Abstract

Large-core silica multimode fibers, whose core diameters are generally 50 μm or 62.5 μm, form the bulk of short and medium haul optical fiber links in existence today, owing to their low cost and ease of deployment. However, modal dispersion significantly limits the maximum data rates that they support. Recently, the ability to multiplex several streams of data through optical fibers has spawned the development of few-mode multimode fibers. These fibers possess the low-dispersion characteristics of single-mode fibers and the ability to multiplex several data streams using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques and mode-specific filtering to increase data rates. While fibers with larger core diameters possess a larger number of spatial modes, they do not support data rates as high as few-mode fibers. In this paper, we describe a simulation based approach to characterize the tradeoffs between fiber diameter, achievable data rates and alignment tolerances of coherent links that employ graded-index multimode fibers (MMFs) of various dimensions, using the information theoretic outage capacity as the metric. The simulations used fibers’ intermodal coupling characteristics to measure its multiplexing abilities and dispersion limitations with mode-specific filters and launch and detection spatial filter arrays. The simulations indicate that the bandwidth-length product achievable over few-mode fibers with MIMO techniques can exceed 250 Gb/s-km, while heavy mode spreading and limited mode selectivity limits the bandwidth-length product to under 25 Gb/s-km in fibers core diameters larger than 50 μm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2013 (1)

J. Abbott, S. Bickham, P. Dainese, and M.-J. Li, “Fibers for Short-Distance Applications,” Optical Fiber Telecommunications Volume  VIA: Components and Subsystems p. 243 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

D. Kliazovich, P. Bouvry, and S. U. Khan, “GreenCloud: a packet-level simulator of energy-aware cloud computing data centers,” The Journal of Supercomputing 62, 1263–1283 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6 × 6 MIMO Processing,” J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

2010 (4)

H. Mrabet, I. Dayoub, R. Attia, and W. Hamouda, “Wavelength and beam launching effects on silica optical fiber in local area networks,” Optics Communications 283, 4234–4241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tb/s Single-Channel Coherent Optical OFDM Transmission with Orthogonal-Band Multiplexing and Subwavelength Bandwidth Access,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 308–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. E. Freund, C.-A. Bunge, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Molin, and C. Caspar, “High-speed transmission in multimode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 569–586 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, M. Fishteyn, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Seven-core Multicore Fiber Transmissions for Passive Optical Network,” Opt. Express 18, 11117–11122 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

N. Bikhazi, M. Jensen, and A. Anderson, “MIMO Signaling over the MMF Optical Broadcast Channel with Square-law Detection,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 57, 614–617 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Siuzdak, “RF carrier frequency selection for incoherent MIMO transmission over MM fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4960–4963 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Mollers, D. Jager, R. Gaudino, A. Nocivelli, H. Kragl, O. Ziemann, N. Weber, T. Koonen, C. Lezzi, A. Bluschke, and S. Randel, “Plastic optical fiber technology for reliable home networking: Overview and results of the EU project pof-all,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58–68 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Tang and D. Miller, “Metallic Nanodevices for Chip-scale Optical Interconnects,” Journal of Nanophotonics 3, 030302 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. Panicker, and J. Kahn, “Principal Modes in Graded-Index Multimode Fiber in Presence of Spatial and Polarization-Mode Coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1248–1261 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. Barros, and J. M. Kahn, “Coherent detection in optical fiber systems,” Opt. Express 16, 753–791 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Shieh, Q. Yang, and Y. Ma, “107 Gb/s Coherent Optical OFDM Transmission over 1000-km SSMF Fiber using Orthogonal Band Multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16, 6378–6386 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. Van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, K. Giok-Djan, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64–72 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

R. A. Panicker, J. P. Wilde, J. M. Kahn, D. F. Welch, and I. Lyubomirsky, “10 × 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission through 2.2-km multimode fiber using adaptive optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1154–1156 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Siuzdak and G. Stepniak, “Influence of modal filtering on the bandwidth of multimode optical fibers,” Optica Applicata 37, 31 (2007).

