Abstract

A low-cost, compact Raman spectrometer suitable for the on-line water monitoring applications is explored. A custom-designed concave grating for wavelength selection was fabricated and tested. The detection of the Raman signal is accomplished with a time-gated single photon avalanche diode (TG-SPAD). A fixed gate window of 3.5ns is designed and applied to the TG-SPAD. The temporal resolution of the SPAD was ~60ps when tested with a 7ps, 532nm solid-state laser. To test the efficiency of the gating in fluorescence signal suppression, different detection windows (3ns-0.25ns) within the 3.5ns gate window are used to measure the Raman spectra of Rhodamine B. Strong Raman peaks are resolved with this low-cost system.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Vankeirsbilck, A. Vercauteren, W. Baeyens, G. Van der Weken, F. Verpoort, G. Vergote, and J. P. Remon, “Applications of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analysis,” TrAC Trends Analyt. Chem. 21(12), 869–877 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, and J. Rantanen, “Raman spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59(2), 179–192 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Li, M. J. Deen, Q. Fang, and P. R. Selvaganapathy, “Design of a flat field concave-grating-based micro-Raman spectrometer for environmental applications,” Appl. Opt. 51(28), 6855–6863 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. R. Ferraro, Introductory Raman Spectroscopy. (Academic Press, 2003).
  5. F. Knorr, Z. J. Smith, and S. Wachsmann-Hogiu, “Development of a time-gated system for Raman spectroscopy of biological samples,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20049–20058 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Ariese, H. Meuzelaar, M. M. Kerssens, J. B. Buijs, and C. Gooijer, “Picosecond Raman spectroscopy with a fast intensified CCD camera for depth analysis of diffusely scattering media,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1192–1197 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. V. Sinfield, O. Colic, D. Fagerman, and C. Monwuba, “A low cost time-resolved raman spectroscopic sensing system enabling fluorescence rejection,” Appl. Spectrosc. 64(2), 201–210 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. U. Li, J. Arlt, J. Richardson, R. Walker, A. Buts, D. Stoppa, E. Charbon, and R. Henderson, “Real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging system with a 32 x 32 0.13microm CMOS low dark-count single-photon avalanche diode array,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10257–10269 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Niclass, M. Soga, H. Matsubara, M. Ogawa and M. Kagami. “A 0.18µm CMOS SoC for a 100m-range 10fps 200× 96-pixel time-of-flight depth sensor,” IEEE Int Solid-State Circuits Conf Dig Tech Papers, 488–489 (Jan. 2013).
  11. Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, “A 1024 x 8, 700-ps time-gated SPAD line sensor for planetary surface exploration with laser raman spectroscopy and LIBS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49(1), 179–189 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, A. Lansman, L. Hallman, A. Kilpela, J. Kostamovaara, M. Kogler, M. Aikio, and J. Tenhunen, “A sub-ns time-gated CMOS single photon avalanche diode detector for Raman spectroscopy,” European Solid-State Devices Research Conference (ESSDERC), 375–378 (2011)
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Kostamovaara, J. Tenhunen, M. Kögler, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and P. Keränen, “Fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy using a time-gated CMOS SPAD,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31632–31645 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. J. Deen and E. D. Thompson, “Design and simulated performance of a CARS spectrometer for dynamic temperature measurements using electronic heterodyning,” Appl. Opt. 28(7), 1409–1416 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. M. El-Desouki, D. Palubiak, M. Deen, Q. Fang, and O. Marinov, “A novel, high-dynamic-range, high-speed, and high-sensitivity CMOS imager using time-domain single-photon counting and avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(4), 1078–1083 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Palubiak, M. M. El-Desouki, O. Marinov, M. Deen, and Q. Fang, “High-speed, single-photon avalanche-photodiode imager for biomedical applications,” Sensors Journal, IEEE 11(10), 2401–2412 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Vo-Dinh, L. R. Allain, and D. L. Stokes, “Cancer gene detection using surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” J Raman Spectrosc 33(7), 511–516 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. Vilella, O. Alonso, A. Montiel, A. Vilà, and A. Dieguez, “A low-noise time-gated single-photon detector in a HV-CMOS technology for triggered imaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 201, 342–351 (2013).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, “A 1024 x 8, 700-ps time-gated SPAD line sensor for planetary surface exploration with laser raman spectroscopy and LIBS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49(1), 179–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (2)

