Abstract

In a magnitude estimation experiment, twenty observers rated the brightness of several unrelated, self-luminous stimuli surrounded by a dark background. The performance of a number of existing vision models, color appearance models and models based on the concept of equivalent luminance in predicting brightness has been investigated. Due to a severe underestimation of the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect, none of the models performed acceptable. Increasing the weight of the colorfulness contribution to the brightness attribute in the CAM97u model results in a very good correlation between the model predictions and the visually perceived brightness. Finally the experimental results and the brightness prediction from the modified model CAM97u,m are verified through a matching experiment and a validation magnitude estimation experiment.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (1)

2012 (1)

C. Fu, C. Li, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, R. W. G. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “An investigation of colour appearance for unrelated colours under photopic and mesopic vision,” Color Res. Appl.37(4), 238–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “A comparison of simultaneous and sequential brightness judgements,” Lighting Res. Tech.42(2), 183–197 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Fotios, K. Houser, and C. Cheal, “Counterbalancing needed to avoid bias in side-by-side brightness matching tasks,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc.4, 207–223 (2008).

2007 (1)

1997 (1)

Y. Nayatani, “Simple estimation methods for the Helmholtz—Kohlrausch effect,” Color Res. Appl.22(6), 385–401 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, A. Schappo, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, “Quantifying colour appearance. Part I. Lutchi colour appearance data,” Color Res. Appl.16(3), 166–180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

G. A. Gescheider, “Psychophysical scaling,” Annu. Rev. Psychol.39(1), 169–200 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

H. Yaguchi and M. Ikeda, “Subadditivity and superadditivity in heterochromatic brightness matching,” Vision Res.23(12), 1711–1718 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

A. Tversky and D. Kahneman, “Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases,” Science185(4157), 1124–1131 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheal, C.

S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “A comparison of simultaneous and sequential brightness judgements,” Lighting Res. Tech.42(2), 183–197 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Fotios, K. Houser, and C. Cheal, “Counterbalancing needed to avoid bias in side-by-side brightness matching tasks,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc.4, 207–223 (2008).

Clarke, A. A.

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, A. Schappo, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, “Quantifying colour appearance. Part I. Lutchi colour appearance data,” Color Res. Appl.16(3), 166–180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cui, G.

C. Fu, C. Li, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, R. W. G. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “An investigation of colour appearance for unrelated colours under photopic and mesopic vision,” Color Res. Appl.37(4), 238–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. A. García, R. Huertas, M. Melgosa, and G. Cui, “Measurement of the relationship between perceived and computed color differences,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A24(7), 1823–1829 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deconinck, G.

Fairchild, M. D.

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 Color Appearance Model,” in 10th Color Imaging Conference, IS&T and SID, (Scottsdale, Arizona, 2002).

Fotios, S.

S. Fotios, K. Houser, and C. Cheal, “Counterbalancing needed to avoid bias in side-by-side brightness matching tasks,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc.4, 207–223 (2008).

Fotios, S. A.

S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “A comparison of simultaneous and sequential brightness judgements,” Lighting Res. Tech.42(2), 183–197 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C.

C. Fu, C. Li, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, R. W. G. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “An investigation of colour appearance for unrelated colours under photopic and mesopic vision,” Color Res. Appl.37(4), 238–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

García, P. A.

Gescheider, G. A.

G. A. Gescheider, “Psychophysical scaling,” Annu. Rev. Psychol.39(1), 169–200 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanselaer, P.

Houser, K.

S. Fotios, K. Houser, and C. Cheal, “Counterbalancing needed to avoid bias in side-by-side brightness matching tasks,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc.4, 207–223 (2008).

Huertas, R.

Hunt, R. W. G.

C. Fu, C. Li, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, R. W. G. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “An investigation of colour appearance for unrelated colours under photopic and mesopic vision,” Color Res. Appl.37(4), 238–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 Color Appearance Model,” in 10th Color Imaging Conference, IS&T and SID, (Scottsdale, Arizona, 2002).

Ikeda, M.

H. Yaguchi and M. Ikeda, “Subadditivity and superadditivity in heterochromatic brightness matching,” Vision Res.23(12), 1711–1718 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahneman, D.

A. Tversky and D. Kahneman, “Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases,” Science185(4157), 1124–1131 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koenderink, J.

Koo, B.

