Abstract

Nanostructured materials like graded refractive index (GRIN) structures in moth eyes have inspired the design of novel antireflective coatings. Such structures are more flexible than uniform coatings, but applications have been mainly limited to broadband antireflection in solar cells and LEDs. Here we show that cylindrical pigment granules in two bird species (Polyplectron bicalcaratum and Patagioenas fasciata) form a GRIN that suppresses interference and expands the range of colors produced by a multilayer. These results demonstrate that a GRIN structure can function like a pigment (i.e. through selective, independent wavelength blocking) to generate unique colors and may inspire the design of novel antireflective and structurally colored coatings.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Fang, Y.-L. Liu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, D.-H. Wan, and C.-C. Yu, “Nanoparticle Stacks with Graded Refractive Indices Enhance the Omnidirectional Light Harvesting of Solar Cells and the Light Extraction of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(11), 1412–1421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Maia, C. M. Eliason, P.-P. Bitton, S. M. Doucet, and M. D. Shawkey, “pavo: an R package for the analysis, visualization and organization of spectral data,” Methods Ecol. Evol. 4, 906–913 (2013).

Q. Yang, X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, W. Guo, and C.-H. Chang, “Antireflection effects at nanostructured material interfaces and the suppression of thin-film interference,” Nanotechnology 24(23), 235202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. Li, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Zhuang, X. Wang, and H. Shen, “Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO 2/SiN x: H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 1–8 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

R. Maia, R. H. F. Macedo, and M. D. Shawkey, “Nanostructural self-assembly of iridescent feather barbules through depletion attraction of melanosomes during keratinization,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(69), 734–743 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Diamant, A. Garcí-Valenzuela, and M. Fernández-Guasti, “Reflectivity of a disordered monolayer estimated by graded refractive index and scattering models,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(9), 1912–1921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

H. L. Leertouwer, B. D. Wilts, and D. G. Stavenga, “Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing interference microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24061–24066 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Shawkey, L. D’Alba, J. Wozny, C. M. Eliason, J. A. H. Koop, and L. Jia, “Structural color change following hydration and dehydration of iridescent mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) feathers,” Zoology (Jena) 114(2), 59–68 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Yoshioka and S. S. Kinoshita, “Direct determination of the refractive index of natural multilayer systems,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051917 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stavenga, B. D. Wilts, H. L. Leertouwer, and T. Hariyama, “Polarized iridescence of the multilayered elytra of the Japanese jewel beetle, Chrysochroa fulgidissima,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 366(1565), 709–723 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

B. Q. Dong, X. H. Liu, T. R. Zhan, L. P. Jiang, H. W. Yin, F. Liu, and J. Zi, “Structural coloration and photonic pseudogap in natural random close-packing photonic structures,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14430–14438 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. Joannopoulos, and S. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

K. J. M. Bishop, C. E. Wilmer, S. Soh, and B. A. Grzybowski, “Nanoscale forces and their uses in self-assembly,” Small 5(14), 1600–1630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

E. Nakamura, S. Yoshioka, and S. Kinoshita, “Structural Color of Rock Dove’s Neck Feather,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77(12), 124801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Bruening, D. M. Dotzauer, P. Jain, L. Ouyang, and G. L. Baker, “Creation of functional membranes using polyelectrolyte multilayers and polymer brushes,” Langmuir 24(15), 7663–7673 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and J.-Q. Xi, “Low‐refractive‐index materials: A new class of optical thin‐film materials,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(8), 3002–3008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Nolte, I. Dönch, and A. Fery, “Freestanding polyelectrolyte films as sensors for osmotic pressure,” ChemPhysChem 7(9), 1985–1989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Skoge, A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, and S. Torquato, “Packing hyperspheres in high-dimensional Euclidean spaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. A. Endler and P. Mielke., “Comparing entire colour patterns as birds see them,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. 86(4), 405–431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. D. Abràmoff, P. J. Magalhães, and S. J. Ram, “Image processing with ImageJ,” Biophoton. Int. 11, 36–42 (2004).