E. Vilella, O. Alonso, A. Montiel, A. Vilà, and A. Dieguez, “A low-noise time-gated single-photon detector in a HV-CMOS technology for triggered imaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 201, 342–351 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Kostamovaara, J. Tenhunen, M. Kögler, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and P. Keränen, “Fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy using a time-gated CMOS SPAD,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31632–31645 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

M. M. El-Desouki, D. Palubiak, M. Deen, Q. Fang, and O. Marinov, “A novel, high-dynamic-range, high-speed, and high-sensitivity CMOS imager using time-domain single-photon counting and avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(4), 1078–1083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Palubiak, M. M. El-Desouki, O. Marinov, M. Deen, and Q. Fang, “High-speed, single-photon avalanche-photodiode imager for biomedical applications,” Sensors Journal, IEEE 11(10), 2401–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (1)

F. Ariese, H. Meuzelaar, M. M. Kerssens, J. B. Buijs, and C. Gooijer, “Picosecond Raman spectroscopy with a fast intensified CCD camera for depth analysis of diffusely scattering media,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1192–1197 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, and J. Rantanen, “Raman spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59(2), 179–192 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. Vo-Dinh, L. R. Allain, and D. L. Stokes, “Cancer gene detection using surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” J Raman Spectrosc 33(7), 511–516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Vankeirsbilck, A. Vercauteren, W. Baeyens, G. Van der Weken, F. Verpoort, G. Vergote, and J. P. Remon, “Applications of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analysis,” TrAC Trends Analyt. Chem. 21(12), 869–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Aikio, M.

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, A. Lansman, L. Hallman, A. Kilpela, J. Kostamovaara, M. Kogler, M. Aikio, and J. Tenhunen, “A sub-ns time-gated CMOS single photon avalanche diode detector for Raman spectroscopy,” European Solid-State Devices Research Conference (ESSDERC), 375–378 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Allain, L. R.

T. Vo-Dinh, L. R. Allain, and D. L. Stokes, “Cancer gene detection using surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” J Raman Spectrosc 33(7), 511–516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, O.

E. Vilella, O. Alonso, A. Montiel, A. Vilà, and A. Dieguez, “A low-noise time-gated single-photon detector in a HV-CMOS technology for triggered imaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 201, 342–351 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ameloot, M.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ariese, F.

F. Ariese, H. Meuzelaar, M. M. Kerssens, J. B. Buijs, and C. Gooijer, “Picosecond Raman spectroscopy with a fast intensified CCD camera for depth analysis of diffusely scattering media,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1192–1197 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arlt, J.

Baeyens, W.

T. Vankeirsbilck, A. Vercauteren, W. Baeyens, G. Van der Weken, F. Verpoort, G. Vergote, and J. P. Remon, “Applications of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analysis,” TrAC Trends Analyt. Chem. 21(12), 869–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Basaric, N.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blacksberg, J.

Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, “A 1024 x 8, 700-ps time-gated SPAD line sensor for planetary surface exploration with laser raman spectroscopy and LIBS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49(1), 179–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Boens, N.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buijs, J. B.

F. Ariese, H. Meuzelaar, M. M. Kerssens, J. B. Buijs, and C. Gooijer, “Picosecond Raman spectroscopy with a fast intensified CCD camera for depth analysis of diffusely scattering media,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1192–1197 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buts, A.

Charbon, E.

Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, “A 1024 x 8, 700-ps time-gated SPAD line sensor for planetary surface exploration with laser raman spectroscopy and LIBS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49(1), 179–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

D. U. Li, J. Arlt, J. Richardson, R. Walker, A. Buts, D. Stoppa, E. Charbon, and R. Henderson, “Real-time fluorescence lifetime imaging system with a 32 x 32 0.13microm CMOS low dark-count single-photon avalanche diode array,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10257–10269 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colic, O.

Contini, D.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cubeddu, R.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dalla Mora, A.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deen, M.

M. M. El-Desouki, D. Palubiak, M. Deen, Q. Fang, and O. Marinov, “A novel, high-dynamic-range, high-speed, and high-sensitivity CMOS imager using time-domain single-photon counting and avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(4), 1078–1083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Palubiak, M. M. El-Desouki, O. Marinov, M. Deen, and Q. Fang, “High-speed, single-photon avalanche-photodiode imager for biomedical applications,” Sensors Journal, IEEE 11(10), 2401–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Deen, M. J.

Dieguez, A.

E. Vilella, O. Alonso, A. Montiel, A. Vilà, and A. Dieguez, “A low-noise time-gated single-photon detector in a HV-CMOS technology for triggered imaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 201, 342–351 (2013).
[CrossRef]

El-Desouki, M. M.

M. M. El-Desouki, D. Palubiak, M. Deen, Q. Fang, and O. Marinov, “A novel, high-dynamic-range, high-speed, and high-sensitivity CMOS imager using time-domain single-photon counting and avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(4), 1078–1083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Palubiak, M. M. El-Desouki, O. Marinov, M. Deen, and Q. Fang, “High-speed, single-photon avalanche-photodiode imager for biomedical applications,” Sensors Journal, IEEE 11(10), 2401–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Engelborghs, Y.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fagerman, D.

Fang, Q.

Z. Li, M. J. Deen, Q. Fang, and P. R. Selvaganapathy, “Design of a flat field concave-grating-based micro-Raman spectrometer for environmental applications,” Appl. Opt. 51(28), 6855–6863 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Palubiak, M. M. El-Desouki, O. Marinov, M. Deen, and Q. Fang, “High-speed, single-photon avalanche-photodiode imager for biomedical applications,” Sensors Journal, IEEE 11(10), 2401–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. M. El-Desouki, D. Palubiak, M. Deen, Q. Fang, and O. Marinov, “A novel, high-dynamic-range, high-speed, and high-sensitivity CMOS imager using time-domain single-photon counting and avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(4), 1078–1083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gooijer, C.

F. Ariese, H. Meuzelaar, M. M. Kerssens, J. B. Buijs, and C. Gooijer, “Picosecond Raman spectroscopy with a fast intensified CCD camera for depth analysis of diffusely scattering media,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1192–1197 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, K. C.

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, and J. Rantanen, “Raman spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59(2), 179–192 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratton, E.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, I.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hallman, L.

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, A. Lansman, L. Hallman, A. Kilpela, J. Kostamovaara, M. Kogler, M. Aikio, and J. Tenhunen, “A sub-ns time-gated CMOS single photon avalanche diode detector for Raman spectroscopy,” European Solid-State Devices Research Conference (ESSDERC), 375–378 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Henderson, R.

Hofkens, J.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keränen, P.

Kerssens, M. M.

F. Ariese, H. Meuzelaar, M. M. Kerssens, J. B. Buijs, and C. Gooijer, “Picosecond Raman spectroscopy with a fast intensified CCD camera for depth analysis of diffusely scattering media,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1192–1197 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilpela, A.

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, A. Lansman, L. Hallman, A. Kilpela, J. Kostamovaara, M. Kogler, M. Aikio, and J. Tenhunen, “A sub-ns time-gated CMOS single photon avalanche diode detector for Raman spectroscopy,” European Solid-State Devices Research Conference (ESSDERC), 375–378 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Knorr, F.

Kogler, M.

