Abstract

We demonstrate a vertical-type organic light-emitting transistor (VOLET) with a network electrode of closed topology for quasi-surface emission. In our VOLET, the spatial distribution of the surface emission depends primarily on the relative scale of the aperture in the network electrode to the characteristic length for the charge carrier recombination. Due to the closed topology in the network of the source electrode, the charge transport and the resultant carrier recombination are substantially extended from individual network boundaries toward the corresponding aperture centers in the source electrode. The luminance was found to be well-controlled by the gate voltage through an organic semiconducting layer over the network source electrode.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. L. Guo, G. Yu, and Y. Q. Liu, “Functional organic field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4427–4447 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Ordered materials for organic electronics and photonics,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 566–584 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Muccini, “A bright future for organic field-effect transistors,” Nat. Mater. 5(8), 605–613 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Cicoira and C. Santato, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors: advances and perspectives,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(17), 3421–3434 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Muccini, W. Koopman, and S. Toffanin, “The photonic perspective of organic light-emitting transistors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(2), 258–275 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 496–503 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Hepp, H. Heil, W. Weise, M. Ahles, R. Schmechel, and H. von Seggern, “Light-emitting field-effect transistor based on a tetracene thin film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(15), 157406 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Zaumseil, C. L. Donley, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Efficient top-gate, ambipolar, light-emitting field-effect transistors based on a green-light-emitting polyfluorene,” Adv. Mater. 18(20), 2708–2712 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Zaumseil, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Spatial control of the recombination zone in an ambipolar light-emitting organic transistor,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 69–74 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. B. Namdas, P. Ledochowitsch, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “High performance light emitting transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183304 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Zaumseil, C. R. McNeill, M. Bird, D. L. Smith, P. Paul Ruden, M. Roberts, M. J. McKiernan, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Quantum efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting polymer field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064517 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Oyamada, H. Sasabe, Y. Oku, N. Shimoji, and C. Adachi, “Estimation of carrier recombination and electroluminescence emission regions in organic light-emitting field-effect transistors using local doping method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093514 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Yamane, H. Yanagi, A. Sawamoto, and S. Hotta, “Ambipolar organic light emitting field effect transistors with modified asymmetric electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 162108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Schidleja, C. Melzer, and H. von Seggern, “Electroluminescence from a pentacene based ambipolar organic field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123307 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Suganuma, N. Shimoji, Y. Oku, S. Okuyama, and K. Matsushige, “Organic light-emitting transistors with split-gate structure and PN-hetero-boundary carrier recombination sites,” Org. Electron. 9(5), 834–838 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. Maiorano, A. Bramanti, S. Carallo, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors based on an ambipolar p-i-n layered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133305 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor-type organic light-emitting transistor on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103525 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Improvement of Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor-Type Organic Light-Emitting Transistors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1889–1893 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, and A. G. Rinzler, “High current, low voltage carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3467–3472 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. J. Ben-Sasson and N. Tessler, “Unraveling the physics of vertical organic field effect transistors through nanoscale engineering of a self-assembled transparent electrode,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4729–4733 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. J. Ben-Sasson, Z. H. Chen, A. Facchetti, and N. Tessler, “Solution-processed ambipolar vertical organic field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263306 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Kleemann, A. A. Günther, K. Leo, and B. Lüssem, “High-performance vertical organic transistors,” Small 9(21), 3670–3677 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. J. Ben-Sasson and N. Tessler, “Patterned electrode vertical field effect transistor: Theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 044501 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. N. J. Watkins, L. Yan, and Y. Gao, “Electronic structure symmetry of interfaces between pentacene and metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4384–4386 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. Amy, C. Chan, and A. Kahn, “Polarization at the gold/pentacene interface,” Org. Electron. 6(2), 85–91 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

H. Kleemann, A. A. Günther, K. Leo, and B. Lüssem, “High-performance vertical organic transistors,” Small 9(21), 3670–3677 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

A. J. Ben-Sasson and N. Tessler, “Unraveling the physics of vertical organic field effect transistors through nanoscale engineering of a self-assembled transparent electrode,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4729–4733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Ben-Sasson, Z. H. Chen, A. Facchetti, and N. Tessler, “Solution-processed ambipolar vertical organic field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Muccini, W. Koopman, and S. Toffanin, “The photonic perspective of organic light-emitting transistors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(2), 258–275 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Ordered materials for organic electronics and photonics,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 566–584 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Ben-Sasson and N. Tessler, “Patterned electrode vertical field effect transistor: Theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 044501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

