Abstract

The ability of using scattering-type near-field scanning optical microscopy (s-NSOM) to characterize amplitude and phase of optical near fields was investigated. We employ numerical simulations to compute signals scattered by the tip, using a bowtie nano-aperture as the example, and compare with the data obtained from s-NSOM measurements. Through demodulation of higher order harmonic signals, we show that, with the increasing order of harmonic signals, both the simulated and measured near fields are in closer agreement with the anticipated near field results. The polarization-resolved detection also helps to establish a tip-dependent transfer matrix that relates the local field components with the s-NSOM signals, which characterizes the scattering of the tip with respect to different field components. This work illustrates the importance of using higher order signals in obtaining near field in an s-NSOM measurement.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Near-field scattering of longitudinal fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4596–4598 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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2014

2013

T. G. Habteyes, S. Dhuey, K. I. Kiesow, and A. Vold, “Probe-sample optical interaction: size and wavelength dependence in localized plasmon near-field imaging,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21607–21617 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ravichandran, E. C. Kinzel, J. C. Ginn, J. A. D’Archangel, E. Z. Tucker, B. A. Lail, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Numerical Modeling of Scattering Type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8815, 88150S (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

A. C. Jones and M. B. Raschke, “Thermal Infrared Near-Field Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1475–1481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(4), 045404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: Differences between heterodyne interferometric and non-interferometric images,” Ultramicroscopy 111(9-10), 1469–1474 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

W. Chen, A. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, and T. Rasing, “Apertureless SNOM study on gold nanoparticles: Experiments and simulations,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(8), 2047–2050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A Near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-Resolved Mapping of the Near-Field Vector and Polarization State in Nanoscale Antenna Gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Full simulations of the apertureless scanning near field optical microscopy signal: achievable resolution and contrast,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2518–2529 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, K. J. Ahn, J. S. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field mapping of local polarization using gold nanoparticle functionalized tips: independence of the tip shape,” Opt. Express 15(23), 14993–15001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Apertureless scanning near field optical microscope with sub-10 nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 043703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Diziain, D. Barchiesi, T. Grosges, and P. M. Adam, “Recovering of the apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy signal through a lock-in detection,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 233–238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Fikri, T. Grosges, and D. Barchiesi, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: numerical modeling of the lock-in detection,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 15–23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1817), 787–805 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2000

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature 399(6732), 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P. M.

S. Diziain, D. Barchiesi, T. Grosges, and P. M. Adam, “Recovering of the apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy signal through a lock-in detection,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 233–238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, J. S.

Ahn, K. J.

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-Resolved Mapping of the Near-Field Vector and Polarization State in Nanoscale Antenna Gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alkorta, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-Resolved Mapping of the Near-Field Vector and Polarization State in Nanoscale Antenna Gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amarie, S.

S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(4), 045404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aubert, S.

Bachelot, R.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, S. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, “Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-field optical microcopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(10), 2117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

S. Diziain, D. Barchiesi, T. Grosges, and P. M. Adam, “Recovering of the apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy signal through a lock-in detection,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 233–238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Fikri, T. Grosges, and D. Barchiesi, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: numerical modeling of the lock-in detection,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 15–23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bek, A.

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Apertureless scanning near field optical microscope with sub-10 nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 043703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M. R.

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Near-field scattering of longitudinal fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4596–4598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blaize, S.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, S. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, “Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-field optical microcopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(10), 2117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

A. Ravichandran, E. C. Kinzel, J. C. Ginn, J. A. D’Archangel, E. Z. Tucker, B. A. Lail, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Numerical Modeling of Scattering Type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8815, 88150S (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A Near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Near-field scattering of longitudinal fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4596–4598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bruyant, A.

Castro, M. E.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, A. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, and T. Rasing, “Apertureless SNOM study on gold nanoparticles: Experiments and simulations,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(8), 2047–2050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cvitkovic, A.

D’Archangel, J. A.

A. Ravichandran, E. C. Kinzel, J. C. Ginn, J. A. D’Archangel, E. Z. Tucker, B. A. Lail, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Numerical Modeling of Scattering Type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8815, 88150S (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dhuey, S.

Diziain, S.

S. Diziain, D. Barchiesi, T. Grosges, and P. M. Adam, “Recovering of the apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy signal through a lock-in detection,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 233–238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Esteban, R.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: Differences between heterodyne interferometric and non-interferometric images,” Ultramicroscopy 111(9-10), 1469–1474 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Full simulations of the apertureless scanning near field optical microscopy signal: achievable resolution and contrast,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2518–2529 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fikri, R.

R. Fikri, T. Grosges, and D. Barchiesi, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: numerical modeling of the lock-in detection,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 15–23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Etxarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-Resolved Mapping of the Near-Field Vector and Polarization State in Nanoscale Antenna Gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Etxarri, A.

