Abstract

We study the optical properties of a 2D Photonic Crystal (PC) inserted in the upper ITO electrode of a classical P3HT:PCBM solar architecture with an ultra-thin active layer. First, we analyze the optical response of the system when only the active layer is supposed to absorb light. This allows us to observe clear photonic crystal resonances in the absorption spectrum, which increase the cell efficiency even if the period of the PC is higher than the wavelength. This is in apparent contradiction with the common belief that PC should work in subwavelength regime. Then, by turning to a real system (with optical losses in all the layers), an optimized PC design is proposed, where the maximum of efficiency is obtained for a PC period of 1200 nm, much larger than visible wavelength.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Wu, X. Wu, C. Guan, K. Fai Tai, E. K. L. Yeow, H. Jin Fan, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Uncovering loss mechanisms in silver nanoparticle-blended plasmonic organic solar cell,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1–7 (2013).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. R. Catchpole and M. Green, “A conceptual model of light coupling by pillar diffraction gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063105 (2007).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231102 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. C. Deleuze, C. Derail, M. H. Delville, and L. Billon, “Hierarchically structured hybrid honeycomb films via micro to nanosized building blocks,” Soft Matter 8(33), 8559–8562 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. D. M. Callahan, K. A. W. Horowitz, and H. A. Atwater, “Light trapping in ultrathin silicon photonic crystal superlattices with randomly-textured dielectric incouplers,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30315–30326 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

B. Wu, X. Wu, C. Guan, K. Fai Tai, E. K. L. Yeow, H. Jin Fan, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Uncovering loss mechanisms in silver nanoparticle-blended plasmonic organic solar cell,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Peres, V. Vigneras, and S. Fasquel, “Frequential and temporal analysis of two-dimensional photonic crystals for absorption enhancement in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 239–245 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Callahan, K. A. Horowitz, and H. A. Atwater, “Light trapping in ultrathin silicon photonic crystal superlattices with randomly-textured dielectric incouplers,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30315–30326 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Callahan, K. A. W. Horowitz, and H. A. Atwater, “Light trapping in ultrathin silicon photonic crystal superlattices with randomly-textured dielectric incouplers,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30315–30326 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

C. H. Tsai and P. C.-P. Paul, “Optimal design of ITO/organic photonic crystals in polymer light-emitting diodes with sidewall reflectors for high efficiency,” Microsyst. Technol. 18(9-10), 1289–1296 (2012).

R. Peretti, G. Gomard, C. Seassal, X. Letrartre, and E. Drouard, “Modal approach for tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 1231141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Deleuze, C. Derail, M. H. Delville, and L. Billon, “Hierarchically structured hybrid honeycomb films via micro to nanosized building blocks,” Soft Matter 8(33), 8559–8562 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011

M. D. Brown, T. Suteewong, R. S. S. Kumar, V. D’Innocenzo, A. Petrozza, M. M. Lee, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells using core-shell metal-insulator nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 438–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Raman, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19015–19026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

W. Bai, Q. Gan, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Kafafi, and F. Bartoli, “Broadband short-range surface plasmon structures for absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 18(S4), A620–A630 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ng, C. H. Li, M. K. Fung, A. B. Djuris, W. K. Chan, K. Y. Cheung, and W. Wong, “Accurate determination of the index of refraction of polymer blend films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15094–15101 (2010).

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pillai and M. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E. T. Samulski, and R. Lopez, “Absorption and quasiguided mode analysis of organic solar cells with photonic crystal photoactive layers,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7670–7681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y.-C. Lee, C.-F. Huang, J.-Y. Chang, and M.-L. Wu, “Enhanced light trapping based on guided mode resonance effect for thin-film silicon solar cells with two filling-factor gratings,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7969–7975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. R. Catchpole and M. Green, “A conceptual model of light coupling by pillar diffraction gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1–2), 95–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Qiu, “Effective index method for heterostructure-slab-waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1163–1165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995

Abramov, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

Bai, W.

Bartoli, F.

Billon, L.

C. Deleuze, C. Derail, M. H. Delville, and L. Billon, “Hierarchically structured hybrid honeycomb films via micro to nanosized building blocks,” Soft Matter 8(33), 8559–8562 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brown, M. D.

M. D. Brown, T. Suteewong, R. S. S. Kumar, V. D’Innocenzo, A. Petrozza, M. M. Lee, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells using core-shell metal-insulator nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 438–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burresi, M.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

Callahan, D. M.

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole and M. Green, “A conceptual model of light coupling by pillar diffraction gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. K.

A. Ng, C. H. Li, M. K. Fung, A. B. Djuris, W. K. Chan, K. Y. Cheung, and W. Wong, “Accurate determination of the index of refraction of polymer blend films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15094–15101 (2010).