D. Brink and N. van der Berg, “Structural colours of the bird Bostrychia hagedash,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(5), 813–818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Shawkey, A. M. Estes, L. M. Siefferman, and G. E. Hill, “Nanostructure predicts intraspecific variation in ultraviolet-blue plumage colour,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 270(1523), 1455–1460 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

M. Vorobyev, D. Osorio, A. T. D. Bennett, N. J. Marshall, and I. C. Cuthill, “Tetrachromacy, oil droplets and bird plumage colours,” J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 183(5), 621–633 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

G. Jellison., “Data analysis for spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 234(1-2), 416–422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

S. C. Lee, “Dependent scattering of an obliquely incident plane wave by a collection of parallel cylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(10), 4952–4957 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982

S. J. Wilson and M. C. Hutley, “The optical properties of moth eye antireflection surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 29, 993–1009 (1982).

1977

H. Durrer, ““Schillerfarben der vogelfeder als evolutionsproblem,” Denkschr. Schweiz,” Naturf. Ges. 91, 1–127 (1977).

Abràmoff, M. D.

M. D. Abràmoff, P. J. Magalhães, and S. J. Ram, “Image processing with ImageJ,” Biophoton. Int. 11, 36–42 (2004).

Atwater, H. A.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bagal, A.

Q. Yang, X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, W. Guo, and C.-H. Chang, “Antireflection effects at nanostructured material interfaces and the suppression of thin-film interference,” Nanotechnology 24(23), 235202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, G. L.

M. L. Bruening, D. M. Dotzauer, P. Jain, L. Ouyang, and G. L. Baker, “Creation of functional membranes using polyelectrolyte multilayers and polymer brushes,” Langmuir 24(15), 7663–7673 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballif, C.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, C.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, A. T. D.

M. Vorobyev, D. Osorio, A. T. D. Bennett, N. J. Marshall, and I. C. Cuthill, “Tetrachromacy, oil droplets and bird plumage colours,” J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 183(5), 621–633 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bermel, P.

A. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. Joannopoulos, and S. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, K. J. M.

K. J. M. Bishop, C. E. Wilmer, S. Soh, and B. A. Grzybowski, “Nanoscale forces and their uses in self-assembly,” Small 5(14), 1600–1630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bitton, P.-P.

R. Maia, C. M. Eliason, P.-P. Bitton, S. M. Doucet, and M. D. Shawkey, “pavo: an R package for the analysis, visualization and organization of spectral data,” Methods Ecol. Evol. 4, 906–913 (2013).

Brink, D.

D. Brink and N. van der Berg, “Structural colours of the bird Bostrychia hagedash,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(5), 813–818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bruening, M. L.

M. L. Bruening, D. M. Dotzauer, P. Jain, L. Ouyang, and G. L. Baker, “Creation of functional membranes using polyelectrolyte multilayers and polymer brushes,” Langmuir 24(15), 7663–7673 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bukowsky, C. R.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Callahan, D. M.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

Q. Yang, X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, W. Guo, and C.-H. Chang, “Antireflection effects at nanostructured material interfaces and the suppression of thin-film interference,” Nanotechnology 24(23), 235202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-L.

C.-Y. Fang, Y.-L. Liu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, D.-H. Wan, and C.-C. Yu, “Nanoparticle Stacks with Graded Refractive Indices Enhance the Omnidirectional Light Harvesting of Solar Cells and the Light Extraction of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(11), 1412–1421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Chen, Y.

M. Li, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Zhuang, X. Wang, and H. Shen, “Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO 2/SiN x: H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 1–8 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cuthill, I. C.

M. Vorobyev, D. Osorio, A. T. D. Bennett, N. J. Marshall, and I. C. Cuthill, “Tetrachromacy, oil droplets and bird plumage colours,” J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 183(5), 621–633 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Alba, L.

M. D. Shawkey, L. D’Alba, J. Wozny, C. M. Eliason, J. A. H. Koop, and L. Jia, “Structural color change following hydration and dehydration of iridescent mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) feathers,” Zoology (Jena) 114(2), 59–68 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deceglie, M. G.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Diamant, R.

Dönch, I.

