Abstract

To model discomfort glare from LED road lighting, the effect of four key variables on perceived glare was explored. These variables were: the average glare source luminance (Lg), the background luminance (Lb), the solid angle of the glare source from the perspective of the viewer (ω) and the angle between the glare source and the line of sight (θ). Based on these four variables 72 different light conditions were simulated in a scaled experimental set-up. Participants were requested to judge the perceived discomfort glare of these light conditions using the deBoer rating scale. All four variables and some of their interactions had indeed a significant effect on the deBoer rating. Based on these findings, we developed a model, and tested its general applicability in various verification experiments, including laboratory conditions as well as real road conditions. This verification proved the validity of the model with a correlation between measured and predicted values as high as 0.87 and a residual deviation of about 1 unit on the deBoer rating scale. These results filled the gap in estimating discomfort glare of LED road lighting and clarified similarities of and differences in discomfort glare between LED and traditional light sources.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012

J. D. Bullough and K. Sweater-Hickcox, “Interactions among light source luminance, illuminance and size on discomfort glare,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars-Mech. Syst. 5, 199–202 (2012).

P. I. Bodrogi, N. A. Wolf, and T. Q. Khanh, “Spectral and additivity of discomfort glare under street and automotive lighting conditions,” Light Eng. 20, 66–71 (2012).

K. Sweater-Hickcox, N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, and J. P. Freyssinier, “Effect of different coloured luminous surrounds on LED discomfort glare perception,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–12 (2012).

2011

T. Kimura-Minoda and M. Ayama, “Evaluation of discomfort glare from colour LEDs and its correlation with individual variations in brightness sensitivity,” Color Res. Appl. 36(4), 286–294 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “Predicting lamp spectrum effects at mesopic levels. Part 1: Spatial brightness,” Lighting Res. Tech. 43(2), 143–157 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bullough, K. Sweater-Hickcox, and N. Narendran, “A method for estimating discomfort glare from exterior lighting system,” Alliance for Solid-State Illumination Systems and Technologies 9, 1–7 (2011).

2010

W. Kim and J. T. Kim, “Effect of background luminance on discomfort glare in relation to the glare source size,” Indoor Built Environ. 19(1), 175–183 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Eble-Hankins and C. E. Waters, “Subjective impression of discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance,” Leukos. 6, 51–77 (2010).

J. Fekete, C. Sik-Lányi, and J. Schanda, “Spectral discomfort glare sensitivity investigations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(2), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(3), 225–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “Lighting for subsidiary streets: investigation of lamps of different SPD. Part 2-Brightness,” Lighting Res. Tech. 39(3), 233–249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” Journal of Light and Visual Environment (Japan) 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. J. Vos, “On the cause of disability glare and its dependence on glare angle, age and ocular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86(6), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

I. J. Murray, S. Plainis, and D. Carden, “The ocular stress monitor: a new device for measuring discomfort glare,” Lighting Res. Tech. 34(3), 231–242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1995

C. E. Waters, R. G. Mistrick, and C. A. Bermecker, “Discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24(2), 73–85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1984

C. A. Bennett, R. M. Rubison, and B. C. Ramaro, “Discomfort glare: luminance range-limited replication study of angularly small sources,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 14(1), 396–420 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1974

H. J. Schmidt-Clausen and J. T. H. Bindels, “Assessment of discomfort glare in motor vehicle lighting,” Lighting Res. Tech. 6(2), 79–88 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1967

J. B. deBoer and D. A. Schreuder, “Glare as a criterion for quality in street lighting,” Trans.Illum.Eng.Soc. 32, 117–135 (1967).

1963

S. K. Guth, “A method for the evaluation of discomfort glare,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 58, 351–364 (1963).

1962

W. M. Collins, “The determination of the minimum identifiable glare sensation interval,” Trans.Illum.Eng.Soc. 27, 27–34 (1962).

1950

P. Petherbridge and R. G. Hopkinson, “Discomfort glare and the lighting of buildings,” Trans.Illum.Eng.Soc. 15, 39–44 (1950).

Aizawa, D.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” Journal of Light and Visual Environment (Japan) 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ayama, M.

T. Kimura-Minoda and M. Ayama, “Evaluation of discomfort glare from colour LEDs and its correlation with individual variations in brightness sensitivity,” Color Res. Appl. 36(4), 286–294 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barraza, J. F.

Bennett, C. A.

C. A. Bennett, R. M. Rubison, and B. C. Ramaro, “Discomfort glare: luminance range-limited replication study of angularly small sources,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 14(1), 396–420 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bermecker, C. A.