B. Koo and Y. Kwak, “Color appearance and color connotation models for unrelated colors,” Color Res. Appl., (2013), doi: 10.1002/col.21857.
[CrossRef]

Kwak, Y.

B. Koo and Y. Kwak, “Color appearance and color connotation models for unrelated colors,” Color Res. Appl., (2013), doi: 10.1002/col.21857.
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

C. Fu, C. Li, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, R. W. G. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “An investigation of colour appearance for unrelated colours under photopic and mesopic vision,” Color Res. Appl.37(4), 238–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 Color Appearance Model,” in 10th Color Imaging Conference, IS&T and SID, (Scottsdale, Arizona, 2002).

Luo, M. R.

C. Fu, C. Li, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, R. W. G. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “An investigation of colour appearance for unrelated colours under photopic and mesopic vision,” Color Res. Appl.37(4), 238–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, A. Schappo, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, “Quantifying colour appearance. Part I. Lutchi colour appearance data,” Color Res. Appl.16(3), 166–180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 Color Appearance Model,” in 10th Color Imaging Conference, IS&T and SID, (Scottsdale, Arizona, 2002).

Melgosa, M.

Moroney, N.

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 Color Appearance Model,” in 10th Color Imaging Conference, IS&T and SID, (Scottsdale, Arizona, 2002).

Nayatani, Y.

Y. Nayatani, “Simple estimation methods for the Helmholtz—Kohlrausch effect,” Color Res. Appl.22(6), 385–401 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newman, T.

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 Color Appearance Model,” in 10th Color Imaging Conference, IS&T and SID, (Scottsdale, Arizona, 2002).

Pointer, M. R.

M. Withouck, K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, J. Koenderink, and P. Hanselaer, “Brightness perception of unrelated self-luminous colors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A30(6), 1248–1255 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Fu, C. Li, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, R. W. G. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “An investigation of colour appearance for unrelated colours under photopic and mesopic vision,” Color Res. Appl.37(4), 238–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, P. A.

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, A. Schappo, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, “Quantifying colour appearance. Part I. Lutchi colour appearance data,” Color Res. Appl.16(3), 166–180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ryckaert, W. R.

Schappo, A.

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, A. Schappo, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, “Quantifying colour appearance. Part I. Lutchi colour appearance data,” Color Res. Appl.16(3), 166–180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scrivener, S. A. R.

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, A. Schappo, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, “Quantifying colour appearance. Part I. Lutchi colour appearance data,” Color Res. Appl.16(3), 166–180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smet, K. A. G.

Tait, C. J.

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, A. Schappo, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, “Quantifying colour appearance. Part I. Lutchi colour appearance data,” Color Res. Appl.16(3), 166–180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tversky, A.

A. Tversky and D. Kahneman, “Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases,” Science185(4157), 1124–1131 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Withouck, M.

Yaguchi, H.

H. Yaguchi and M. Ikeda, “Subadditivity and superadditivity in heterochromatic brightness matching,” Vision Res.23(12), 1711–1718 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Psychol. (1)

G. A. Gescheider, “Psychophysical scaling,” Annu. Rev. Psychol.39(1), 169–200 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (3)

C. Fu, C. Li, G. Cui, M. R. Luo, R. W. G. Hunt, and M. R. Pointer, “An investigation of colour appearance for unrelated colours under photopic and mesopic vision,” Color Res. Appl.37(4), 238–254 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nayatani, “Simple estimation methods for the Helmholtz—Kohlrausch effect,” Color Res. Appl.22(6), 385–401 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luo, A. A. Clarke, P. A. Rhodes, A. Schappo, S. A. R. Scrivener, and C. J. Tait, “Quantifying colour appearance. Part I. Lutchi colour appearance data,” Color Res. Appl.16(3), 166–180 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Illum. Eng. Soc. (1)

S. Fotios, K. Houser, and C. Cheal, “Counterbalancing needed to avoid bias in side-by-side brightness matching tasks,” J. Illum. Eng. Soc.4, 207–223 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Lighting Res. Tech. (1)

S. A. Fotios and C. Cheal, “A comparison of simultaneous and sequential brightness judgements,” Lighting Res. Tech.42(2), 183–197 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Tversky and D. Kahneman, “Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases,” Science185(4157), 1124–1131 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

H. Yaguchi and M. Ikeda, “Subadditivity and superadditivity in heterochromatic brightness matching,” Vision Res.23(12), 1711–1718 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (13)

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, Second ed. (Wiley, 1982), pp. 410.

