Abstract

The wide-gamut system colorimetry has been standardized for ultra-high definition television (UHDTV). The chromaticities of the primaries are designed to lie on the spectral locus to cover major standard system colorimetries and real object colors. Although monochromatic light sources are required for a display to perfectly fulfill the system colorimetry, highly saturated emission colors using recent quantum dot technology may effectively achieve the wide gamut. This paper presents simulation results on the chromaticities of highly saturated non-monochromatic light sources and gamut coverage of real object colors to be considered in designing wide-gamut displays with color filters for the UHDTV.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020, “Parameter values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international programme exchange,” 2012.
  2. ITU-R Recommendation BT.709-5, “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange,” 2002.
  3. K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. ITU-R Report BT.2246–2, “The present state of ultra-high definition television,” 2012.
  5. Adobe Systems Inc., “Adobe RGB (1998) Color Image Encoding,” 2005.
  6. SMPTE RP 431-2, “D-Cinema Quality — Reference Projector and Environment,” 2011.
  7. M. R. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colour,” Color Res. Appl. 5(3), 145–155 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. “A colour appearance model for colour management systems: CIECAM02,” CIE 159:2004 (CIE, 2004).
  9. Z. Luo, D. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Emerging Quantum-Dots-Enhanced LCDs,” J. Display Technol. 10(7), 526–539 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Luo, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Wide color gamut LCD with a quantum dot backlight,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26269–26284 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Masaoka, R. S. Berns, M. D. Fairchild, and F. Moghareh Abed, “Number of discernible object colors is a conundrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(2), 264–277 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

2010 (1)

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

M. R. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colour,” Color Res. Appl. 5(3), 145–155 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

Chen, Y.

Fairchild, M. D.

Luo, Z.

Masaoka, K.

K. Masaoka, R. S. Berns, M. D. Fairchild, and F. Moghareh Abed, “Number of discernible object colors is a conundrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(2), 264–277 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moghareh Abed, F.

Nakasu, E.

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pointer, M. R.

M. R. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colour,” Color Res. Appl. 5(3), 145–155 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, M.

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Xu, D.

Color Res. Appl. (1)

M. R. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colour,” Color Res. Appl. 5(3), 145–155 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast (1)

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (6)

ITU-R Report BT.2246–2, “The present state of ultra-high definition television,” 2012.

Adobe Systems Inc., “Adobe RGB (1998) Color Image Encoding,” 2005.

SMPTE RP 431-2, “D-Cinema Quality — Reference Projector and Environment,” 2011.

“A colour appearance model for colour management systems: CIECAM02,” CIE 159:2004 (CIE, 2004).

ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020, “Parameter values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international programme exchange,” 2012.

ITU-R Recommendation BT.709-5, “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange,” 2002.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chromaticities of the RGB primary sets of the standard system colorimetries for Rec. 709, Adobe RGB, DCI-P3, and those of Pointer’s colors transformed to the D65 white point with the CAT02 chromatic adaptation transform: (a) the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity diagram, (b) the CIE 1976 (u′, v′) chromaticity diagram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Constant FWHM loci at 10, 20, …, 110 nm FWHM meshed with constant central wavelength loci at intervals of 5 nm of Gaussian emission spectra and the CIELAB constant hue loci of the Rec. 2020 primaries: (b)–(d) enlarged sections around the green, blue, and red primaries, respectively, with the Adobe RGB, DCI-P3, and Rec. 709 primaries.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contour plot of the coverage ratio of Pointer’s gamut (%) by a display with the blue light source at 0–100 nm FWHM and the green light source at 0–50 nm FWHM, with both lying on the constant hue loci of the Rec. 2020 primaries, and the Rec. 2020 red primary.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contour plot of the coverage ratio of Pointer’s gamut (%) by a display with the blue light source with a central-wavelength range of 457–477 nm at 20 nm FWHM, the green light source with a central-wavelength range of 522–542 nm central wavelength at 30 nm FWHM, and the Rec. 2020 red primary.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

RGB primaries with color filters: (a) Transmission spectra of color filters and normalized spectra of the optimized laser light sources (461 nm, 535 nm, and 630 nm) and QD-LED (459 nm, 535 nm, and 638.9 nm) light sources, (b–d) the chromaticities of the selected green, blue, and red light sources, respectively, with and without color filters, constant FWHM loci at 10, 20, …, 110 nm FWHM of Gaussian emission spectra, and CIELAB constant hue loci of the Rec. 2020 RGB primaries.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Chromaticity Coordinates of the RGB Primaries Specified in Rec. 2020 and Corresponding Wavelengths of Monochromatic Light

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Table 2 Central Wavelengths and FWHMs of Gaussian Emission Spectra on the CIELAB Constant Hue of the Rec. 2020 Primaries

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Table 3 Estimated Coverage Ratios of Pointer’s Gamut in the CIELAB Color Space and Rec. 2020 Area Ratios Calculated in the xy and uv′ Chromaticity Diagrams by Displays with the Selected Sets of RGB Light Sources

Metrics