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, A. Lansman, L. Hallman, A. Kilpela, J. Kostamovaara, M. Kogler, M. Aikio, and J. Tenhunen, “A sub-ns time-gated CMOS single photon avalanche diode detector for Raman spectroscopy,” European Solid-State Devices Research Conference (ESSDERC), 375–378 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Kögler, M.

Kostamovaara, J.

J. Kostamovaara, J. Tenhunen, M. Kögler, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and P. Keränen, “Fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy using a time-gated CMOS SPAD,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31632–31645 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, A. Lansman, L. Hallman, A. Kilpela, J. Kostamovaara, M. Kogler, M. Aikio, and J. Tenhunen, “A sub-ns time-gated CMOS single photon avalanche diode detector for Raman spectroscopy,” European Solid-State Devices Research Conference (ESSDERC), 375–378 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Krajcarski, D. T.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lansman, A.

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, A. Lansman, L. Hallman, A. Kilpela, J. Kostamovaara, M. Kogler, M. Aikio, and J. Tenhunen, “A sub-ns time-gated CMOS single photon avalanche diode detector for Raman spectroscopy,” European Solid-State Devices Research Conference (ESSDERC), 375–378 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre, J. P.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, D. U.

Li, Z.

Malak, H.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marinov, O.

M. M. El-Desouki, D. Palubiak, M. Deen, Q. Fang, and O. Marinov, “A novel, high-dynamic-range, high-speed, and high-sensitivity CMOS imager using time-domain single-photon counting and avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(4), 1078–1083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Palubiak, M. M. El-Desouki, O. Marinov, M. Deen, and Q. Fang, “High-speed, single-photon avalanche-photodiode imager for biomedical applications,” Sensors Journal, IEEE 11(10), 2401–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, Y.

Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, “A 1024 x 8, 700-ps time-gated SPAD line sensor for planetary surface exploration with laser raman spectroscopy and LIBS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49(1), 179–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Meuzelaar, H.

F. Ariese, H. Meuzelaar, M. M. Kerssens, J. B. Buijs, and C. Gooijer, “Picosecond Raman spectroscopy with a fast intensified CCD camera for depth analysis of diffusely scattering media,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1192–1197 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, A.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montiel, A.

E. Vilella, O. Alonso, A. Montiel, A. Vilà, and A. Dieguez, “A low-noise time-gated single-photon detector in a HV-CMOS technology for triggered imaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 201, 342–351 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Monwuba, C.

Nissinen, I.

J. Kostamovaara, J. Tenhunen, M. Kögler, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and P. Keränen, “Fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy using a time-gated CMOS SPAD,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31632–31645 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, A. Lansman, L. Hallman, A. Kilpela, J. Kostamovaara, M. Kogler, M. Aikio, and J. Tenhunen, “A sub-ns time-gated CMOS single photon avalanche diode detector for Raman spectroscopy,” European Solid-State Devices Research Conference (ESSDERC), 375–378 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Nissinen, J.

J. Kostamovaara, J. Tenhunen, M. Kögler, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and P. Keränen, “Fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy using a time-gated CMOS SPAD,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31632–31645 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, A. Lansman, L. Hallman, A. Kilpela, J. Kostamovaara, M. Kogler, M. Aikio, and J. Tenhunen, “A sub-ns time-gated CMOS single photon avalanche diode detector for Raman spectroscopy,” European Solid-State Devices Research Conference (ESSDERC), 375–378 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Palubiak, D.

D. Palubiak, M. M. El-Desouki, O. Marinov, M. Deen, and Q. Fang, “High-speed, single-photon avalanche-photodiode imager for biomedical applications,” Sensors Journal, IEEE 11(10), 2401–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. M. El-Desouki, D. Palubiak, M. Deen, Q. Fang, and O. Marinov, “A novel, high-dynamic-range, high-speed, and high-sensitivity CMOS imager using time-domain single-photon counting and avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(4), 1078–1083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pouget, J.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, W.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rades, T.

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, and J. Rantanen, “Raman spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59(2), 179–192 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rantanen, J.