Chang, J.-Y.

Chen, B. J.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1–2), 95–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, T. P.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1–2), 95–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. Y.

A. Ng, C. H. Li, M. K. Fung, A. B. Djuris, W. K. Chan, K. Y. Cheung, and W. Wong, “Accurate determination of the index of refraction of polymer blend films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15094–15101 (2010).

Curtin, B.

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D’Innocenzo, V.

M. D. Brown, T. Suteewong, R. S. S. Kumar, V. D’Innocenzo, A. Petrozza, M. M. Lee, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells using core-shell metal-insulator nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 438–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalal, V.

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deleuze, C.

C. Deleuze, C. Derail, M. H. Delville, and L. Billon, “Hierarchically structured hybrid honeycomb films via micro to nanosized building blocks,” Soft Matter 8(33), 8559–8562 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Delville, M. H.

C. Deleuze, C. Derail, M. H. Delville, and L. Billon, “Hierarchically structured hybrid honeycomb films via micro to nanosized building blocks,” Soft Matter 8(33), 8559–8562 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Derail, C.

C. Deleuze, C. Derail, M. H. Delville, and L. Billon, “Hierarchically structured hybrid honeycomb films via micro to nanosized building blocks,” Soft Matter 8(33), 8559–8562 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Djuris, A. B.

A. Ng, C. H. Li, M. K. Fung, A. B. Djuris, W. K. Chan, K. Y. Cheung, and W. Wong, “Accurate determination of the index of refraction of polymer blend films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15094–15101 (2010).

Drouard, E.

R. Peretti, G. Gomard, C. Seassal, X. Letrartre, and E. Drouard, “Modal approach for tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 1231141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duche, D.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duché, D.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

El Daif, O.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Escoubas, L.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fai Tai, K.

B. Wu, X. Wu, C. Guan, K. Fai Tai, E. K. L. Yeow, H. Jin Fan, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Uncovering loss mechanisms in silver nanoparticle-blended plasmonic organic solar cell,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. Raman, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19015–19026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fasquel, S.

L. Peres, V. Vigneras, and S. Fasquel, “Frequential and temporal analysis of two-dimensional photonic crystals for absorption enhancement in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 239–245 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fave, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Favuzzi, P. A.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fung, M. K.

A. Ng, C. H. Li, M. K. Fung, A. B. Djuris, W. K. Chan, K. Y. Cheung, and W. Wong, “Accurate determination of the index of refraction of polymer blend films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15094–15101 (2010).

Gan, Q.

Garcia-Caurel, E.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gomard, G.

R. Peretti, G. Gomard, C. Seassal, X. Letrartre, and E. Drouard, “Modal approach for tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 1231141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, M.

S. Pillai and M. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and M. Green, “A conceptual model of light coupling by pillar diffraction gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guan, C.

B. Wu, X. Wu, C. Guan, K. Fai Tai, E. K. L. Yeow, H. Jin Fan, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Uncovering loss mechanisms in silver nanoparticle-blended plasmonic organic solar cell,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, K. A.

Horowitz, K. A. W.

Huang, C.-F.

Jin Fan, H.

B. Wu, X. Wu, C. Guan, K. Fai Tai, E. K. L. Yeow, H. Jin Fan, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Uncovering loss mechanisms in silver nanoparticle-blended plasmonic organic solar cell,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kafafi, Z.

Kaminski, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawakami, Y.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D.-H.

Kumar, R. S. S.

M. D. Brown, T. Suteewong, R. S. S. Kumar, V. D’Innocenzo, A. Petrozza, M. M. Lee, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells using core-shell metal-insulator nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 438–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. M.

M. D. Brown, T. Suteewong, R. S. S. Kumar, V. D’Innocenzo, A. Petrozza, M. M. Lee, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells using core-shell metal-insulator nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 438–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-C.

Lemiti, M.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Letartre, X.

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Letrartre, X.

R. Peretti, G. Gomard, C. Seassal, X. Letrartre, and E. Drouard, “Modal approach for tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 1231141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. H.

A. Ng, C. H. Li, M. K. Fung, A. B. Djuris, W. K. Chan, K. Y. Cheung, and W. Wong, “Accurate determination of the index of refraction of polymer blend films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15094–15101 (2010).

Lopez, R.

Mathews, N.

B. Wu, X. Wu, C. Guan, K. Fai Tai, E. K. L. Yeow, H. Jin Fan, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Uncovering loss mechanisms in silver nanoparticle-blended plasmonic organic solar cell,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mathian, G.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monestier, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ng, A.