M. Nolte, I. Dönch, and A. Fery, “Freestanding polyelectrolyte films as sensors for osmotic pressure,” ChemPhysChem 7(9), 1985–1989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donev, A.

M. Skoge, A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, and S. Torquato, “Packing hyperspheres in high-dimensional Euclidean spaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, B. Q.

Dotzauer, D. M.

M. L. Bruening, D. M. Dotzauer, P. Jain, L. Ouyang, and G. L. Baker, “Creation of functional membranes using polyelectrolyte multilayers and polymer brushes,” Langmuir 24(15), 7663–7673 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doucet, S. M.

R. Maia, C. M. Eliason, P.-P. Bitton, S. M. Doucet, and M. D. Shawkey, “pavo: an R package for the analysis, visualization and organization of spectral data,” Methods Ecol. Evol. 4, 906–913 (2013).

Durrer, H.

H. Durrer, ““Schillerfarben der vogelfeder als evolutionsproblem,” Denkschr. Schweiz,” Naturf. Ges. 91, 1–127 (1977).

Eliason, C. M.

R. Maia, C. M. Eliason, P.-P. Bitton, S. M. Doucet, and M. D. Shawkey, “pavo: an R package for the analysis, visualization and organization of spectral data,” Methods Ecol. Evol. 4, 906–913 (2013).

M. D. Shawkey, L. D’Alba, J. Wozny, C. M. Eliason, J. A. H. Koop, and L. Jia, “Structural color change following hydration and dehydration of iridescent mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) feathers,” Zoology (Jena) 114(2), 59–68 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endler, J. A.

J. A. Endler and P. Mielke., “Comparing entire colour patterns as birds see them,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. 86(4), 405–431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Estes, A. M.

M. D. Shawkey, A. M. Estes, L. M. Siefferman, and G. E. Hill, “Nanostructure predicts intraspecific variation in ultraviolet-blue plumage colour,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 270(1523), 1455–1460 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Fang, Y.-L. Liu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, D.-H. Wan, and C.-C. Yu, “Nanoparticle Stacks with Graded Refractive Indices Enhance the Omnidirectional Light Harvesting of Solar Cells and the Light Extraction of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(11), 1412–1421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Guasti, M.

Fery, A.

M. Nolte, I. Dönch, and A. Fery, “Freestanding polyelectrolyte films as sensors for osmotic pressure,” ChemPhysChem 7(9), 1985–1989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, R.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcí-Valenzuela, A.

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grubbs, R. H.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grzybowski, B. A.

K. J. M. Bishop, C. E. Wilmer, S. Soh, and B. A. Grzybowski, “Nanoscale forces and their uses in self-assembly,” Small 5(14), 1600–1630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, W.

Q. Yang, X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, W. Guo, and C.-H. Chang, “Antireflection effects at nanostructured material interfaces and the suppression of thin-film interference,” Nanotechnology 24(23), 235202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hariyama, T.

D. G. Stavenga, B. D. Wilts, H. L. Leertouwer, and T. Hariyama, “Polarized iridescence of the multilayered elytra of the Japanese jewel beetle, Chrysochroa fulgidissima,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 366(1565), 709–723 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heo, J. H.

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hill, G. E.

M. D. Shawkey, A. M. Estes, L. M. Siefferman, and G. E. Hill, “Nanostructure predicts intraspecific variation in ultraviolet-blue plumage colour,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 270(1523), 1455–1460 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutley, M. C.

S. J. Wilson and M. C. Hutley, “The optical properties of moth eye antireflection surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 29, 993–1009 (1982).

Ibanescu, M.

A. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. Joannopoulos, and S. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Im, S. H.

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[PubMed]

Jain, P.

M. L. Bruening, D. M. Dotzauer, P. Jain, L. Ouyang, and G. L. Baker, “Creation of functional membranes using polyelectrolyte multilayers and polymer brushes,” Langmuir 24(15), 7663–7673 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jellison, G.

G. Jellison., “Data analysis for spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 234(1-2), 416–422 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jia, L.