A. Tarighat, R. C. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber links [Topics in Optical Communications],” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 57–63 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing,” Electronics Letters 42, 587 (2006).

R. C. Hsu, A. Tarighat, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Capacity enhancement in coherent optical mimo (comimo) multimode fiber links,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 10, 195–197 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Tsekrekos, A. Martinez, F. Huijskens, and A. Koonen, “Design Considerations for a Transparent Mode Group Diversity Multiplexing Link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2359–2361 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Transfer function of multimode fiber links using an electric field propagation model: Application to Radio over Fibre Systems,” Opt. Express 14, 9051–9070 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A. R. Shah, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Tarighat, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Coherent Optical MIMO (COMIMO),” J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2410 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Shen, J. Kahn, and M. Horowitz, “Compensation for Multimode Fiber Dispersion by Adaptive Optics,” Opt. Letters 30, 2985–2987 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

G. Yabre, “Influence of core diameter on the 3-dB bandwidth of graded-index optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 668 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. R. Stuart, “Dispersive Multiplexing in Multimode Optical Fiber,” Science 289, 281 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

L. Raddatz, I. White, D. Cunningham, and M. Nowell, “An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fiber links,” J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 324 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Cryan, “Two-dimensional multimode fibre array for optical interconnects,” Electronics Letters 34, 586–587 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. Heinrich, E. Zeeb, and K. Ebeling, “Butt-coupling efficiency of VCSELs into multimode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1555–1557 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

E. Zeeb, B. Moller, C. Reiner, M. Ries, T. Hackbarth, and K. Ebeling, “Planar Proton implanted VCSEL’s and Fiber-Coupled 2-D VCSEL Arrays,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 1, 616–623 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. Shaklan, “Selective mode injection and observation for few-mode fiber optics,” Applied optics 30, 4379–4383 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

J. W. Goodman and E. G. Rawson, “Statistics of modal noise in fibers: a case of constrained speckle,” Opt. Letters 6, 324–326 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Tremblay, and B. S. Kawasaki, “Modal noise in multimode fiber links: theory and experiment,” Opt. Letters 5, 270–272 (1980).
[Crossref]

Abbott, J.

J. Abbott, S. Bickham, P. Dainese, and M.-J. Li, “Fibers for Short-Distance Applications,” Optical Fiber Telecommunications Volume  VIA: Components and Subsystems p. 243 (2013).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1997).

Al Amin, A.

A. Li, A. Al Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Reception of Mode and Polarization Multiplexed 107-Gb/s COOFDM Signal over a Two-Mode Fiber,” in “National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2011).
[Crossref]

Anderson, A.

N. Bikhazi, M. Jensen, and A. Anderson, “MIMO Signaling over the MMF Optical Broadcast Channel with Square-law Detection,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 57, 614–617 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appaiah, K.

K. Appaiah, S. Vishwanath, and S. R. Bank, “Advanced Modulation and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Multi-mode Fiber Links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1424–1426 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Appaiah, S. Zisman, S. Vishwanath, and S. R. Bank, “Analysis of Laser and Detector Placement in MIMO Multimode Optical Fiber Systems,” in “Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on,” (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2972–2976.
[Crossref]

Astruc, M.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2×100Gb/s, over Two Modes of 40km-long Prototype Few-Mode Fiber, using LCOS based Mode Multiplexer and Demultiplexer,” in “National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2011).
[Crossref]

Athaudage, C.

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing,” Electronics Letters 42, 587 (2006).

Attia, R.

H. Mrabet, I. Dayoub, R. Attia, and W. Hamouda, “Wavelength and beam launching effects on silica optical fiber in local area networks,” Optics Communications 283, 4234–4241 (2010).
[Crossref]

Awaji, Y.

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “109-Tb/s (7×97×172-Gb/s SDM/WDM/PDM) QPSK Transmission through 16.8-km Homogeneous Multi-core Fiber,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2011).
[Crossref]

Bachtold, W.