V. Maiorano, A. Bramanti, S. Carallo, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors based on an ambipolar p-i-n layered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, and A. G. Rinzler, “High current, low voltage carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3467–3472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Guo, G. Yu, and Y. Q. Liu, “Functional organic field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4427–4447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Schidleja, C. Melzer, and H. von Seggern, “Electroluminescence from a pentacene based ambipolar organic field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

N. Suganuma, N. Shimoji, Y. Oku, S. Okuyama, and K. Matsushige, “Organic light-emitting transistors with split-gate structure and PN-hetero-boundary carrier recombination sites,” Org. Electron. 9(5), 834–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Namdas, P. Ledochowitsch, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “High performance light emitting transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaumseil, C. R. McNeill, M. Bird, D. L. Smith, P. Paul Ruden, M. Roberts, M. J. McKiernan, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Quantum efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting polymer field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Improvement of Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor-Type Organic Light-Emitting Transistors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1889–1893 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K. Yamane, H. Yanagi, A. Sawamoto, and S. Hotta, “Ambipolar organic light emitting field effect transistors with modified asymmetric electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 162108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Cicoira and C. Santato, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors: advances and perspectives,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(17), 3421–3434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

M. Muccini, “A bright future for organic field-effect transistors,” Nat. Mater. 5(8), 605–613 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zaumseil, C. L. Donley, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Efficient top-gate, ambipolar, light-emitting field-effect transistors based on a green-light-emitting polyfluorene,” Adv. Mater. 18(20), 2708–2712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaumseil, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Spatial control of the recombination zone in an ambipolar light-emitting organic transistor,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 69–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Oyamada, H. Sasabe, Y. Oku, N. Shimoji, and C. Adachi, “Estimation of carrier recombination and electroluminescence emission regions in organic light-emitting field-effect transistors using local doping method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor-type organic light-emitting transistor on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

F. Amy, C. Chan, and A. Kahn, “Polarization at the gold/pentacene interface,” Org. Electron. 6(2), 85–91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Hepp, H. Heil, W. Weise, M. Ahles, R. Schmechel, and H. von Seggern, “Light-emitting field-effect transistor based on a tetracene thin film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(15), 157406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

N. J. Watkins, L. Yan, and Y. Gao, “Electronic structure symmetry of interfaces between pentacene and metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4384–4386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

T. Oyamada, H. Sasabe, Y. Oku, N. Shimoji, and C. Adachi, “Estimation of carrier recombination and electroluminescence emission regions in organic light-emitting field-effect transistors using local doping method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahles, M.

A. Hepp, H. Heil, W. Weise, M. Ahles, R. Schmechel, and H. von Seggern, “Light-emitting field-effect transistor based on a tetracene thin film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(15), 157406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amy, F.

F. Amy, C. Chan, and A. Kahn, “Polarization at the gold/pentacene interface,” Org. Electron. 6(2), 85–91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bazan, G. C.

B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Sasson, A. J.

A. J. Ben-Sasson and N. Tessler, “Unraveling the physics of vertical organic field effect transistors through nanoscale engineering of a self-assembled transparent electrode,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4729–4733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Ben-Sasson, Z. H. Chen, A. Facchetti, and N. Tessler, “Solution-processed ambipolar vertical organic field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Ben-Sasson and N. Tessler, “Patterned electrode vertical field effect transistor: Theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 044501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bird, M.

J. Zaumseil, C. R. McNeill, M. Bird, D. L. Smith, P. Paul Ruden, M. Roberts, M. J. McKiernan, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Quantum efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting polymer field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bramanti, A.

V. Maiorano, A. Bramanti, S. Carallo, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors based on an ambipolar p-i-n layered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capelli, R.

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carallo, S.

V. Maiorano, A. Bramanti, S. Carallo, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors based on an ambipolar p-i-n layered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C.

F. Amy, C. Chan, and A. Kahn, “Polarization at the gold/pentacene interface,” Org. Electron. 6(2), 85–91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. H.

A. J. Ben-Sasson, Z. H. Chen, A. Facchetti, and N. Tessler, “Solution-processed ambipolar vertical organic field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cicoira, F.

F. Cicoira and C. Santato, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors: advances and perspectives,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(17), 3421–3434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

V. Maiorano, A. Bramanti, S. Carallo, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors based on an ambipolar p-i-n layered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Donley, C. L.

