Abstract

We demonstrate polarization control in optically-pumped single GaN nanowire lasers fabricated by a top-down method. By placing the GaN nanowires onto gold substrates, the naturally occurring randomly orientated elliptical polarization of nanowire lasers is converted to a linear polarization that is oriented parallel to the substrate surface. Confirmed by simulation results, this polarization control is attributed to a polarization-dependent loss induced by the gold substrate, which breaks the mode degeneracy of the nanowire and forms two orthogonally polarized modes with largely different cavity losses.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Ma and L. Tong, “Optically pumped semiconductor nanowire lasers,” Frontiers Optoelectron. 5(3), 239–247 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Yang, R. Yan, and M. Fardy, “Semiconductor nanowire: what’s next?” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1529–1536 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. K. Lim, S. Crawford, G. Haberfehlner, and S. Gradečak, “Controlled modulation of diameter and composition along individual III-V nitride nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 331–336 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and A. V. Davydov, “GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(4), 847–858 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Arafin, X. Liu, and Z. Mi, “Review of recent progress of III-nitride nanowire lasers,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 074599 (2013).
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  12. H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Gao, A. Fu, S. C. Andrews, and P. Yang, “Cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(3), 865–869 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Q. M. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. T. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, X. F. Wang, C. H. Liang, X. S. Peng, and Y. W. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of ordered GaN nanowire arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(13), 5714–5717 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (6)

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Deshpande, J. Heo, A. Das, and P. Bhattacharya, “Electrically driven polarized single-photon emission from an InGaN quantum dot in a GaN nanowire,” Nat Commun 4, 1675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arafin, X. Liu, and Z. Mi, “Review of recent progress of III-nitride nanowire lasers,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 074599 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Lim, S. Crawford, G. Haberfehlner, and S. Gradečak, “Controlled modulation of diameter and composition along individual III-V nitride nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 331–336 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gao, A. Fu, S. C. Andrews, and P. Yang, “Cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(3), 865–869 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

Y. Ma and L. Tong, “Optically pumped semiconductor nanowire lasers,” Frontiers Optoelectron. 5(3), 239–247 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, A. Hurtado, Q. Li, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, I. Brener, and G. T. Wang, “Gold substrate-induced single-mode lasing of GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Q. M. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. T. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and A. V. Davydov, “GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(4), 847–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

P. Yang, R. Yan, and M. Fardy, “Semiconductor nanowire: what’s next?” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1529–1536 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, X. F. Wang, C. H. Liang, X. S. Peng, and Y. W. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of ordered GaN nanowire arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(13), 5714–5717 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Yang, S. Goto, M. Kawata, K. Uchida, A. Niwa, and J. Gotoh, “Optical properties of GaN thin films on sapphire substrates characterized by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 10A), L1105–L1108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, R.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. J.

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, S. C.

H. Gao, A. Fu, S. C. Andrews, and P. Yang, “Cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(3), 865–869 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arafin, S.

S. Arafin, X. Liu, and Z. Mi, “Review of recent progress of III-nitride nanowire lasers,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 074599 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Arslan, I.

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, G.

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, A. Hurtado, Q. Li, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, I. Brener, and G. T. Wang, “Gold substrate-induced single-mode lasing of GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Benz, A.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertness, K. A.

K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and A. V. Davydov, “GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(4), 847–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bevan, K. H.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, P.

S. Deshpande, J. Heo, A. Das, and P. Bhattacharya, “Electrically driven polarized single-photon emission from an InGaN quantum dot in a GaN nanowire,” Nat Commun 4, 1675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, A. Hurtado, Q. Li, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, I. Brener, and G. T. Wang, “Gold substrate-induced single-mode lasing of GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campione, S.

J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.-J.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, W. W.

Crawford, M. H.

Crawford, S.

S. K. Lim, S. Crawford, G. Haberfehlner, and S. Gradečak, “Controlled modulation of diameter and composition along individual III-V nitride nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 331–336 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creighton, J. R.

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cross, K.

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, A. Hurtado, Q. Li, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, I. Brener, and G. T. Wang, “Gold substrate-induced single-mode lasing of GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cross, K. C.

Cui, K.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, A.

S. Deshpande, J. Heo, A. Das, and P. Bhattacharya, “Electrically driven polarized single-photon emission from an InGaN quantum dot in a GaN nanowire,” Nat Commun 4, 1675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davydov, A. V.

K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and A. V. Davydov, “GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(4), 847–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deshpande, S.

S. Deshpande, J. Heo, A. Das, and P. Bhattacharya, “Electrically driven polarized single-photon emission from an InGaN quantum dot in a GaN nanowire,” Nat Commun 4, 1675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, X.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fardy, M.