D. Lenz, B. Rankov, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and A. Wittneben, “Mimo channel for modal multiplexing in highly overmoded optical waveguides,” in “Communications, 2004 International Zurich Seminar on,” (IEEE, 2004), pp. 196–199.
[Crossref]

Baks, C.

B. Lee, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Baks, R. John, P. Pepeljugoski, T. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. Yan, G. Oulundsen, D. Vaidya, W. Luo, and N. Li, “120-Gb/s 100-m transmission in a single multicore multimode fiber containing six cores interfaced with a matching VCSEL array,” in “Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2010 IEEE,” (IEEE, 2010), pp. 223–224.
[Crossref]

Bank, S. R.

K. Appaiah, S. Vishwanath, and S. R. Bank, “Advanced Modulation and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Multi-mode Fiber Links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1424–1426 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Appaiah, S. Zisman, S. Vishwanath, and S. R. Bank, “Analysis of Laser and Detector Placement in MIMO Multimode Optical Fiber Systems,” in “Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on,” (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2972–2976.
[Crossref]

Barros, D. J.

Bickham, S.

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R. C. Hsu, A. Tarighat, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Capacity enhancement in coherent optical mimo (comimo) multimode fiber links,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 10, 195–197 (2006).
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I. Mollers, D. Jager, R. Gaudino, A. Nocivelli, H. Kragl, O. Ziemann, N. Weber, T. Koonen, C. Lezzi, A. Bluschke, and S. Randel, “Plastic optical fiber technology for reliable home networking: Overview and results of the EU project pof-all,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58–68 (2009).
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B. Zhu, T. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Yan, J. Fini, E. Monberg, and F. Dimarcello, “112-Tb/s space-division multiplexed DWDM transmission with 14-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency over a 76.8-km seven-core fiber,” Opt. Express 19, 16665–16671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lee, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Baks, R. John, P. Pepeljugoski, T. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. Yan, G. Oulundsen, D. Vaidya, W. Luo, and N. Li, “120-Gb/s 100-m transmission in a single multicore multimode fiber containing six cores interfaced with a matching VCSEL array,” in “Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2010 IEEE,” (IEEE, 2010), pp. 223–224.
[Crossref]

Taunay, T. F.

Thomsen, B.

B. Thomsen, “MIMO enabled 40 Gb/s transmission using mode division multiplexing in multimode fiber,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–3.

Tran, P.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2×100Gb/s, over Two Modes of 40km-long Prototype Few-Mode Fiber, using LCOS based Mode Multiplexer and Demultiplexer,” in “National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2011).
[Crossref]

Tremblay, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Tremblay, and B. S. Kawasaki, “Modal noise in multimode fiber links: theory and experiment,” Opt. Letters 5, 270–272 (1980).
[Crossref]

Tse, D.

D. Tse and P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication (Cambridge Univ Press, 2005).
[Crossref]

Tsekrekos, C.

C. Tsekrekos, A. Martinez, F. Huijskens, and A. Koonen, “Design Considerations for a Transparent Mode Group Diversity Multiplexing Link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2359–2361 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Tsekrekos, A. Martinez, F. Huijskens, and A. Koonen, “Mode Group Diversity Multiplexing Transceiver Design for Graded-Index Multimode Fibres,” in “Optical Communication, 2005. ECOC 2005. 31st European Conference on,”, vol. 3 (IET, 2005), vol. 3, pp. 727–728.

Vaidya, D.

B. Lee, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Baks, R. John, P. Pepeljugoski, T. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. Yan, G. Oulundsen, D. Vaidya, W. Luo, and N. Li, “120-Gb/s 100-m transmission in a single multicore multimode fiber containing six cores interfaced with a matching VCSEL array,” in “Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2010 IEEE,” (IEEE, 2010), pp. 223–224.
[Crossref]

van den Boom, H.

H. Chen, H. van den Boom, and A. Koonen, “30-Gb/s 3 × 3 Optical Mode Group-Division-Multiplexing System With Optimized Joint Detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1283–1285 (2011).
[Crossref]

Van den Borne, D.

