch, and H. Krebs, “Fabrication of multilayer Laue lenses by a combination of pulsed laser deposition and focused ion beam,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073710 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X-ray Opt. Instrum. (1)

H. Yan, H. C. Kang, R. Conley, C. Liu, A. T. Macrander, G. B. Stephenson, and J. Maser, “Multilayer Laue lens: a path toward one nanometer x-ray focusing,” X-ray Opt. Instrum. 2010, 401854 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

S. Werner, S. Rehbein, P. Guttman, S. Heim, and G. Schneider, “Towards stacked zone plates,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 186 (IOP Publishing, 2009), p. 012079.

S. Braun and H. Mai, Metal Based Thin Films for Electronics (Wiley-VCH, 2006), chap. Multilayers for x-ray optical purposes, p. 309.

S. Braun, A. Kubec, M. Menzel, S. Niese, P. Krüger, F. Seiboth, J. Patommel, and C. G. Schroer, “Multilayer Laue lenses with focal length of 10 mm,” in J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., vol. 425 (IOP Publishing, 2013), p. 052019.

Root mean square value of roughness σr and interdiffusion σi:σ=(σr2+σi2)0.5

S. Niese, P. Krüger, A. Kubec, R. Laas, P. Gawlitza, K. Melzer, S. Braun, and E. Zschech, “Fabrication of customizable wedged multilayer Laue lenses by adding a stress layer,” Thin Solid Films (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.095 , in press.
[Crossref]

W. Rasband, “ImageJ, U. S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda/MD, USA,” http://imagej.nih.gov/ij/ (2014).

A. Tkachuk, M. Feser, H. Cui, F. Duewer, H. Chang, and W. Yun, “High-resolution x-ray tomography using laboratory sources,” in Optics & Photonics (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), p. 63181D-1.

J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, S. Vogt, W. Yun, A. Macrander, H. C. Kang, C. Liu, and R. Conley, “Multilayer Laue lenses as high-resolution x-ray optics,” in Proc. SPIEvol. 5539 (2004), p. 185.
[Crossref]

D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Scheme of the optical path. The illumination unit consists of the X-ray source (XS), a capillary condenser (CD) with a beamstop (BS) and a pinhole (PH). The object (OB) is imaged by the Fresnel zone plate (FZP) to the scintillating screen (SC). Hollow cone illumination is shown in dark gray. (b) Imaging unit using a partial multilayer Laue lens (MLL). (c) Scheme of crossed MLLs after FIB preparation and assembly used to image an object (OB) to the screen (SC). MLL-h and MLL-v are the horizontally and vertically imaging lens, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 MLL bright field of a (a) single partial and (b) crossed partial MLLs acquired on the larger scintillating screen. The field of view exceeds the condenser ring. In case of crossed MLLs, there appears some intensity in the corners. The arrow in (b) marks the position, where full-field images were acquired. (c) Geometrical optics simulation using crossed cylindrical lenses with a limited efficiency of 35 % (d) The same screen showing the zone plate’s bright field surrounded by the condenser ring.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Micrographs of the center of the Siemens star pattern acquired (a) with the MLL and (b) with the FZP as reference. (c) Modulation transfer function (MTF) of (a), determined at concentrical intensity profiles. 10 μm−1 corresponds to 50 nm lines and spaces.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Micrograph of an area with coarse features that is used for contrast calculation. (a) MLL, (b) MLL with 10 μm nickel filter, (c) FZP. Gray scales are set to transmission values of 0.85 – 1.03 in (a) and (c), and to 0.80 – 1.08 in (b).

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