J. Zaumseil, C. L. Donley, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Efficient top-gate, ambipolar, light-emitting field-effect transistors based on a green-light-emitting polyfluorene,” Adv. Mater. 18(20), 2708–2712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Donoghue, E. P.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, C. H.

B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endo, H.

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Improvement of Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor-Type Organic Light-Emitting Transistors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1889–1893 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor-type organic light-emitting transistor on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Facchetti, A.

A. J. Ben-Sasson, Z. H. Chen, A. Facchetti, and N. Tessler, “Solution-processed ambipolar vertical organic field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

J. Zaumseil, C. R. McNeill, M. Bird, D. L. Smith, P. Paul Ruden, M. Roberts, M. J. McKiernan, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Quantum efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting polymer field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaumseil, C. L. Donley, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Efficient top-gate, ambipolar, light-emitting field-effect transistors based on a green-light-emitting polyfluorene,” Adv. Mater. 18(20), 2708–2712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaumseil, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Spatial control of the recombination zone in an ambipolar light-emitting organic transistor,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 69–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

N. J. Watkins, L. Yan, and Y. Gao, “Electronic structure symmetry of interfaces between pentacene and metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4384–4386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Generali, G.

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gigli, G.

V. Maiorano, A. Bramanti, S. Carallo, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors based on an ambipolar p-i-n layered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Günther, A. A.

H. Kleemann, A. A. Günther, K. Leo, and B. Lüssem, “High-performance vertical organic transistors,” Small 9(21), 3670–3677 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, J.

B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y. L.

Y. L. Guo, G. Yu, and Y. Q. Liu, “Functional organic field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4427–4447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutacker, A.

B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hata, T.

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Improvement of Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor-Type Organic Light-Emitting Transistors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1889–1893 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor-type organic light-emitting transistor on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Namdas, P. Ledochowitsch, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “High performance light emitting transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heil, H.

A. Hepp, H. Heil, W. Weise, M. Ahles, R. Schmechel, and H. von Seggern, “Light-emitting field-effect transistor based on a tetracene thin film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(15), 157406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hepp, A.

A. Hepp, H. Heil, W. Weise, M. Ahles, R. Schmechel, and H. von Seggern, “Light-emitting field-effect transistor based on a tetracene thin film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(15), 157406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holloway, P. H.

B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hotta, S.

K. Yamane, H. Yanagi, A. Sawamoto, and S. Hotta, “Ambipolar organic light emitting field effect transistors with modified asymmetric electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 162108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, B. B. Y.

B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, F.

B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahn, A.

F. Amy, C. Chan, and A. Kahn, “Polarization at the gold/pentacene interface,” Org. Electron. 6(2), 85–91 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, S. M.

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Ordered materials for organic electronics and photonics,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 566–584 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

J. Zaumseil, C. L. Donley, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Efficient top-gate, ambipolar, light-emitting field-effect transistors based on a green-light-emitting polyfluorene,” Adv. Mater. 18(20), 2708–2712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kleemann, H.

H. Kleemann, A. A. Günther, K. Leo, and B. Lüssem, “High-performance vertical organic transistors,” Small 9(21), 3670–3677 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koopman, W.

M. Muccini, W. Koopman, and S. Toffanin, “The photonic perspective of organic light-emitting transistors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(2), 258–275 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kravchenko, I.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudo, K.

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Improvement of Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor-Type Organic Light-Emitting Transistors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1889–1893 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor-type organic light-emitting transistor on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ledochowitsch, P.

E. B. Namdas, P. Ledochowitsch, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “High performance light emitting transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

H. Kleemann, A. A. Günther, K. Leo, and B. Lüssem, “High-performance vertical organic transistors,” Small 9(21), 3670–3677 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, and A. G. Rinzler, “High current, low voltage carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3467–3472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. Q.

Y. L. Guo, G. Yu, and Y. Q. Liu, “Functional organic field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4427–4447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüssem, B.

H. Kleemann, A. A. Günther, K. Leo, and B. Lüssem, “High-performance vertical organic transistors,” Small 9(21), 3670–3677 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maiorano, V.

V. Maiorano, A. Bramanti, S. Carallo, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors based on an ambipolar p-i-n layered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsushige, K.

N. Suganuma, N. Shimoji, Y. Oku, S. Okuyama, and K. Matsushige, “Organic light-emitting transistors with split-gate structure and PN-hetero-boundary carrier recombination sites,” Org. Electron. 9(5), 834–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McCarthy, M. A.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, and A. G. Rinzler, “High current, low voltage carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3467–3472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McKiernan, M. J.