P. Yang, R. Yan, and M. Fardy, “Semiconductor nanowire: what’s next?” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1529–1536 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fathololoumi, S.

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figiel, J. J.

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, A. Hurtado, Q. Li, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, I. Brener, and G. T. Wang, “Gold substrate-induced single-mode lasing of GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. M. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. T. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, A.

H. Gao, A. Fu, S. C. Andrews, and P. Yang, “Cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(3), 865–869 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, A. Fu, S. C. Andrews, and P. Yang, “Cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(3), 865–869 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, S.

T. Yang, S. Goto, M. Kawata, K. Uchida, A. Niwa, and J. Gotoh, “Optical properties of GaN thin films on sapphire substrates characterized by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 10A), L1105–L1108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gotoh, J.

T. Yang, S. Goto, M. Kawata, K. Uchida, A. Niwa, and J. Gotoh, “Optical properties of GaN thin films on sapphire substrates characterized by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 10A), L1105–L1108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gradecak, S.

S. K. Lim, S. Crawford, G. Haberfehlner, and S. Gradečak, “Controlled modulation of diameter and composition along individual III-V nitride nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 331–336 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haberfehlner, G.

S. K. Lim, S. Crawford, G. Haberfehlner, and S. Gradečak, “Controlled modulation of diameter and composition along individual III-V nitride nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 331–336 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakima, A. R.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, X.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heo, J.

S. Deshpande, J. Heo, A. Das, and P. Bhattacharya, “Electrically driven polarized single-photon emission from an InGaN quantum dot in a GaN nanowire,” Nat Commun 4, 1675 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurtado, A.

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, A. Hurtado, Q. Li, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, I. Brener, and G. T. Wang, “Gold substrate-induced single-mode lasing of GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, J. C.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, M.

T. Yang, S. Goto, M. Kawata, K. Uchida, A. Niwa, and J. Gotoh, “Optical properties of GaN thin films on sapphire substrates characterized by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 10A), L1105–L1108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kibria, M. G.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutsen, K. P.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koleske, D. D.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. M. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. T. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, E.

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

Lester, L.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lester, L. F.

J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, A. Hurtado, Q. Li, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, I. Brener, and G. T. Wang, “Gold substrate-induced single-mode lasing of GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, A. Hurtado, Q. Li, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, I. Brener, and G. T. Wang, “Gold substrate-induced single-mode lasing of GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q. M.

Liang, C. H.

J. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, X. F. Wang, C. H. Liang, X. S. Peng, and Y. W. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of ordered GaN nanowire arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(13), 5714–5717 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, S. K.

S. K. Lim, S. Crawford, G. Haberfehlner, and S. Gradečak, “Controlled modulation of diameter and composition along individual III-V nitride nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 331–336 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

S. Arafin, X. Liu, and Z. Mi, “Review of recent progress of III-nitride nanowire lasers,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 074599 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luk, T. S.

J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, A. Hurtado, Q. Li, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, I. Brener, and G. T. Wang, “Gold substrate-induced single-mode lasing of GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

Y. Ma and L. Tong, “Optically pumped semiconductor nanowire lasers,” Frontiers Optoelectron. 5(3), 239–247 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez, J. A.

J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Mi, Z.

S. Arafin, X. Liu, and Z. Mi, “Review of recent progress of III-nitride nanowire lasers,” J. Nanophoton. 7(1), 074599 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mi, Z. T.

Niwa, A.

T. Yang, S. Goto, M. Kawata, K. Uchida, A. Niwa, and J. Gotoh, “Optical properties of GaN thin films on sapphire substrates characterized by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 10A), L1105–L1108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paradis, S.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, X. S.

J. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, X. F. Wang, C. H. Liang, X. S. Peng, and Y. W. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of ordered GaN nanowire arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(13), 5714–5717 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pierre, A.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanford, N. A.

K. A. Bertness, N. A. Sanford, and A. V. Davydov, “GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(4), 847–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R. J.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaller, R. D.

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramania, G.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartzentruber, B. S.

J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Talin, A. A.

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.

Y. Ma and L. Tong, “Optically pumped semiconductor nanowire lasers,” Frontiers Optoelectron. 5(3), 239–247 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, K.

T. Yang, S. Goto, M. Kawata, K. Uchida, A. Niwa, and J. Gotoh, “Optical properties of GaN thin films on sapphire substrates characterized by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 10A), L1105–L1108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, A. Pierre, M. G. Kibria, K. Cui, X. Han, K. H. Bevan, H. Guo, S. Paradis, A. R. Hakima, and Z. Mi, “Wafer-level photocatalytic water splitting on GaN nanowire arrays grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2353–2357 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G. T.

