Abstract

A new wavelength - dispersive X-ray spectrometer for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been developed. This spectrometer can cover an energy range from 50 eV to 1120 eV by using an array made of seventeen reflection zone plates. Soft X-ray emission spectra of simple elements of Li, Be, B, C, N, Ti, V, O, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ga were measured. The overall energy resolving power on the order of E/ΔE ~80 to 160 has been demonstrated. Spectrometer with 200 reflection zone plates has been used as a multi-channel analyser in the energy range of 100 – 1000 eV for quasi - continuous spectra measurements. The predicted energy-resolving power on the order of E/ΔE = 50 has been achieved in the entire energy range.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 59(4), 251–261 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).
  3. T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Idir, A. Mirone, G. Soullie, Ph. Guerin, F. Ladan, and P. Dhez, “2D focusing with an off-axis elliptical Bragg-Fresnel multilayer lens and application to X-ray imaging,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 633–642 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Harada, M. Itou, and T. Kita, “A grazing incidence monochromator with a varied-space plane grating for Synchrotron Radiation,” Proc. SPIE 0503, 114–119 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Erko, A. Firsov, and F. Senf, “Novel parallel VUV/X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Spectrochimca Acta B 67, 57–63 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 190–192 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Metje, M. Borgwardt, A. Moguilevski, A. Kothe, N. Engel, M. Wilke, R. Al-Obaidi, D. Tolksdorf, A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Erko, I. Yu. Kiyan, and E. F. Aziz, “Monochromatization of femtosecond XUV light pulses with the use of reflection zone plates,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10747–11760 (2014).
  10. M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. O. Aita, K. Tsutsumi, K. Ichikava, M. Kamada, M. Okusawa, H. Nakamura, and T. Watanabe, “Fluorescent emission and scattering spectra of lithium fluoride by using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 23(11), 5676–5680 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

2014

2013

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

A. Erko, A. Firsov, and F. Senf, “Novel parallel VUV/X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Spectrochimca Acta B 67, 57–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 59(4), 251–261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Idir, A. Mirone, G. Soullie, Ph. Guerin, F. Ladan, and P. Dhez, “2D focusing with an off-axis elliptical Bragg-Fresnel multilayer lens and application to X-ray imaging,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 633–642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1984

T. Harada, M. Itou, and T. Kita, “A grazing incidence monochromator with a varied-space plane grating for Synchrotron Radiation,” Proc. SPIE 0503, 114–119 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

O. Aita, K. Tsutsumi, K. Ichikava, M. Kamada, M. Okusawa, H. Nakamura, and T. Watanabe, “Fluorescent emission and scattering spectra of lithium fluoride by using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 23(11), 5676–5680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aita, O.

O. Aita, K. Tsutsumi, K. Ichikava, M. Kamada, M. Okusawa, H. Nakamura, and T. Watanabe, “Fluorescent emission and scattering spectra of lithium fluoride by using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 23(11), 5676–5680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Al-Obaidi, R.

Aziz, E. F.

Berglund, M.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Borgwardt, M.

Bryunetkin, B. A.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brzhezinskaya, M.

J. Metje, M. Borgwardt, A. Moguilevski, A. Kothe, N. Engel, M. Wilke, R. Al-Obaidi, D. Tolksdorf, A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Erko, I. Yu. Kiyan, and E. F. Aziz, “Monochromatization of femtosecond XUV light pulses with the use of reflection zone plates,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10747–11760 (2014).

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhez, P.

M. Idir, A. Mirone, G. Soullie, Ph. Guerin, F. Ladan, and P. Dhez, “2D focusing with an off-axis elliptical Bragg-Fresnel multilayer lens and application to X-ray imaging,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 633–642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dyakin, V. M.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Engel, N.

Erko, A.

J. Metje, M. Borgwardt, A. Moguilevski, A. Kothe, N. Engel, M. Wilke, R. Al-Obaidi, D. Tolksdorf, A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Erko, I. Yu. Kiyan, and E. F. Aziz, “Monochromatization of femtosecond XUV light pulses with the use of reflection zone plates,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10747–11760 (2014).

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Erko, A. Firsov, and F. Senf, “Novel parallel VUV/X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Spectrochimca Acta B 67, 57–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Erko, A. I.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Faenov, A. Ya.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Firsov, A.