C. R. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. Van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, K. Giok-Djan, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64–72 (2008).
[Crossref]

Verluise, F.

M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2×100Gb/s, over Two Modes of 40km-long Prototype Few-Mode Fiber, using LCOS based Mode Multiplexer and Demultiplexer,” in “National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2011).
[Crossref]

Vishwanath, S.

K. Appaiah, S. Vishwanath, and S. R. Bank, “Advanced Modulation and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Multi-mode Fiber Links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1424–1426 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Appaiah, S. Zisman, S. Vishwanath, and S. R. Bank, “Analysis of Laser and Detector Placement in MIMO Multimode Optical Fiber Systems,” in “Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on,” (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2972–2976.
[Crossref]

Viswanath, P.

D. Tse and P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication (Cambridge Univ Press, 2005).
[Crossref]

Wada, N.

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “109-Tb/s (7×97×172-Gb/s SDM/WDM/PDM) QPSK Transmission through 16.8-km Homogeneous Multi-core Fiber,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2011).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “109-Tb/s (7×97×172-Gb/s SDM/WDM/PDM) QPSK Transmission through 16.8-km Homogeneous Multi-core Fiber,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2011).
[Crossref]

Weber, N.

I. Mollers, D. Jager, R. Gaudino, A. Nocivelli, H. Kragl, O. Ziemann, N. Weber, T. Koonen, C. Lezzi, A. Bluschke, and S. Randel, “Plastic optical fiber technology for reliable home networking: Overview and results of the EU project pof-all,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58–68 (2009).
[Crossref]

Welch, D. F.

R. A. Panicker, J. P. Wilde, J. M. Kahn, D. F. Welch, and I. Lyubomirsky, “10 × 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission through 2.2-km multimode fiber using adaptive optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1154–1156 (2007).
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White, I.

L. Raddatz, I. White, D. Cunningham, and M. Nowell, “An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fiber links,” J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 324 (1998).
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Wilde, J. P.

R. A. Panicker, J. P. Wilde, J. M. Kahn, D. F. Welch, and I. Lyubomirsky, “10 × 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission through 2.2-km multimode fiber using adaptive optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1154–1156 (2007).
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Winzer, P.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6 × 6 MIMO Processing,” J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-Division Multiplexing over 10 km of Three-Mode Fiber using Coherent 6 × 6 MIMO Processing,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2011).
[Crossref]

Winzer, P. J.

Wittneben, A.

D. Lenz, B. Rankov, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and A. Wittneben, “Mimo channel for modal multiplexing in highly overmoded optical waveguides,” in “Communications, 2004 International Zurich Seminar on,” (IEEE, 2004), pp. 196–199.
[Crossref]

Wuth, T.

C. R. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. Van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, K. Giok-Djan, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64–72 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yabre, G.

G. Yabre, “Influence of core diameter on the 3-dB bandwidth of graded-index optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 668 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

B. Zhu, T. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Yan, J. Fini, E. Monberg, and F. Dimarcello, “112-Tb/s space-division multiplexed DWDM transmission with 14-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency over a 76.8-km seven-core fiber,” Opt. Express 19, 16665–16671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lee, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Baks, R. John, P. Pepeljugoski, T. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. Yan, G. Oulundsen, D. Vaidya, W. Luo, and N. Li, “120-Gb/s 100-m transmission in a single multicore multimode fiber containing six cores interfaced with a matching VCSEL array,” in “Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2010 IEEE,” (IEEE, 2010), pp. 223–224.
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Yan, M. F.

Yang, Q.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tb/s Single-Channel Coherent Optical OFDM Transmission with Orthogonal-Band Multiplexing and Subwavelength Bandwidth Access,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 308–315 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Shieh, Q. Yang, and Y. Ma, “107 Gb/s Coherent Optical OFDM Transmission over 1000-km SSMF Fiber using Orthogonal Band Multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16, 6378–6386 (2008).
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Zeeb, E.