J. Zaumseil, C. R. McNeill, M. Bird, D. L. Smith, P. Paul Ruden, M. Roberts, M. J. McKiernan, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Quantum efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting polymer field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McNeill, C. R.

J. Zaumseil, C. R. McNeill, M. Bird, D. L. Smith, P. Paul Ruden, M. Roberts, M. J. McKiernan, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Quantum efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting polymer field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Melzer, C.

M. Schidleja, C. Melzer, and H. von Seggern, “Electroluminescence from a pentacene based ambipolar organic field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

E. B. Namdas, P. Ledochowitsch, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “High performance light emitting transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Muccini, M.

M. Muccini, W. Koopman, and S. Toffanin, “The photonic perspective of organic light-emitting transistors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(2), 258–275 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Muccini, “A bright future for organic field-effect transistors,” Nat. Mater. 5(8), 605–613 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, K.

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Improvement of Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor-Type Organic Light-Emitting Transistors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1889–1893 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor-type organic light-emitting transistor on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Namdas, E. B.

B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Namdas, P. Ledochowitsch, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “High performance light emitting transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, M.

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Ordered materials for organic electronics and photonics,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 566–584 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obata, K.

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Improvement of Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor-Type Organic Light-Emitting Transistors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1889–1893 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor-type organic light-emitting transistor on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oku, Y.

N. Suganuma, N. Shimoji, Y. Oku, S. Okuyama, and K. Matsushige, “Organic light-emitting transistors with split-gate structure and PN-hetero-boundary carrier recombination sites,” Org. Electron. 9(5), 834–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Oyamada, H. Sasabe, Y. Oku, N. Shimoji, and C. Adachi, “Estimation of carrier recombination and electroluminescence emission regions in organic light-emitting field-effect transistors using local doping method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okuyama, S.

N. Suganuma, N. Shimoji, Y. Oku, S. Okuyama, and K. Matsushige, “Organic light-emitting transistors with split-gate structure and PN-hetero-boundary carrier recombination sites,” Org. Electron. 9(5), 834–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oyamada, T.

T. Oyamada, H. Sasabe, Y. Oku, N. Shimoji, and C. Adachi, “Estimation of carrier recombination and electroluminescence emission regions in organic light-emitting field-effect transistors using local doping method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paul Ruden, P.

J. Zaumseil, C. R. McNeill, M. Bird, D. L. Smith, P. Paul Ruden, M. Roberts, M. J. McKiernan, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Quantum efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting polymer field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. R.

B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rinzler, A. G.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, and A. G. Rinzler, “High current, low voltage carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3467–3472 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, M.

J. Zaumseil, C. R. McNeill, M. Bird, D. L. Smith, P. Paul Ruden, M. Roberts, M. J. McKiernan, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Quantum efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting polymer field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santato, C.

F. Cicoira and C. Santato, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors: advances and perspectives,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(17), 3421–3434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasabe, H.

T. Oyamada, H. Sasabe, Y. Oku, N. Shimoji, and C. Adachi, “Estimation of carrier recombination and electroluminescence emission regions in organic light-emitting field-effect transistors using local doping method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sawamoto, A.

K. Yamane, H. Yanagi, A. Sawamoto, and S. Hotta, “Ambipolar organic light emitting field effect transistors with modified asymmetric electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 162108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schidleja, M.

M. Schidleja, C. Melzer, and H. von Seggern, “Electroluminescence from a pentacene based ambipolar organic field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmechel, R.

A. Hepp, H. Heil, W. Weise, M. Ahles, R. Schmechel, and H. von Seggern, “Light-emitting field-effect transistor based on a tetracene thin film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(15), 157406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimoji, N.

N. Suganuma, N. Shimoji, Y. Oku, S. Okuyama, and K. Matsushige, “Organic light-emitting transistors with split-gate structure and PN-hetero-boundary carrier recombination sites,” Org. Electron. 9(5), 834–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Oyamada, H. Sasabe, Y. Oku, N. Shimoji, and C. Adachi, “Estimation of carrier recombination and electroluminescence emission regions in organic light-emitting field-effect transistors using local doping method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sirringhaus, H.

J. Zaumseil, C. R. McNeill, M. Bird, D. L. Smith, P. Paul Ruden, M. Roberts, M. J. McKiernan, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Quantum efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting polymer field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaumseil, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Spatial control of the recombination zone in an ambipolar light-emitting organic transistor,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 69–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaumseil, C. L. Donley, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Efficient top-gate, ambipolar, light-emitting field-effect transistors based on a green-light-emitting polyfluorene,” Adv. Mater. 18(20), 2708–2712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. L.