A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ginn, J. C.

A. Ravichandran, E. C. Kinzel, J. C. Ginn, J. A. D’Archangel, E. Z. Tucker, B. A. Lail, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Numerical Modeling of Scattering Type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8815, 88150S (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, L.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grosges, T.

S. Diziain, D. Barchiesi, T. Grosges, and P. M. Adam, “Recovering of the apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy signal through a lock-in detection,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 233–238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Fikri, T. Grosges, and D. Barchiesi, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: numerical modeling of the lock-in detection,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 15–23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Habteyes, T. G.

Hillenbrand, R.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-Resolved Mapping of the Near-Field Vector and Polarization State in Nanoscale Antenna Gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1817), 787–805 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, F.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A.

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A. J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudlet, S.

Huth, F.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, S.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, E. X.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. C.

A. C. Jones and M. B. Raschke, “Thermal Infrared Near-Field Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1475–1481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keilmann, F.

S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(4), 045404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1817), 787–805 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature 399(6732), 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kern, K.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: Differences between heterodyne interferometric and non-interferometric images,” Ultramicroscopy 111(9-10), 1469–1474 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Full simulations of the apertureless scanning near field optical microscopy signal: achievable resolution and contrast,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2518–2529 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Apertureless scanning near field optical microscope with sub-10 nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 043703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiesow, K. I.

Kihm, H. W.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, K. J. Ahn, J. S. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field mapping of local polarization using gold nanoparticle functionalized tips: independence of the tip shape,” Opt. Express 15(23), 14993–15001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, J. E.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, K. J. Ahn, J. S. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field mapping of local polarization using gold nanoparticle functionalized tips: independence of the tip shape,” Opt. Express 15(23), 14993–15001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimel, A.

W. Chen, A. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, and T. Rasing, “Apertureless SNOM study on gold nanoparticles: Experiments and simulations,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(8), 2047–2050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kinzel, E. C.

Y. Li, N. Zhou, E. C. Kinzel, X. Ren, and X. Xu, “The origin of interferometric effect involving surface plasmon polariton in scattering near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2965–2972 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ravichandran, E. C. Kinzel, J. C. Ginn, J. A. D’Archangel, E. Z. Tucker, B. A. Lail, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Numerical Modeling of Scattering Type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8815, 88150S (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kirilyuk, A.

W. Chen, A. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, and T. Rasing, “Apertureless SNOM study on gold nanoparticles: Experiments and simulations,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(8), 2047–2050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, B.

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature 399(6732), 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krenz, P. M.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A Near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lail, B. A.

A. Ravichandran, E. C. Kinzel, J. C. Ginn, J. A. D’Archangel, E. Z. Tucker, B. A. Lail, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Numerical Modeling of Scattering Type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8815, 88150S (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A Near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. G.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, K. J. Ahn, J. S. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field mapping of local polarization using gold nanoparticle functionalized tips: independence of the tip shape,” Opt. Express 15(23), 14993–15001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerondel, G.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, S. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, “Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-field optical microcopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(10), 2117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Li, Z. Y.

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lienau, C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, K. J. Ahn, J. S. Ahn, Y. D. Suh, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field mapping of local polarization using gold nanoparticle functionalized tips: independence of the tip shape,” Opt. Express 15(23), 14993–15001 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Near-field scattering of longitudinal fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4596–4598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ocelic, N.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8550–8565 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olmon, R. L.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A Near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, D. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rang, M.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A Near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raschke, M. B.

A. Ravichandran, E. C. Kinzel, J. C. Ginn, J. A. D’Archangel, E. Z. Tucker, B. A. Lail, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Numerical Modeling of Scattering Type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8815, 88150S (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Jones and M. B. Raschke, “Thermal Infrared Near-Field Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1475–1481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A Near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Olmon, P. M. Krenz, A. C. Jones, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20295–20305 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasing, T.

W. Chen, A. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, and T. Rasing, “Apertureless SNOM study on gold nanoparticles: Experiments and simulations,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(8), 2047–2050 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ravichandran, A.

A. Ravichandran, E. C. Kinzel, J. C. Ginn, J. A. D’Archangel, E. Z. Tucker, B. A. Lail, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Numerical Modeling of Scattering Type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8815, 88150S (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ren, X.

Rogers, J. A.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romero, I.

A. García-Etxarri, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and J. Aizpurua, “Influence of the tip in near-field imaging of nanoparticle plasmonic modes: Weak and strong coupling regimes,” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 125439 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, S. Blaize, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Hudlet, and P. Royer, “Analysis of the interferometric effect of the background light in apertureless scanning near-field optical microcopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(10), 2117 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saraf, L. V.

R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A Near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnell, M.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-Resolved Mapping of the Near-Field Vector and Polarization State in Nanoscale Antenna Gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefanon, I.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suh, Y. D.