J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, A. Hurtado, Q. Li, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, I. Brener, and G. T. Wang, “Gold substrate-induced single-mode lasing of GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. M. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. T. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. F.

J. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, X. F. Wang, C. H. Liang, X. S. Peng, and Y. W. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of ordered GaN nanowire arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(13), 5714–5717 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. W.

J. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, X. F. Wang, C. H. Liang, X. S. Peng, and Y. W. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of ordered GaN nanowire arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(13), 5714–5717 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werder, D. J.

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Westlake, K. R.

Wright, J. B.

J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, A. Hurtado, Q. Li, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, I. Brener, and G. T. Wang, “Gold substrate-induced single-mode lasing of GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, J. B. Wright, W. W. Chow, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, L. F. Lester, and G. T. Wang, “Single-mode GaN nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17873–17879 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

J. B. Wright, S. Campione, S. Liu, J. A. Martinez, H. Xu, T. S. Luk, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, B. S. Swartzentruber, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Distributed feedback gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Hurtado, H. Xu, J. B. Wright, S. Liu, Q. Li, G. T. Wang, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, and I. Brener, “Polarization switching in GaN nanowire lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(25), 251107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, A. Hurtado, Q. Li, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, G. Balakrishnan, L. F. Lester, I. Brener, and G. T. Wang, “Gold substrate-induced single-mode lasing of GaN nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, R.

P. Yang, R. Yan, and M. Fardy, “Semiconductor nanowire: what’s next?” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1529–1536 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

H. Gao, A. Fu, S. C. Andrews, and P. Yang, “Cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(3), 865–869 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yang, R. Yan, and M. Fardy, “Semiconductor nanowire: what’s next?” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1529–1536 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Johnson, H.-J. Choi, K. P. Knutsen, R. D. Schaller, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 106–110 (2002).
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M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
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J. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, X. F. Wang, C. H. Liang, X. S. Peng, and Y. W. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of ordered GaN nanowire arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(13), 5714–5717 (2001).
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H. Xu, J. B. Wright, T. S. Luk, J. J. Figiel, K. Cross, L. F. Lester, G. Balakrishnan, G. T. Wang, I. Brener, and Q. Li, “Single-mode lasing of GaN nanowire-pairs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(11), 113106 (2012).
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J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, X. F. Wang, C. H. Liang, X. S. Peng, and Y. W. Wang, “Fabrication and photoluminescence of ordered GaN nanowire arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(13), 5714–5717 (2001).
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T. Yang, S. Goto, M. Kawata, K. Uchida, A. Niwa, and J. Gotoh, “Optical properties of GaN thin films on sapphire substrates characterized by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(Part 2, No. 10A), L1105–L1108 (1998).
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S. K. Lim, S. Crawford, G. Haberfehlner, and S. Gradečak, “Controlled modulation of diameter and composition along individual III-V nitride nanowires,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 331–336 (2013).
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Nanotechnology (1)

G. T. Wang, A. A. Talin, D. J. Werder, J. R. Creighton, E. Lai, R. J. Anderson, and I. Arslan, “Highly aligned, template-free growth and characterization of vertical GaN nanowires on sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition,” Nanotechnology 17(23), 5773–5780 (2006).
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S. Deshpande, J. Heo, A. Das, and P. Bhattacharya, “Electrically driven polarized single-photon emission from an InGaN quantum dot in a GaN nanowire,” Nat Commun 4, 1675 (2013).
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Nature (1)

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421(6920), 241–245 (2003).
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H. Gao, A. Fu, S. C. Andrews, and P. Yang, “Cleaved-coupled nanowire lasers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(3), 865–869 (2013).
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J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-colour nanowire photonic crystal laser pixels,” Sci Rep 3, 2982 (2013).
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Science (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998), Vol. 3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the two-arm micro-PL setup. In the pump arm (right), an incident laser beam pumps the GaN nanowires from the side. In the collection arm (left), the objective is aligned along the nanowire axis so that its polarization can be measured accurately.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image and (b) lasing spectrum of a GaN nanowire hanging over the substrate edge; (c) SEM image and (d) lasing spectrum of a nanowire lying on the gold substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical power versus polarizer rotation angle measured for (a) the hanging nanowire and (b) the on-gold nanowire. The 0°/90° indicates the orientation parallel/perpendicular to the substrate surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Statistics of (a) polarization major axes and (b) CPSRs from 10 nanowires with similar geometry (5 hanging nanowires and 5 gold substrate nanowires).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized mode intensity distributions calculated for a 230 nm diameter GaN nanowire placed on a gold substrate, i.e. distribution of the mode with polarization parallel (a) and perpendicular (b) to the substrate.

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