J. Metje, M. Borgwardt, A. Moguilevski, A. Kothe, N. Engel, M. Wilke, R. Al-Obaidi, D. Tolksdorf, A. Firsov, M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Erko, I. Yu. Kiyan, and E. F. Aziz, “Monochromatization of femtosecond XUV light pulses with the use of reflection zone plates,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10747–11760 (2014).

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Erko, A. Firsov, and F. Senf, “Novel parallel VUV/X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Spectrochimca Acta B 67, 57–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Föhlisch, A.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukushima, K.

M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 59(4), 251–261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerin, Ph.

M. Idir, A. Mirone, G. Soullie, Ph. Guerin, F. Ladan, and P. Dhez, “2D focusing with an off-axis elliptical Bragg-Fresnel multilayer lens and application to X-ray imaging,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 633–642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hambach, D.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Handa, N.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

Harada, T.

T. Harada, M. Itou, and T. Kita, “A grazing incidence monochromator with a varied-space plane grating for Synchrotron Radiation,” Proc. SPIE 0503, 114–119 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H. M.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holldack, K.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichikava, K.

O. Aita, K. Tsutsumi, K. Ichikava, M. Kamada, M. Okusawa, H. Nakamura, and T. Watanabe, “Fluorescent emission and scattering spectra of lithium fluoride by using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 23(11), 5676–5680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Idir, M.

M. Idir, A. Mirone, G. Soullie, Ph. Guerin, F. Ladan, and P. Dhez, “2D focusing with an off-axis elliptical Bragg-Fresnel multilayer lens and application to X-ray imaging,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 633–642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Imazono, T.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Itou, M.

T. Harada, M. Itou, and T. Kita, “A grazing incidence monochromator with a varied-space plane grating for Synchrotron Radiation,” Proc. SPIE 0503, 114–119 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ivanenkov, G. V.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kachel, T.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamada, M.

O. Aita, K. Tsutsumi, K. Ichikava, M. Kamada, M. Okusawa, H. Nakamura, and T. Watanabe, “Fluorescent emission and scattering spectra of lithium fluoride by using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 23(11), 5676–5680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, T.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, A.

M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 59(4), 251–261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kita, T.

T. Harada, M. Itou, and T. Kita, “A grazing incidence monochromator with a varied-space plane grating for Synchrotron Radiation,” Proc. SPIE 0503, 114–119 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kiyan, I. Yu.

Koeda, M.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koike, M.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 59(4), 251–261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kothe, A.

Kuramoto, S.

T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuramotol, S.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

Ladan, F.

M. Idir, A. Mirone, G. Soullie, Ph. Guerin, F. Ladan, and P. Dhez, “2D focusing with an off-axis elliptical Bragg-Fresnel multilayer lens and application to X-ray imaging,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 633–642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Metje, J.

Mingaleev, A. R.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mirone, A.

M. Idir, A. Mirone, G. Soullie, Ph. Guerin, F. Ladan, and P. Dhez, “2D focusing with an off-axis elliptical Bragg-Fresnel multilayer lens and application to X-ray imaging,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 633–642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mitzner, R.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moguilevski, A.

Murano, T.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

Nagano, T.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, H.

O. Aita, K. Tsutsumi, K. Ichikava, M. Kamada, M. Okusawa, H. Nakamura, and T. Watanabe, “Fluorescent emission and scattering spectra of lithium fluoride by using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 23(11), 5676–5680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Niemann, B.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okusawa, M.

O. Aita, K. Tsutsumi, K. Ichikava, M. Kamada, M. Okusawa, H. Nakamura, and T. Watanabe, “Fluorescent emission and scattering spectra of lithium fluoride by using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 23(11), 5676–5680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Oue, Y.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pikuz, S. A.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pikuz, T. A.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pontius, N.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romanova, V. M.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rymell, L.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sano, K.

T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sasai, H.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, J. S.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senf, F.

A. Erko, A. Firsov, and F. Senf, “Novel parallel VUV/X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Spectrochimca Acta B 67, 57–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shelkovenko, T. A.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soullie, G.