J. Heinrich, E. Zeeb, and K. Ebeling, “Butt-coupling efficiency of VCSELs into multimode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1555–1557 (1997).
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E. Zeeb, B. Moller, C. Reiner, M. Ries, T. Hackbarth, and K. Ebeling, “Planar Proton implanted VCSEL’s and Fiber-Coupled 2-D VCSEL Arrays,” Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 1, 616–623 (1995).
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Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, T. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Yan, J. Fini, E. Monberg, and F. Dimarcello, “112-Tb/s space-division multiplexed DWDM transmission with 14-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency over a 76.8-km seven-core fiber,” Opt. Express 19, 16665–16671 (2011).
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B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, M. Fishteyn, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Seven-core Multicore Fiber Transmissions for Passive Optical Network,” Opt. Express 18, 11117–11122 (2010).
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B. Lee, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Baks, R. John, P. Pepeljugoski, T. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. Yan, G. Oulundsen, D. Vaidya, W. Luo, and N. Li, “120-Gb/s 100-m transmission in a single multicore multimode fiber containing six cores interfaced with a matching VCSEL array,” in “Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2010 IEEE,” (IEEE, 2010), pp. 223–224.
[Crossref]

Ziemann, O.

I. Mollers, D. Jager, R. Gaudino, A. Nocivelli, H. Kragl, O. Ziemann, N. Weber, T. Koonen, C. Lezzi, A. Bluschke, and S. Randel, “Plastic optical fiber technology for reliable home networking: Overview and results of the EU project pof-all,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58–68 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zisman, S.

K. Appaiah, S. Zisman, S. Vishwanath, and S. R. Bank, “Analysis of Laser and Detector Placement in MIMO Multimode Optical Fiber Systems,” in “Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on,” (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2972–2976.
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IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

R. C. Hsu, A. Tarighat, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Capacity enhancement in coherent optical mimo (comimo) multimode fiber links,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 10, 195–197 (2006).
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IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

I. Mollers, D. Jager, R. Gaudino, A. Nocivelli, H. Kragl, O. Ziemann, N. Weber, T. Koonen, C. Lezzi, A. Bluschke, and S. Randel, “Plastic optical fiber technology for reliable home networking: Overview and results of the EU project pof-all,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58–68 (2009).
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A. Tarighat, R. C. Hsu, A. Shah, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Fundamentals and challenges of optical multiple-input multiple-output multimode fiber links [Topics in Optical Communications],” IEEE Commun. Mag. 45, 57–63 (2007).
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K. Appaiah, S. Vishwanath, and S. R. Bank, “Advanced Modulation and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Multi-mode Fiber Links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1424–1426 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Tsekrekos, A. Martinez, F. Huijskens, and A. Koonen, “Design Considerations for a Transparent Mode Group Diversity Multiplexing Link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2359–2361 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, H. van den Boom, and A. Koonen, “30-Gb/s 3 × 3 Optical Mode Group-Division-Multiplexing System With Optimized Joint Detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1283–1285 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. A. Panicker, J. P. Wilde, J. M. Kahn, D. F. Welch, and I. Lyubomirsky, “10 × 10 Gb/s DWDM transmission through 2.2-km multimode fiber using adaptive optics,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1154–1156 (2007).
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J. Heinrich, E. Zeeb, and K. Ebeling, “Butt-coupling efficiency of VCSELs into multimode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1555–1557 (1997).
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A. R. Shah, R. C. J. Hsu, A. Tarighat, A. H. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Coherent Optical MIMO (COMIMO),” J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2410 (2005).
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G. Yabre, “Influence of core diameter on the 3-dB bandwidth of graded-index optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 668 (2000).
[Crossref]