A. Ng, C. H. Li, M. K. Fung, A. B. Djuris, W. K. Chan, K. Y. Cheung, and W. Wong, “Accurate determination of the index of refraction of polymer blend films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15094–15101 (2010).

Noda, S.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Orobtchouk, R.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oskooi, A.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Paul, P. C.-P.

C. H. Tsai and P. C.-P. Paul, “Optimal design of ITO/organic photonic crystals in polymer light-emitting diodes with sidewall reflectors for high efficiency,” Microsyst. Technol. 18(9-10), 1289–1296 (2012).

Peres, L.

L. Peres, V. Vigneras, and S. Fasquel, “Frequential and temporal analysis of two-dimensional photonic crystals for absorption enhancement in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 239–245 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Peretti, R.

R. Peretti, G. Gomard, C. Seassal, X. Letrartre, and E. Drouard, “Modal approach for tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 1231141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Petrozza, A.

M. D. Brown, T. Suteewong, R. S. S. Kumar, V. D’Innocenzo, A. Petrozza, M. M. Lee, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells using core-shell metal-insulator nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 438–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai and M. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

M. Qiu, “Effective index method for heterostructure-slab-waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1163–1165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rakic, A. D.

Raman, A.

A. Raman, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19015–19026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riboli, F.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Samulski, E. T.

Seassal, C.

R. Peretti, G. Gomard, C. Seassal, X. Letrartre, and E. Drouard, “Modal approach for tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 1231141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shigeta, H.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.-J.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Snaith, H. J.

M. D. Brown, T. Suteewong, R. S. S. Kumar, V. D’Innocenzo, A. Petrozza, M. M. Lee, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells using core-shell metal-insulator nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 438–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, G.

Sum, T. C.

B. Wu, X. Wu, C. Guan, K. Fai Tai, E. K. L. Yeow, H. Jin Fan, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Uncovering loss mechanisms in silver nanoparticle-blended plasmonic organic solar cell,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. Q.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1–2), 95–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1–2), 95–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1–2), 95–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suteewong, T.

M. D. Brown, T. Suteewong, R. S. S. Kumar, V. D’Innocenzo, A. Petrozza, M. M. Lee, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells using core-shell metal-insulator nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 438–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tay, B. K.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1–2), 95–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. H.

C. H. Tsai and P. C.-P. Paul, “Optimal design of ITO/organic photonic crystals in polymer light-emitting diodes with sidewall reflectors for high efficiency,” Microsyst. Technol. 18(9-10), 1289–1296 (2012).

Tumbleston, J. R.

Vervisch, W.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vigneras, V.

L. Peres, V. Vigneras, and S. Fasquel, “Frequential and temporal analysis of two-dimensional photonic crystals for absorption enhancement in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 239–245 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Viktorovitch, P.

Vynck, K.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wiersma, D. S.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wiesner, U.

M. D. Brown, T. Suteewong, R. S. S. Kumar, V. D’Innocenzo, A. Petrozza, M. M. Lee, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells using core-shell metal-insulator nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 438–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, W.

A. Ng, C. H. Li, M. K. Fung, A. B. Djuris, W. K. Chan, K. Y. Cheung, and W. Wong, “Accurate determination of the index of refraction of polymer blend films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15094–15101 (2010).

Wu, B.

B. Wu, X. Wu, C. Guan, K. Fai Tai, E. K. L. Yeow, H. Jin Fan, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Uncovering loss mechanisms in silver nanoparticle-blended plasmonic organic solar cell,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.-L.

Wu, X.

B. Wu, X. Wu, C. Guan, K. Fai Tai, E. K. L. Yeow, H. Jin Fan, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Uncovering loss mechanisms in silver nanoparticle-blended plasmonic organic solar cell,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. X.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1–2), 95–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1–2), 95–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeow, E. K. L.

B. Wu, X. Wu, C. Guan, K. Fai Tai, E. K. L. Yeow, H. Jin Fan, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Uncovering loss mechanisms in silver nanoparticle-blended plasmonic organic solar cell,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

A. Raman, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19015–19026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Qiu, “Effective index method for heterostructure-slab-waveguide-based two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1163–1165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Curtin, R. Biswas, and V. Dalal, “Photonic crystal based back reflectors for light management and enhanced absorption in amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(19), 193310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. Zhou and R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and M. Green, “A conceptual model of light coupling by pillar diffraction gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(6), 063105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Peretti, G. Gomard, C. Seassal, X. Letrartre, and E. Drouard, “Modal approach for tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(12), 1231141 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 123102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

A. Ng, C. H. Li, M. K. Fung, A. B. Djuris, W. K. Chan, K. Y. Cheung, and W. Wong, “Accurate determination of the index of refraction of polymer blend films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 15094–15101 (2010).