C. E. Waters, R. G. Mistrick, and C. A. Bermecker, “Discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24(2), 73–85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bindels, J. T. H.

H. J. Schmidt-Clausen and J. T. H. Bindels, “Assessment of discomfort glare in motor vehicle lighting,” Lighting Res. Tech. 6(2), 79–88 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bodrogi, P. I.

P. I. Bodrogi, N. A. Wolf, and T. Q. Khanh, “Spectral and additivity of discomfort glare under street and automotive lighting conditions,” Light Eng. 20, 66–71 (2012).

Brons, J. A.

J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(3), 225–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bullough, J. D.

J. D. Bullough and K. Sweater-Hickcox, “Interactions among light source luminance, illuminance and size on discomfort glare,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars-Mech. Syst. 5, 199–202 (2012).

K. Sweater-Hickcox, N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, and J. P. Freyssinier, “Effect of different coloured luminous surrounds on LED discomfort glare perception,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–12 (2012).

J. D. Bullough, K. Sweater-Hickcox, and N. Narendran, “A method for estimating discomfort glare from exterior lighting system,” Alliance for Solid-State Illumination Systems and Technologies 9, 1–7 (2011).

J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(3), 225–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carden, D.

I. J. Murray, S. Plainis, and D. Carden, “The ocular stress monitor: a new device for measuring discomfort glare,” Lighting Res. Tech. 34(3), 231–242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheal, C.

S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “Predicting lamp spectrum effects at mesopic levels. Part 1: Spatial brightness,” Lighting Res. Tech. 43(2), 143–157 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “Lighting for subsidiary streets: investigation of lamps of different SPD. Part 2-Brightness,” Lighting Res. Tech. 39(3), 233–249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Collins, W. M.

W. M. Collins, “The determination of the minimum identifiable glare sensation interval,” Trans.Illum.Eng.Soc. 27, 27–34 (1962).

Colombo, E. M.

Cruz, A.

deBoer, J. B.

J. B. deBoer and D. A. Schreuder, “Glare as a criterion for quality in street lighting,” Trans.Illum.Eng.Soc. 32, 117–135 (1967).

Eble-Hankins, M. L.

M. L. Eble-Hankins and C. E. Waters, “Subjective impression of discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance,” Leukos. 6, 51–77 (2010).

Fekete, J.

J. Fekete, C. Sik-Lányi, and J. Schanda, “Spectral discomfort glare sensitivity investigations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(2), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fotios, S. A.

S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “Predicting lamp spectrum effects at mesopic levels. Part 1: Spatial brightness,” Lighting Res. Tech. 43(2), 143–157 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “Lighting for subsidiary streets: investigation of lamps of different SPD. Part 2-Brightness,” Lighting Res. Tech. 39(3), 233–249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier, J. P.

K. Sweater-Hickcox, N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, and J. P. Freyssinier, “Effect of different coloured luminous surrounds on LED discomfort glare perception,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–12 (2012).

Garcia, J. A.

Guth, S. K.

S. K. Guth, “A method for the evaluation of discomfort glare,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 58, 351–364 (1963).

Hita, E.

Hopkinson, R. G.

P. Petherbridge and R. G. Hopkinson, “Discomfort glare and the lighting of buildings,” Trans.Illum.Eng.Soc. 15, 39–44 (1950).

Irikura, T.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” Journal of Light and Visual Environment (Japan) 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, M.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” Journal of Light and Visual Environment (Japan) 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, T.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” Journal of Light and Visual Environment (Japan) 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khanh, T. Q.

P. I. Bodrogi, N. A. Wolf, and T. Q. Khanh, “Spectral and additivity of discomfort glare under street and automotive lighting conditions,” Light Eng. 20, 66–71 (2012).

Kim, J. T.

W. Kim and J. T. Kim, “Effect of background luminance on discomfort glare in relation to the glare source size,” Indoor Built Environ. 19(1), 175–183 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

W. Kim and J. T. Kim, “Effect of background luminance on discomfort glare in relation to the glare source size,” Indoor Built Environ. 19(1), 175–183 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kimura-Minoda, T.

T. Kimura-Minoda and M. Ayama, “Evaluation of discomfort glare from colour LEDs and its correlation with individual variations in brightness sensitivity,” Color Res. Appl. 36(4), 286–294 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mistrick, R. G.