C. R. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. Van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, K. Giok-Djan, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64–72 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Raddatz, I. White, D. Cunningham, and M. Nowell, “An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fiber links,” J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 324 (1998).
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R. E. Freund, C.-A. Bunge, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Molin, and C. Caspar, “High-speed transmission in multimode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 569–586 (2010).
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Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tb/s Single-Channel Coherent Optical OFDM Transmission with Orthogonal-Band Multiplexing and Subwavelength Bandwidth Access,” J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 308–315 (2010).
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M. Shemirani, W. Mao, R. Panicker, and J. Kahn, “Principal Modes in Graded-Index Multimode Fiber in Presence of Spatial and Polarization-Mode Coupling,” J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1248–1261 (2009).
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R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using Coherent 6 × 6 MIMO Processing,” J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 521–531 (2012).
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I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Transfer function of multimode fiber links using an electric field propagation model: Application to Radio over Fibre Systems,” Opt. Express 14, 9051–9070 (2006).
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E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. Barros, and J. M. Kahn, “Coherent detection in optical fiber systems,” Opt. Express 16, 753–791 (2008).
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W. Shieh, Q. Yang, and Y. Ma, “107 Gb/s Coherent Optical OFDM Transmission over 1000-km SSMF Fiber using Orthogonal Band Multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16, 6378–6386 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. F. Yan, J. M. Fini, M. Fishteyn, E. M. Monberg, and F. V. Dimarcello, “Seven-core Multicore Fiber Transmissions for Passive Optical Network,” Opt. Express 18, 11117–11122 (2010).
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T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Design and fabrication of ultra-low crosstalk and low-loss multi-core fiber,” Opt. Express 19, 16576–16592 (2011).
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K. Ho and J. Kahn, “Mode-dependent Goss and Gain: Statistics and Effect on Mode-division Multiplexing,” Opt. Express 19, 16612–16635 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, T. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Yan, J. Fini, E. Monberg, and F. Dimarcello, “112-Tb/s space-division multiplexed DWDM transmission with 14-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency over a 76.8-km seven-core fiber,” Opt. Express 19, 16665–16671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Sierra, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, C. A. Bolle, R.-J. Essiambre, D. W. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “6 × 56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6 × 6 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Express 19, 16697–16707 (2011).
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J. W. Goodman and E. G. Rawson, “Statistics of modal noise in fibers: a case of constrained speckle,” Opt. Letters 6, 324–326 (1981).
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K. O. Hill, Y. Tremblay, and B. S. Kawasaki, “Modal noise in multimode fiber links: theory and experiment,” Opt. Letters 5, 270–272 (1980).
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X. Shen, J. Kahn, and M. Horowitz, “Compensation for Multimode Fiber Dispersion by Adaptive Optics,” Opt. Letters 30, 2985–2987 (2005).
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J. Siuzdak and G. Stepniak, “Influence of modal filtering on the bandwidth of multimode optical fibers,” Optica Applicata 37, 31 (2007).

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B. Thomsen, “MIMO enabled 40 Gb/s transmission using mode division multiplexing in multimode fiber,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–3.

C. Tsekrekos, A. Martinez, F. Huijskens, and A. Koonen, “Mode Group Diversity Multiplexing Transceiver Design for Graded-Index Multimode Fibres,” in “Optical Communication, 2005. ECOC 2005. 31st European Conference on,”, vol. 3 (IET, 2005), vol. 3, pp. 727–728.

S. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “10 × 121.9-Gb/s PDM-OFDM Transmission with 2-b/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency over 1,000 km of SSMF,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2008).

S. Jansen, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “16 × 52. 5-Gb/s, 50-GHz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160 km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing,” in “Optical Communication-Post-Deadline Papers (published 2008), 2007 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of,” (VDE, 2007), pp. 1–2.