Microsyst. Technol.

C. H. Tsai and P. C.-P. Paul, “Optimal design of ITO/organic photonic crystals in polymer light-emitting diodes with sidewall reflectors for high efficiency,” Microsyst. Technol. 18(9-10), 1289–1296 (2012).

Nano Lett.

M. D. Brown, T. Suteewong, R. S. S. Kumar, V. D’Innocenzo, A. Petrozza, M. M. Lee, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells using core-shell metal-insulator nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 438–445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun.

B. Wu, X. Wu, C. Guan, K. Fai Tai, E. K. L. Yeow, H. Jin Fan, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum, “Uncovering loss mechanisms in silver nanoparticle-blended plasmonic organic solar cell,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1–7 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. 11(12), 1017–1022 (2012).
[PubMed]

Opt. Express

D. M. Callahan, K. A. Horowitz, and H. A. Atwater, “Light trapping in ultrathin silicon photonic crystal superlattices with randomly-textured dielectric incouplers,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30315–30326 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bai, Q. Gan, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Kafafi, and F. Bartoli, “Broadband short-range surface plasmon structures for absorption enhancement in organic photovoltaics,” Opt. Express 18(S4), A620–A630 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Lee, C.-F. Huang, J.-Y. Chang, and M.-L. Wu, “Enhanced light trapping based on guided mode resonance effect for thin-film silicon solar cells with two filling-factor gratings,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7969–7975 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E. T. Samulski, and R. Lopez, “Absorption and quasiguided mode analysis of organic solar cells with photonic crystal photoactive layers,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7670–7681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Callahan, K. A. W. Horowitz, and H. A. Atwater, “Light trapping in ultrathin silicon photonic crystal superlattices with randomly-textured dielectric incouplers,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30315–30326 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Raman, Z. Yu, and S. Fan, “Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19015–19026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soft Matter

C. Deleuze, C. Derail, M. H. Delville, and L. Billon, “Hierarchically structured hybrid honeycomb films via micro to nanosized building blocks,” Soft Matter 8(33), 8559–8562 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

S. Pillai and M. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Peres, V. Vigneras, and S. Fasquel, “Frequential and temporal analysis of two-dimensional photonic crystals for absorption enhancement in organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 117, 239–245 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, and C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

Y. Yang, X. W. Sun, B. J. Chen, C. X. Xu, T. P. Chen, C. Q. Sun, B. K. Tay, and Z. Sun, “Refractive indices of textured indium tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films,” Thin Solid Films 510(1–2), 95–101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of global nanopatterned solar cell. The ITO electrode contains a 2D cubic air holes photonic crystal of period a and diameter d.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Absorption spectrum in the active layer for several values of PC period a. The air filling factor is fixed at 0.44. The integrated absorption enhancement G, normalized by the reference, is given for each value of period. (b) Spectral density of absorbed photons per unit of area and time, and integrated absorption enhancement G, weighted by the AM1.5 solar spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Number of modes calculated at k = Г (of ГXMГ Brillouin zone, see the inset) over the wavelength range [400-700] nm, as a function as the PC period a. The solid line shows the best fit to a function Y = α X2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) P3HT:PCBM absorption in the reference cell (solid line) compared to the P3HT:PCBM absorption in the patterned solar cell (dashed line) ; the period a is 1000 nm and air filling factor ffair is 0.44. (b) Overview of Fig. 4(a) showing the P3HT:PCBM absorption (solid line) in the patterned solar cell on the range λ = [400-600nm], for the ideal system. The total absorption of the patterned multilayer system (dashed line) is added for comparison (all imaginary parts of index are taken into account). (c) Calculation of absorption in each layers of the patterned cell. (d) Calculation of P3HT:PCBM absorption enhancement in patterned solar cell by taking into account all absorbing layers contributions: 20% enhancement is obtained compared to reference planar cell.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The black lines show the 2D band diagram of a cubic array of air holes (period a = 1000 nm) in a dielectric slab whose index is the effective index of the multilayer at λ = 575 nm (Neff575). A PC mode is found, in Γ, when a/λ = 1.74. The corresponding band is represented in thick black line. Due to the difference between Neff 575 and Neff 650, the diagram for λ = 650 nm is shifted (see the arrow), and only one band has been represented for λ = 650 nm (thick blue line). On this band, a mode can be excited in Γ, when a/λ = 1.54.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contour map of absorption enhancement as a function as period and air filling factor.

Equations (1)

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G= λ 1 00 λ 2 λ hc A(λ)I(λ)d(λ) λ 1 λ 2 λ hc A ref f(λ)I(λ)d(λ) ,

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