C. E. Waters, R. G. Mistrick, and C. A. Bermecker, “Discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24(2), 73–85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moriyama, T.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” Journal of Light and Visual Environment (Japan) 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murray, I. J.

I. J. Murray, S. Plainis, and D. Carden, “The ocular stress monitor: a new device for measuring discomfort glare,” Lighting Res. Tech. 34(3), 231–242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Narendran, N.

K. Sweater-Hickcox, N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, and J. P. Freyssinier, “Effect of different coloured luminous surrounds on LED discomfort glare perception,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–12 (2012).

J. D. Bullough, K. Sweater-Hickcox, and N. Narendran, “A method for estimating discomfort glare from exterior lighting system,” Alliance for Solid-State Illumination Systems and Technologies 9, 1–7 (2011).

Petherbridge, P.

P. Petherbridge and R. G. Hopkinson, “Discomfort glare and the lighting of buildings,” Trans.Illum.Eng.Soc. 15, 39–44 (1950).

Plainis, S.

I. J. Murray, S. Plainis, and D. Carden, “The ocular stress monitor: a new device for measuring discomfort glare,” Lighting Res. Tech. 34(3), 231–242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qi, R.

J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(3), 225–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ramaro, B. C.

C. A. Bennett, R. M. Rubison, and B. C. Ramaro, “Discomfort glare: luminance range-limited replication study of angularly small sources,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 14(1), 396–420 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rea, M. S.

J. D. Bullough, J. A. Brons, R. Qi, and M. S. Rea, “Predicting discomfort glare from outdoor lighting installations,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(3), 225–242 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rubiño, M.

Rubison, R. M.

C. A. Bennett, R. M. Rubison, and B. C. Ramaro, “Discomfort glare: luminance range-limited replication study of angularly small sources,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 14(1), 396–420 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Schanda, J.

J. Fekete, C. Sik-Lányi, and J. Schanda, “Spectral discomfort glare sensitivity investigations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(2), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Clausen, H. J.

H. J. Schmidt-Clausen and J. T. H. Bindels, “Assessment of discomfort glare in motor vehicle lighting,” Lighting Res. Tech. 6(2), 79–88 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Schreuder, D. A.

J. B. deBoer and D. A. Schreuder, “Glare as a criterion for quality in street lighting,” Trans.Illum.Eng.Soc. 32, 117–135 (1967).

Sik-Lányi, C.

J. Fekete, C. Sik-Lányi, and J. Schanda, “Spectral discomfort glare sensitivity investigations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 30(2), 182–187 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweater-Hickcox, K.

J. D. Bullough and K. Sweater-Hickcox, “Interactions among light source luminance, illuminance and size on discomfort glare,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars-Mech. Syst. 5, 199–202 (2012).

K. Sweater-Hickcox, N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, and J. P. Freyssinier, “Effect of different coloured luminous surrounds on LED discomfort glare perception,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–12 (2012).

J. D. Bullough, K. Sweater-Hickcox, and N. Narendran, “A method for estimating discomfort glare from exterior lighting system,” Alliance for Solid-State Illumination Systems and Technologies 9, 1–7 (2011).

Toda, M.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” Journal of Light and Visual Environment (Japan) 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “On the cause of disability glare and its dependence on glare angle, age and ocular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86(6), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waters, C. E.

M. L. Eble-Hankins and C. E. Waters, “Subjective impression of discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance,” Leukos. 6, 51–77 (2010).

C. E. Waters, R. G. Mistrick, and C. A. Bermecker, “Discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24(2), 73–85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, N. A.

P. I. Bodrogi, N. A. Wolf, and T. Q. Khanh, “Spectral and additivity of discomfort glare under street and automotive lighting conditions,” Light Eng. 20, 66–71 (2012).

Alliance for Solid-State Illumination Systems and Technologies

J. D. Bullough, K. Sweater-Hickcox, and N. Narendran, “A method for estimating discomfort glare from exterior lighting system,” Alliance for Solid-State Illumination Systems and Technologies 9, 1–7 (2011).

Appl. Opt.

Clin. Exp. Optom.

J. J. Vos, “On the cause of disability glare and its dependence on glare angle, age and ocular pigmentation,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86(6), 363–370 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl.

T. Kimura-Minoda and M. Ayama, “Evaluation of discomfort glare from colour LEDs and its correlation with individual variations in brightness sensitivity,” Color Res. Appl. 36(4), 286–294 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Indoor Built Environ.

W. Kim and J. T. Kim, “Effect of background luminance on discomfort glare in relation to the glare source size,” Indoor Built Environ. 19(1), 175–183 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Illum. Eng. Soc.