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R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. Gnauck, C. Bolle, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, D. Peckham, A. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Space-Division Multiplexing over 10 km of Three-Mode Fiber using Coherent 6 × 6 MIMO Processing,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2011).
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A. Li, A. Al Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Reception of Mode and Polarization Multiplexed 107-Gb/s COOFDM Signal over a Two-Mode Fiber,” in “National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2011).
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M. Salsi, C. Koebele, D. Sperti, P. Tran, P. Brindel, H. Mardoyan, S. Bigo, A. Boutin, F. Verluise, P. Sillard, M. Astruc, L. Provost, F. Cerou, and G. Charlet, “Transmission at 2×100Gb/s, over Two Modes of 40km-long Prototype Few-Mode Fiber, using LCOS based Mode Multiplexer and Demultiplexer,” in “National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2011).
[Crossref]

J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, T. Hayashi, T. Taru, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “109-Tb/s (7×97×172-Gb/s SDM/WDM/PDM) QPSK Transmission through 16.8-km Homogeneous Multi-core Fiber,” in “Optical Fiber Communication Conference,” (Optical Society of America, 2011).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, D. Kuchta, F. Doany, C. Schow, C. Baks, R. John, P. Pepeljugoski, T. Taunay, B. Zhu, M. Yan, G. Oulundsen, D. Vaidya, W. Luo, and N. Li, “120-Gb/s 100-m transmission in a single multicore multimode fiber containing six cores interfaced with a matching VCSEL array,” in “Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2010 IEEE,” (IEEE, 2010), pp. 223–224.
[Crossref]

D. Lenz, B. Rankov, D. Erni, W. Bachtold, and A. Wittneben, “Mimo channel for modal multiplexing in highly overmoded optical waveguides,” in “Communications, 2004 International Zurich Seminar on,” (IEEE, 2004), pp. 196–199.
[Crossref]

D. Tse and P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication (Cambridge Univ Press, 2005).
[Crossref]

K. Appaiah, S. Zisman, S. Vishwanath, and S. R. Bank, “Analysis of Laser and Detector Placement in MIMO Multimode Optical Fiber Systems,” in “Communications (ICC), 2012 IEEE International Conference on,” (IEEE, 2012), pp. 2972–2976.
[Crossref]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of an optical fiber link that employs coherent detection with multiplexing. A pair of modulators and four balanced detectors are required for each stream, including each stream of a polarization multiplexed pair.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The spatial profile of some Laguerre-Gaussian fiber modes in a multimode fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A representation of various sections of the fiber. The channel variations due to bends and twists are assumed to be aggregated over these sections to determine channel conditions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The physical effects that cause intermodal coupling along each fiber section.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

This figure shows κi and θi for the i-th section of the fiber. κi refers to the section curvature (inverse of the radius of curvature), and θi denotes the rotation induced due to fiber twist within that section.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multimode fibers with different launch/detection array geometries. The size and the spacing between successive launch and detection filters is shown for these illustrative examples. The actual mode filtering could be implemented using fibers, free-space coupling or similar approaches. For the cases where the detector sizes fall below 4 μm, specular noise is likely to dominate and diminish the achievable data rate.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The fraction of the maximum (1%-outage) capacity of the fiber that can be achieved using laser/detector arrays. The outage capacity is evaluated assuming that every individual mode of the fiber can be launched and detected independently.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Achievable at a rate as a function of the core diameter. It is evident that fibers with a smaller core diameter are better in terms of a data rate perspective since dispersion becomes a significant limiting factor at higher diameters for all lengths.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Radial offset coupling at the interface of fibers, showing a radial offset of r.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The variation of achievable data rate with offsets at the detector. Multicore fibers are found to be much more sensitive to offsets than multimode fibers.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The amplitude of across each spatial mode (indexed on the x-axis) for a 50 μm MMF, for 10 m section and a 1 km section. A longer length causes more signal spread across mode groups, thus accentuating the impact of dispersion.

Equations (4)

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b x ( l ) = [ b 1 x ( l ) b 2 x ( l ) b M x ( l ) ] , b y ( l ) = [ b 1 y ( l ) b 2 y ( l ) b M y ( l ) ] ,
[ b x ( l + δ l ) b y ( l + δ l ) ] = U i [ b x ( l ) b y ( l ) ]
U total = U N U N 1 U 2 U 1
C outage ( ε ) = sup { r : [ log | I + H C X H * | < r ] ε }

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