Tucker, E. Z.

A. Ravichandran, E. C. Kinzel, J. C. Ginn, J. A. D’Archangel, E. Z. Tucker, B. A. Lail, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Numerical Modeling of Scattering Type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8815, 88150S (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vogelgesang, R.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: Differences between heterodyne interferometric and non-interferometric images,” Ultramicroscopy 111(9-10), 1469–1474 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Full simulations of the apertureless scanning near field optical microscopy signal: achievable resolution and contrast,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2518–2529 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Tip-substrate interaction in optical near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Apertureless scanning near field optical microscope with sub-10 nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 043703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vold, A.

Wiederrecht, G. P.

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
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Wiley, B. J.

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittborn, J.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, D. H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

Y. Li, N. Zhou, E. C. Kinzel, X. Ren, and X. Xu, “The origin of interferometric effect involving surface plasmon polariton in scattering near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2965–2972 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, Y. C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, F.

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, N.

Appl. Phys. B

S. Diziain, D. Barchiesi, T. Grosges, and P. M. Adam, “Recovering of the apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy signal through a lock-in detection,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 233–238 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Bouhelier, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, “Near-field scattering of longitudinal fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4596–4598 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, “Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

L. Gomez, R. Bachelot, A. Bouhelier, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. Chang, S. K. Gray, F. Hua, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, M. E. Castro, S. Blaize, I. Stefanon, G. Lerondel, and P. Royer, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: a comparison between homodyne and heterodyne approaches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 823–833 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nano Lett.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-Resolved Mapping of the Near-Field Vector and Polarization State in Nanoscale Antenna Gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz Near-Field Nanoscopy of Mobile Carriers in Single Semiconductor Nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Jones and M. B. Raschke, “Thermal Infrared Near-Field Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1475–1481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rang, A. C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature 399(6732), 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. Fikri, T. Grosges, and D. Barchiesi, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy: numerical modeling of the lock-in detection,” Opt. Commun. 232(1-6), 15–23 (2004).
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F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, “Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1817), 787–805 (2004).
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R. L. Olmon, M. Rang, P. M. Krenz, B. A. Lail, L. V. Saraf, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Determination of Electric-Field, Magnetic-Field, and Electric-Current Distributions of Infrared Optical Antennas: A Near-Field Optical Vector Network Analyzer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(16), 167403 (2010).
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W. Chen, A. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, and T. Rasing, “Apertureless SNOM study on gold nanoparticles: Experiments and simulations,” Phys. Status Solidi B 247(8), 2047–2050 (2010).
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Proc. SPIE

A. Ravichandran, E. C. Kinzel, J. C. Ginn, J. A. D’Archangel, E. Z. Tucker, B. A. Lail, M. B. Raschke, and G. D. Boreman, “Numerical Modeling of Scattering Type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Proc. SPIE 8815, 88150S (2013).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Simulation model of the tip, the bowtie aperture and the substrate. The scattering intensity is collected along the -x axis with an off-normal angle of 60 degree. (b) Illustration of the collection path and far field polarizations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Numerical simulations of the field distributions for local Ex, Ey and Ez in a 400 × 400 nm2 region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated phases in the far field with Si tip (top row) and Au coated Si tip (bottom row), at different tip-sample distance z. The legend is the same for all plots. y positions are from −50 nm to 50 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated amplitude |Es| and |Ep|, with a constant tip-sample separation of 5 nm. The images have a dimension of 100 × 100 nm2. The tip moves with a step of 25nm for both x and y directions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Model of the tip oscillation. Calculated far field signal magnitude (b) |Es| and (c) |Ep| in arbitrary unit. Compare demodulated (d) s- and (e) p-polarization signals at higher harmonics (n = 2 ~5) with local profiles and signals without tip oscillation (fixed tip-sample distance of 5 nm). In plots (d) and (e), signals have been normalized to the number at y = 10 nm for each curve.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the transmission mode s-NSOM setup.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a, b) SEM images of the sample (scale bar: 300 nm), together with (c, d) models built in HFSS considering the real shape.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Near field distributions (400 × 400 nm2) and (b) corresponding profiles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

AFM topography image and optical images of |Ep| at different harmonic orders (a) without and (b) with the reference beam. The scan size is 0.8 × 0.8 µm2 for the topography image and 1Ω to 3Ω, and 0.5 × 0.5 µm2 for 4Ω and 5Ω. The black arrow in (a) indicates the incident polarization. (c) FWHM spot sizes as a function of the harmonic order, both with and without the reference beam. Line scans of the demodulated (d) amplitude and (e) phase in the presence of the reference beam.

Equations (2)

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E n 0 T S(t) e inΩt dt 0 T/2 S(t)cos(nΩt)dt ,
E scat α E local ,

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