M. D. Shawkey, L. D’Alba, J. Wozny, C. M. Eliason, J. A. H. Koop, and L. Jia, “Structural color change following hydration and dehydration of iridescent mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) feathers,” Zoology (Jena) 114(2), 59–68 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, L. P.

Joannopoulos, J.

A. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. Joannopoulos, and S. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S.

A. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. Joannopoulos, and S. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and J.-Q. Xi, “Low‐refractive‐index materials: A new class of optical thin‐film materials,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(8), 3002–3008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Kinoshita, S.

E. Nakamura, S. Yoshioka, and S. Kinoshita, “Structural Color of Rock Dove’s Neck Feather,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77(12), 124801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, S. S.

S. S. Yoshioka and S. S. Kinoshita, “Direct determination of the refractive index of natural multilayer systems,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051917 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koop, J. A. H.

M. D. Shawkey, L. D’Alba, J. Wozny, C. M. Eliason, J. A. H. Koop, and L. Jia, “Structural color change following hydration and dehydration of iridescent mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) feathers,” Zoology (Jena) 114(2), 59–68 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. C.

S. C. Lee, “Dependent scattering of an obliquely incident plane wave by a collection of parallel cylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(10), 4952–4957 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-C.

C.-Y. Fang, Y.-L. Liu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, D.-H. Wan, and C.-C. Yu, “Nanoparticle Stacks with Graded Refractive Indices Enhance the Omnidirectional Light Harvesting of Solar Cells and the Light Extraction of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(11), 1412–1421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leertouwer, H. L.

H. L. Leertouwer, B. D. Wilts, and D. G. Stavenga, “Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing interference microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24061–24066 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stavenga, B. D. Wilts, H. L. Leertouwer, and T. Hariyama, “Polarized iridescence of the multilayered elytra of the Japanese jewel beetle, Chrysochroa fulgidissima,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 366(1565), 709–723 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

M. Li, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Zhuang, X. Wang, and H. Shen, “Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO 2/SiN x: H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 1–8 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S.-Y.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Liu, F.

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Liu, X.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. H.

Liu, Y.-L.

C.-Y. Fang, Y.-L. Liu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, D.-H. Wan, and C.-C. Yu, “Nanoparticle Stacks with Graded Refractive Indices Enhance the Omnidirectional Light Harvesting of Solar Cells and the Light Extraction of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(11), 1412–1421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Macedo, R. H. F.

R. Maia, R. H. F. Macedo, and M. D. Shawkey, “Nanostructural self-assembly of iridescent feather barbules through depletion attraction of melanosomes during keratinization,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(69), 734–743 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magalhães, P. J.

M. D. Abràmoff, P. J. Magalhães, and S. J. Ram, “Image processing with ImageJ,” Biophoton. Int. 11, 36–42 (2004).

Maia, R.

R. Maia, C. M. Eliason, P.-P. Bitton, S. M. Doucet, and M. D. Shawkey, “pavo: an R package for the analysis, visualization and organization of spectral data,” Methods Ecol. Evol. 4, 906–913 (2013).

R. Maia, R. H. F. Macedo, and M. D. Shawkey, “Nanostructural self-assembly of iridescent feather barbules through depletion attraction of melanosomes during keratinization,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(69), 734–743 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandal, T. N.

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[PubMed]

Marshall, N. J.

M. Vorobyev, D. Osorio, A. T. D. Bennett, N. J. Marshall, and I. C. Cuthill, “Tetrachromacy, oil droplets and bird plumage colours,” J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 183(5), 621–633 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mielke, P.

J. A. Endler and P. Mielke., “Comparing entire colour patterns as birds see them,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. 86(4), 405–431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, E.

E. Nakamura, S. Yoshioka, and S. Kinoshita, “Structural Color of Rock Dove’s Neck Feather,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77(12), 124801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noh, J. H.

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[PubMed]

Nolte, M.

M. Nolte, I. Dönch, and A. Fery, “Freestanding polyelectrolyte films as sensors for osmotic pressure,” ChemPhysChem 7(9), 1985–1989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskooi, A.

A. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. Joannopoulos, and S. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Osorio, D.