CIE, International Lighting Vocabulary, (CIE Central Bureau, 2011).

B. Koo and Y. Kwak, “Color appearance and color connotation models for unrelated colors,” Color Res. Appl., (2013), doi: 10.1002/col.21857.
[CrossRef]

IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, 2012.

A. Field, Discovering statistics using SPSS, Third ed. (SAGE, 2009).

CIE, Supplementary System of Photometry, (CIE Central Bureau, 2011).

CIE, A colour appearance model for colour management systems: CIECAM02, (CIE Central Bureau, Austria, 2004).

N. Moroney, M. D. Fairchild, R. W. G. Hunt, C. Li, M. R. Luo, and T. Newman, “The CIECAM02 Color Appearance Model,” in 10th Color Imaging Conference, IS&T and SID, (Scottsdale, Arizona, 2002).

M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models, Second ed., Wiley-IS&T Series in Imaging Science and Technology (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2005).

R. W. G. Hunt and M. R. Pointer, Measuring colour, Fourth ed., Wiley-IS&T Series in Imaging Science and Technology (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2011).

R. W. G. Hunt, Measuring colour, Third ed. (Fountain Press, 1998), pp. 239–246.

S. L. Guth, “ATD01 model for color appearances, color differences and chromatic adaptation,” in 9th Congress of the International Colour Association,Proceedings of SPIEVol. 4421, 2002)
[CrossRef]

ASTM International, Standard Test Method for Unipolar Magnitude Estimation of Sensory Attributes, (ASTM International, 2012).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(left) Experimental setup. (right) Example of a stimulus under dark viewing conditions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(left) CIE 1976 u′10,v′10 chromaticity coordinates of the 58 colored stimuli. The stimuli highlighted with a squared symbol are also used in a validation experiment. (right) Luminance of the 17 achromatic stimuli calculated using the CIE 10° observer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

‘Average observer’ brightness (Qgeom) with SE error bars, calculated for each individual colored stimulus from all observer answers, plotted against the CIE 1976 u10, v10 saturation (su’v’,10).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

‘Average observer’ brightness (Qgeom) with SE error bars plotted against the brightness predictions of CAM97u (a), ATD01 (b) and CAMFu (c) and the predictions of the equivalent luminance of Nayatani (VAC (d) and VCC (e)) and CIE (f).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

‘Average observer’ brightness (Qgeom) with SE error bars plotted against the modified brightness predictions of CAM97u,m.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(left) Matched reference luminance with SE error bars plotted against the CIE 1976 u10, v10 saturation (su’v’,10). (right) The modified CAM97u,m brightness prediction of the matched reference plotted against the prediction of the corresponding stimuli.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(left) Luminance values of the 40 colored and the 15 achromatic stimuli. (middle) Luminance values of the 52 ‘random’ stimuli. (right) CIE 1976 u′10,v′10 chromaticity coordinates of the 52 ‘random’ stimuli.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

‘Average observer’ brightness (Qgeom) with SE error bars plotted against the brightness prediction of CAM97u,m.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Evaluation of Inter-Observer Agreement, Short Term Intra-Observer Agreement and Long Term Intra-Observer Agreement by Calculation of the Coefficient of Variation CV (%).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Values of ‘Average Observer’ Brightness (Qgeom) and the CIE 1976 u10,v10 Saturation (su’v’,10) Ordered by Hue.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Overview of the Correlation Between the ‘Average Observer’ Brightness Data and the Predictions of the Vision Models.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Values of the Matched Reference Luminance of the 13 Colored Stimuli for Both the High and Low Initial Luminance and the Difference Between Them, Ordered by Hue.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q CAM97u = [ ( 1.1 )( A CAM97u + w M × M CAM97u ) ] 0.9 .
CV=100 1 n i=1 n ( Q geom,i f Q obs,i ) 2 Q ¯ geom 2 withf= i=1 n Q geom,i Q obs,i i=1 n Q obs,i 2 .
s u',v',10 =13 [ ( u ' 10 u ' n,10 ) 2 + ( v ' 10 v ' n,10 ) 2 ] 1/2 .
Q CAM97u,m = [ ( 1.1 )( A CAM97u +0.268× M CAM97u ) ] 0.9 .

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