J. Zaumseil, C. R. McNeill, M. Bird, D. L. Smith, P. Paul Ruden, M. Roberts, M. J. McKiernan, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Quantum efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting polymer field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suganuma, N.

N. Suganuma, N. Shimoji, Y. Oku, S. Okuyama, and K. Matsushige, “Organic light-emitting transistors with split-gate structure and PN-hetero-boundary carrier recombination sites,” Org. Electron. 9(5), 834–838 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

A. J. Ben-Sasson and N. Tessler, “Unraveling the physics of vertical organic field effect transistors through nanoscale engineering of a self-assembled transparent electrode,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4729–4733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Ben-Sasson, Z. H. Chen, A. Facchetti, and N. Tessler, “Solution-processed ambipolar vertical organic field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Ben-Sasson and N. Tessler, “Patterned electrode vertical field effect transistor: Theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 044501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toffanin, S.

M. Muccini, W. Koopman, and S. Toffanin, “The photonic perspective of organic light-emitting transistors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(2), 258–275 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usta, H.

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 496–503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Seggern, H.

M. Schidleja, C. Melzer, and H. von Seggern, “Electroluminescence from a pentacene based ambipolar organic field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hepp, H. Heil, W. Weise, M. Ahles, R. Schmechel, and H. von Seggern, “Light-emitting field-effect transistor based on a tetracene thin film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(15), 157406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watkins, N. J.

N. J. Watkins, L. Yan, and Y. Gao, “Electronic structure symmetry of interfaces between pentacene and metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4384–4386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weise, W.

A. Hepp, H. Heil, W. Weise, M. Ahles, R. Schmechel, and H. von Seggern, “Light-emitting field-effect transistor based on a tetracene thin film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(15), 157406 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamane, K.

K. Yamane, H. Yanagi, A. Sawamoto, and S. Hotta, “Ambipolar organic light emitting field effect transistors with modified asymmetric electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 162108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.

N. J. Watkins, L. Yan, and Y. Gao, “Electronic structure symmetry of interfaces between pentacene and metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4384–4386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yanagi, H.

K. Yamane, H. Yanagi, A. Sawamoto, and S. Hotta, “Ambipolar organic light emitting field effect transistors with modified asymmetric electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 162108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, Y.

B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, A.

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Improvement of Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor-Type Organic Light-Emitting Transistors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1889–1893 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor-type organic light-emitting transistor on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

Y. L. Guo, G. Yu, and Y. Q. Liu, “Functional organic field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4427–4447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuen, J. D.

B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Namdas, P. Ledochowitsch, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “High performance light emitting transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zaumseil, J.

J. Zaumseil, C. R. McNeill, M. Bird, D. L. Smith, P. Paul Ruden, M. Roberts, M. J. McKiernan, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Quantum efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting polymer field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaumseil, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Spatial control of the recombination zone in an ambipolar light-emitting organic transistor,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 69–74 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaumseil, C. L. Donley, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Efficient top-gate, ambipolar, light-emitting field-effect transistors based on a green-light-emitting polyfluorene,” Adv. Mater. 18(20), 2708–2712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

F. Cicoira and C. Santato, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors: advances and perspectives,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(17), 3421–3434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (5)

Y. L. Guo, G. Yu, and Y. Q. Liu, “Functional organic field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(40), 4427–4447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O’Neill and S. M. Kelly, “Ordered materials for organic electronics and photonics,” Adv. Mater. 23(5), 566–584 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, M. A. McCarthy, Y. Yoon, D. Y. Kim, Z. Wu, F. So, P. H. Holloway, J. R. Reynolds, J. Guo, and A. G. Rinzler, “Carbon-nanotube-enabled vertical field effect and light-emitting transistors,” Adv. Mater. 20(19), 3605–3609 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaumseil, C. L. Donley, J. S. Kim, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Efficient top-gate, ambipolar, light-emitting field-effect transistors based on a green-light-emitting polyfluorene,” Adv. Mater. 18(20), 2708–2712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Y. Hsu, C. H. Duan, E. B. Namdas, A. Gutacker, J. D. Yuen, F. Huang, Y. Cao, G. C. Bazan, I. D. W. Samuel, and A. J. Heeger, “Control of Efficiency, Brightness, and Recombination Zone in Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors,” Adv. Mater. 24(9), 1171–1175 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