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, and J. Rantanen, “Raman spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59(2), 179–192 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remon, J. P.

T. Vankeirsbilck, A. Vercauteren, W. Baeyens, G. Van der Weken, F. Verpoort, G. Vergote, and J. P. Remon, “Applications of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analysis,” TrAC Trends Analyt. Chem. 21(12), 869–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, J.

Rumbles, G.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selvaganapathy, P. R.

Sillen, A.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, N. D.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinfield, J. V.

Smith, Z. J.

Spinelli, L.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, D. L.

T. Vo-Dinh, L. R. Allain, and D. L. Stokes, “Cancer gene detection using surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” J Raman Spectrosc 33(7), 511–516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stoppa, D.

Strachan, C. J.

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, and J. Rantanen, “Raman spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59(2), 179–192 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szabo, A. G.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamai, N.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tenhunen, J.

J. Kostamovaara, J. Tenhunen, M. Kögler, I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, and P. Keränen, “Fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy using a time-gated CMOS SPAD,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31632–31645 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, A. Lansman, L. Hallman, A. Kilpela, J. Kostamovaara, M. Kogler, M. Aikio, and J. Tenhunen, “A sub-ns time-gated CMOS single photon avalanche diode detector for Raman spectroscopy,” European Solid-State Devices Research Conference (ESSDERC), 375–378 (2011)
[CrossRef]

Thompson, E. D.

Torricelli, A.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tosi, A.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Valeur, B.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van der Weken, G.

T. Vankeirsbilck, A. Vercauteren, W. Baeyens, G. Van der Weken, F. Verpoort, G. Vergote, and J. P. Remon, “Applications of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analysis,” TrAC Trends Analyt. Chem. 21(12), 869–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Hoek, A.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

vandeVen, M.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vankeirsbilck, T.

T. Vankeirsbilck, A. Vercauteren, W. Baeyens, G. Van der Weken, F. Verpoort, G. Vergote, and J. P. Remon, “Applications of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analysis,” TrAC Trends Analyt. Chem. 21(12), 869–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vercauteren, A.

T. Vankeirsbilck, A. Vercauteren, W. Baeyens, G. Van der Weken, F. Verpoort, G. Vergote, and J. P. Remon, “Applications of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analysis,” TrAC Trends Analyt. Chem. 21(12), 869–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vergote, G.

T. Vankeirsbilck, A. Vercauteren, W. Baeyens, G. Van der Weken, F. Verpoort, G. Vergote, and J. P. Remon, “Applications of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analysis,” TrAC Trends Analyt. Chem. 21(12), 869–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Verpoort, F.

T. Vankeirsbilck, A. Vercauteren, W. Baeyens, G. Van der Weken, F. Verpoort, G. Vergote, and J. P. Remon, “Applications of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analysis,” TrAC Trends Analyt. Chem. 21(12), 869–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vilà, A.

E. Vilella, O. Alonso, A. Montiel, A. Vilà, and A. Dieguez, “A low-noise time-gated single-photon detector in a HV-CMOS technology for triggered imaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 201, 342–351 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vilella, E.

E. Vilella, O. Alonso, A. Montiel, A. Vilà, and A. Dieguez, “A low-noise time-gated single-photon detector in a HV-CMOS technology for triggered imaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 201, 342–351 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Visser, A. J.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vo-Dinh, T.

T. Vo-Dinh, L. R. Allain, and D. L. Stokes, “Cancer gene detection using surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” J Raman Spectrosc 33(7), 511–516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wachsmann-Hogiu, S.

Walker, R.

Willaert, K.

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zappa, F.