C. A. Bennett, R. M. Rubison, and B. C. Ramaro, “Discomfort glare: luminance range-limited replication study of angularly small sources,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 14(1), 396–420 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Guth, “A method for the evaluation of discomfort glare,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 58, 351–364 (1963).

C. E. Waters, R. G. Mistrick, and C. A. Bermecker, “Discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 24(2), 73–85 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Journal of Light and Visual Environment (Japan)

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, “Discomfort glare caused by white LED light sources,” Journal of Light and Visual Environment (Japan) 30(2), 95–103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leukos.

M. L. Eble-Hankins and C. E. Waters, “Subjective impression of discomfort glare from sources of non-uniform luminance,” Leukos. 6, 51–77 (2010).

Light Eng.

P. I. Bodrogi, N. A. Wolf, and T. Q. Khanh, “Spectral and additivity of discomfort glare under street and automotive lighting conditions,” Light Eng. 20, 66–71 (2012).

Lighting Res. Tech.

S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “Lighting for subsidiary streets: investigation of lamps of different SPD. Part 2-Brightness,” Lighting Res. Tech. 39(3), 233–249 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “Predicting lamp spectrum effects at mesopic levels. Part 1: Spatial brightness,” Lighting Res. Tech. 43(2), 143–157 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Sweater-Hickcox, N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, and J. P. Freyssinier, “Effect of different coloured luminous surrounds on LED discomfort glare perception,” Lighting Res. Tech. 0, 1–12 (2012).

I. J. Murray, S. Plainis, and D. Carden, “The ocular stress monitor: a new device for measuring discomfort glare,” Lighting Res. Tech. 34(3), 231–242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic of the experimental set-up, in which (a) refers to the side view and (b) to the front view. The number (1) refers to the glare source, (2) to the projection wall, (3) to the head rest used during the experiment, (4) to the projector, (5) to a fluorescent lamp used to generate a low amount of ambient illumination, (6) to a support for the glare source, and (7) to a fixation point used to determine the line of sight.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Change in the deBoer rating for the four independent variables used in the experiment: glare source luminance, solid angle, background luminance and viewing angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relation between the vertical illuminance at the eye produced by the glare source and the product of the glare source luminance and its solid angle (for a viewing angle of 10°).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Linear fit of the deBoer rating as a function of the logarithm of the product of the glare source luminance and solid angle (for a viewing angle of 10°).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Linear fit of the deBoer rating as a function of the logarithm of the ratio of the glare source luminance and background luminance (for a solid angle of 1 × 10−5 and a viewing angle of 10°).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison between the predicted values calculated by Eq. (8) and the experimental data (for a viewing angle of 10°).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between the verification data and the predicted values calculated from Eq. (8) for light conditions with a CCT of 3000K.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison between the verification data and the predicted values calculated from Eq. (8) for light conditions with a CCT of 6500K.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison between the verification data and the predicted values calculated from Eq. (8) for light conditions with a CCT of 5000K, measured in the real field.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Curve fitting of the mean deBoer rating vs. the percentage of people indicating that the light setting was comfortable (note that each data point represents a light condition).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison between our model for discomfort glare and the one of Schmidt-Clausen for the 72 light conditions used in the main experiment.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of the parameters selected in the experiment.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Details of the light conditions used in the verification experiment.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G s = L s a · ω s b L b c · p d
E eye L g ×ω
R deBoer lo g 10 ( L g / L b )
R deBoer =cte+α×lo g 10 ( L g ×ω L b )+β×θ
R deBoer lo g 10 ( ( L g ×ω) α L b β × θ γ )
R deBoer α×lo g 10 ( L g ×ω)β×lo g 10 ( L b )γ× log 10 (θ)
R deBoer =3.452.21×lo g 10 ( L g ×ω)+1.02×lo g 10 ( L b )+1.62× log 10 (θ)
R deBoer =3.45lo g 10 ( ( L g ×ω) 2.21 L b 1.02 × θ 1.62 )
R deBoer α× log 10 ( L g ×ω )β× log 10 ( L b )-γ× log 10 ( θ )+δ× log 10 ( L g ×ω )× log 10 ( L b )
RES= i=1 n ( R pi R vi ) 2 n
R deBoer =5.02.0× log 10 E i 0.03×(1+ L a 0.04 )× θ max 0.46
R deBoer =3.45lo g 10 ( ( L g ×ω) 2.21 L b 1.02 × θ 1.62 )

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