T. Oyamada, H. Sasabe, Y. Oku, N. Shimoji, and C. Adachi, “Estimation of carrier recombination and electroluminescence emission regions in organic light-emitting field-effect transistors using local doping method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 093514 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamane, H. Yanagi, A. Sawamoto, and S. Hotta, “Ambipolar organic light emitting field effect transistors with modified asymmetric electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(16), 162108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Schidleja, C. Melzer, and H. von Seggern, “Electroluminescence from a pentacene based ambipolar organic field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123307 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Maiorano, A. Bramanti, S. Carallo, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, “Organic light emitting field effect transistors based on an ambipolar p-i-n layered structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor-type organic light-emitting transistor on plastic substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 103525 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Namdas, P. Ledochowitsch, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “High performance light emitting transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 183304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Ben-Sasson, Z. H. Chen, A. Facchetti, and N. Tessler, “Solution-processed ambipolar vertical organic field effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 263306 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Watkins, L. Yan, and Y. Gao, “Electronic structure symmetry of interfaces between pentacene and metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(23), 4384–4386 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. J. Ben-Sasson and N. Tessler, “Patterned electrode vertical field effect transistor: Theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(4), 044501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaumseil, C. R. McNeill, M. Bird, D. L. Smith, P. Paul Ruden, M. Roberts, M. J. McKiernan, R. H. Friend, and H. Sirringhaus, “Quantum efficiency of ambipolar light-emitting polymer field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064517 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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K. Nakamura, T. Hata, A. Yoshizawa, K. Obata, H. Endo, and K. Kudo, “Improvement of Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor-Type Organic Light-Emitting Transistors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1889–1893 (2008).
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Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

M. Muccini, W. Koopman, and S. Toffanin, “The photonic perspective of organic light-emitting transistors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(2), 258–275 (2012).
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M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, and A. G. Rinzler, “High current, low voltage carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3467–3472 (2010).
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Nat. Mater. (3)

R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, and M. Muccini, “Organic light-emitting transistors with an efficiency that outperforms the equivalent light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Mater. 9(6), 496–503 (2010).
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N. Suganuma, N. Shimoji, Y. Oku, S. Okuyama, and K. Matsushige, “Organic light-emitting transistors with split-gate structure and PN-hetero-boundary carrier recombination sites,” Org. Electron. 9(5), 834–838 (2008).
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A. Hepp, H. Heil, W. Weise, M. Ahles, R. Schmechel, and H. von Seggern, “Light-emitting field-effect transistor based on a tetracene thin film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(15), 157406 (2003).
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M. A. McCarthy, B. Liu, E. P. Donoghue, I. Kravchenko, D. Y. Kim, F. So, and A. G. Rinzler, “Low-voltage, low-power, organic light-emitting transistors for active matrix displays,” Science 332(6029), 570–573 (2011).
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H. Kleemann, A. A. Günther, K. Leo, and B. Lüssem, “High-performance vertical organic transistors,” Small 9(21), 3670–3677 (2013).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional view of our VOLET with a network source electrode having periodic apertures. The lateral charge transport (qL) and the vertical charge transport (qV) are depicted as solid and dashed arrows, respectively. (b) Illustration of our VOLET architecture with a network source electrode and the stacked layers of functional materials.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscopic images of three network source electrodes of Au, having different sizes of the apertures, covered with the cross-linked PVP layers. The size of each aperture and the separation between two adjacent apertures (or the dimension of each electrode region) were denoted by Wa and We, respectively. The value of Wa = We was varied to be (a) 20 μm, (b) 10 μm, and (c) 5 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscopic images for the light emission through the apertures of the network source electrode in three VOLETs with different values of (a) Wa = 20 μm, (b) Wa = 10 μm, and (c) Wa = 5 μm at the drain voltage of –10 V and the gate voltage of –10 V under zero source voltage. (d) Intensity profiles along the yellow line across a single aperture for each OLET given in (a)-(c). Green, blue, and red colors represent Wa = 20, 10, and 5 μm, respectively. In each case, the FWHM (depicted by the gray arrow) was estimated from two intensity curves separated from one another by extrapolation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light emission features through 6 × 6 apertures of Wa = 5 μm in the source electrode at the gate voltage of (a) –50 V, (b) 0 V, and (c) + 50 V at the drain voltage of –10 V. (d) Luminance as a function of the gate voltage. The inset shows a photograph together with a zoom-in microscopic image for the light emission from the OLET (2.5 mm × 2 mm in size) with 50,000 apertures in the source electrode at the gate voltage of –50 V and the drain voltage of –10 V.

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