M. Idir, A. Mirone, G. Soullie, Ph. Guerin, F. Ladan, and P. Dhez, “2D focusing with an off-axis elliptical Bragg-Fresnel multilayer lens and application to X-ray imaging,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 633–642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sperling, M.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamm, C.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahachi, H.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

Terauchi, M.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 59(4), 251–261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tolksdorf, D.

Tsutsumi, K.

O. Aita, K. Tsutsumi, K. Ichikava, M. Kamada, M. Okusawa, H. Nakamura, and T. Watanabe, “Fluorescent emission and scattering spectra of lithium fluoride by using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 23(11), 5676–5680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

O. Aita, K. Tsutsumi, K. Ichikava, M. Kamada, M. Okusawa, H. Nakamura, and T. Watanabe, “Fluorescent emission and scattering spectra of lithium fluoride by using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 23(11), 5676–5680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, M.

Yonezawa, Z.

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, “Off-axis reflection zone plate for quantitative soft x-ray source characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(2), 190–192 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo)

M. Terauchi, M. Koike, K. Fukushima, and A. Kimura, “Development of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy,” J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 59(4), 251–261 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Synchrotron Radiat.

M. Brzhezinskaya, A. Firsov, K. Holldack, T. Kachel, R. Mitzner, N. Pontius, J. S. Schmidt, M. Sperling, C. Stamm, A. Föhlisch, and A. Erko, “A novel monochromator for experiments with ultrashort X-ray pulses,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 20(4), 522–530 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JEOL News

M. Terauchi, H. Takahachi, N. Handa, T. Murano, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, T. Imazono, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, and S. Kuramotol, “A new WDS spectrometer for Valence Electron Spectroscopy based on Electron Microscopy,” JEOL News 47, 23 (2012).

Opt. Commun.

M. Idir, A. Mirone, G. Soullie, Ph. Guerin, F. Ladan, and P. Dhez, “2D focusing with an off-axis elliptical Bragg-Fresnel multilayer lens and application to X-ray imaging,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 633–642 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

O. Aita, K. Tsutsumi, K. Ichikava, M. Kamada, M. Okusawa, H. Nakamura, and T. Watanabe, “Fluorescent emission and scattering spectra of lithium fluoride by using synchrotron radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 23(11), 5676–5680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr.

A. Ya. Faenov, S. A. Pikuz, A. I. Erko, B. A. Bryunetkin, V. M. Dyakin, G. V. Ivanenkov, A. R. Mingaleev, T. A. Pikuz, V. M. Romanova, and T. A. Shelkovenko, “High-performance x-ray spectroscopic devices for plasma microsources investigations,” Phys. Scr. 50(4), 333–338 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. Harada, M. Itou, and T. Kita, “A grazing incidence monochromator with a varied-space plane grating for Synchrotron Radiation,” Proc. SPIE 0503, 114–119 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Imazono, M. Koike, T. Kawachi, M. Koeda, T. Nagano, H. Sasai, Y. Oue, Z. Yonezawa, S. Kuramoto, and K. Sano, “Diffraction efficiencies of holographic laminar and blazed types gratings for use in a flat-field spectrograph in the 50-200 eV range for transmission electron microscopes,” Proc. SPIE 8139, 81390V (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochimca Acta B

A. Erko, A. Firsov, and F. Senf, “Novel parallel VUV/X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer,” Spectrochimca Acta B 67, 57–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of an off-axis reflection zone plate and explanation of the corresponding parameters (see text).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph of a newly constructed WDX instrument attached to a scanning electron microscope of Zeiss-EVO 40; (b) schematic figure of the WDS design

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top view schematics of the parallel diffraction spectrometer designed for the energy range (54–1116 eV). A schematic showing nine RZPs placed on the same substrate. The sagittal CCD size is 27 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured spectra of Li K in LiF and Ga L fluorescence lines.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The spectra of Ni L and Cu L lines measured with the multichannel spectrometer. (100 s acquisition time).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Characteristic fluorescence line energies for the RZPs and their sagittal angular apertures

Tables Icon

Table 2 Acquisition time, total number of events, overall efficiency and bandwidth at different energies

Equations (2)

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ΔE Δh = E 2 dsinβ R 2 ' hc
E n = E 1 [ E 2 E 1 ] n N and ΔE E =2[ ( E 2 E 1 ) 1 N 1 ]

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