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

N. Boens, W. Qin, N. Basarić, J. Hofkens, M. Ameloot, J. Pouget, J. P. Lefèvre, B. Valeur, E. Gratton, M. vandeVen, N. D. Silva, Y. Engelborghs, K. Willaert, A. Sillen, G. Rumbles, D. Phillips, A. J. Visser, A. van Hoek, J. R. Lakowicz, H. Malak, I. Gryczynski, A. G. Szabo, D. T. Krajcarski, N. Tamai, and A. Miura, “Fluorescence lifetime standards for time and frequency domain fluorescence spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 79(5), 2137–2149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

F. Ariese, H. Meuzelaar, M. M. Kerssens, J. B. Buijs, and C. Gooijer, “Picosecond Raman spectroscopy with a fast intensified CCD camera for depth analysis of diffusely scattering media,” Analyst (Lond.) 134(6), 1192–1197 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Dalla Mora, A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, D. Contini, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Fast-gated single-photon avalanche diode for wide dynamic range near infrared spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 1023–1030 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

Y. Maruyama, J. Blacksberg, and E. Charbon, “A 1024 x 8, 700-ps time-gated SPAD line sensor for planetary surface exploration with laser raman spectroscopy and LIBS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 49(1), 179–189 (2014).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

M. M. El-Desouki, D. Palubiak, M. Deen, Q. Fang, and O. Marinov, “A novel, high-dynamic-range, high-speed, and high-sensitivity CMOS imager using time-domain single-photon counting and avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 11(4), 1078–1083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J Raman Spectrosc (1)

T. Vo-Dinh, L. R. Allain, and D. L. Stokes, “Cancer gene detection using surface‐enhanced Raman scattering (SERS),” J Raman Spectrosc 33(7), 511–516 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1)

C. J. Strachan, T. Rades, K. C. Gordon, and J. Rantanen, “Raman spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical solids,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 59(2), 179–192 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

E. Vilella, O. Alonso, A. Montiel, A. Vilà, and A. Dieguez, “A low-noise time-gated single-photon detector in a HV-CMOS technology for triggered imaging,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 201, 342–351 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Journal, IEEE (1)

D. Palubiak, M. M. El-Desouki, O. Marinov, M. Deen, and Q. Fang, “High-speed, single-photon avalanche-photodiode imager for biomedical applications,” Sensors Journal, IEEE 11(10), 2401–2412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

TrAC Trends Analyt. Chem. (1)

T. Vankeirsbilck, A. Vercauteren, W. Baeyens, G. Van der Weken, F. Verpoort, G. Vergote, and J. P. Remon, “Applications of Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical analysis,” TrAC Trends Analyt. Chem. 21(12), 869–877 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

I. Nissinen, J. Nissinen, A. Lansman, L. Hallman, A. Kilpela, J. Kostamovaara, M. Kogler, M. Aikio, and J. Tenhunen, “A sub-ns time-gated CMOS single photon avalanche diode detector for Raman spectroscopy,” European Solid-State Devices Research Conference (ESSDERC), 375–378 (2011)
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ferraro, Introductory Raman Spectroscopy. (Academic Press, 2003).

C. Niclass, M. Soga, H. Matsubara, M. Ogawa and M. Kagami. “A 0.18µm CMOS SoC for a 100m-range 10fps 200× 96-pixel time-of-flight depth sensor,” IEEE Int Solid-State Circuits Conf Dig Tech Papers, 488–489 (Jan. 2013).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the optical setup with a concave grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Setup of the holographic fabrication using an L-stage; (b) SEM image of the fabricated concave grating surface; (c) Comparison of the lens before and after fabrication of the grating pattern; (d) Spectra from the concave grating illuminated by a halogen lamp.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the on-chip pulse generator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic, and (b) Timing diagram of the proposed pixel circuit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Micrograph of the fabricated chip; (b) Test PCB with DC and RF connectors; (c) Setup of the illumination measurement; (d) Measurement of the photon arrival time.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Setup and instrumentation of the time gated Raman spectrometer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Timing diagram of the measurements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectrum of Rhodamine B measured with different detection windows.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Florescence background (a) and Raman peaks (b) measured at different detection windows.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the state-of-the-art CMOS TG-SPADs

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d= λ 2sinθ
FWH M add = FWH M test 2 FWH M laser 2 100ps

Metrics