M. Vorobyev, D. Osorio, A. T. D. Bennett, N. J. Marshall, and I. C. Cuthill, “Tetrachromacy, oil droplets and bird plumage colours,” J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 183(5), 621–633 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouyang, L.

M. L. Bruening, D. M. Dotzauer, P. Jain, L. Ouyang, and G. L. Baker, “Creation of functional membranes using polyelectrolyte multilayers and polymer brushes,” Langmuir 24(15), 7663–7673 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ram, S. J.

M. D. Abràmoff, P. J. Magalhães, and S. J. Ram, “Image processing with ImageJ,” Biophoton. Int. 11, 36–42 (2004).

Roundy, D.

A. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. Joannopoulos, and S. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and J.-Q. Xi, “Low‐refractive‐index materials: A new class of optical thin‐film materials,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(8), 3002–3008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Seok, S. I.

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[PubMed]

Shawkey, M. D.

R. Maia, C. M. Eliason, P.-P. Bitton, S. M. Doucet, and M. D. Shawkey, “pavo: an R package for the analysis, visualization and organization of spectral data,” Methods Ecol. Evol. 4, 906–913 (2013).

R. Maia, R. H. F. Macedo, and M. D. Shawkey, “Nanostructural self-assembly of iridescent feather barbules through depletion attraction of melanosomes during keratinization,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(69), 734–743 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Shawkey, L. D’Alba, J. Wozny, C. M. Eliason, J. A. H. Koop, and L. Jia, “Structural color change following hydration and dehydration of iridescent mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) feathers,” Zoology (Jena) 114(2), 59–68 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Shawkey, A. M. Estes, L. M. Siefferman, and G. E. Hill, “Nanostructure predicts intraspecific variation in ultraviolet-blue plumage colour,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 270(1523), 1455–1460 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, H.

M. Li, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Zhuang, X. Wang, and H. Shen, “Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO 2/SiN x: H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 1–8 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Siefferman, L. M.

M. D. Shawkey, A. M. Estes, L. M. Siefferman, and G. E. Hill, “Nanostructure predicts intraspecific variation in ultraviolet-blue plumage colour,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 270(1523), 1455–1460 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skoge, M.

M. Skoge, A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, and S. Torquato, “Packing hyperspheres in high-dimensional Euclidean spaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Soh, S.

K. J. M. Bishop, C. E. Wilmer, S. Soh, and B. A. Grzybowski, “Nanoscale forces and their uses in self-assembly,” Small 5(14), 1600–1630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stavenga, D. G.

D. G. Stavenga, B. D. Wilts, H. L. Leertouwer, and T. Hariyama, “Polarized iridescence of the multilayered elytra of the Japanese jewel beetle, Chrysochroa fulgidissima,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 366(1565), 709–723 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Leertouwer, B. D. Wilts, and D. G. Stavenga, “Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing interference microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24061–24066 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stillinger, F. H.

M. Skoge, A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, and S. Torquato, “Packing hyperspheres in high-dimensional Euclidean spaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torquato, S.

M. Skoge, A. Donev, F. H. Stillinger, and S. Torquato, “Packing hyperspheres in high-dimensional Euclidean spaces,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(4), 041127 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Berg, N.

D. Brink and N. van der Berg, “Structural colours of the bird Bostrychia hagedash,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 37(5), 813–818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vorobyev, M.

M. Vorobyev, D. Osorio, A. T. D. Bennett, N. J. Marshall, and I. C. Cuthill, “Tetrachromacy, oil droplets and bird plumage colours,” J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 183(5), 621–633 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, D.-H.

C.-Y. Fang, Y.-L. Liu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, D.-H. Wan, and C.-C. Yu, “Nanoparticle Stacks with Graded Refractive Indices Enhance the Omnidirectional Light Harvesting of Solar Cells and the Light Extraction of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(11), 1412–1421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

M. Li, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Zhuang, X. Wang, and H. Shen, “Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO 2/SiN x: H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 1–8 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitekamp, R. A.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wilmer, C. E.

K. J. M. Bishop, C. E. Wilmer, S. Soh, and B. A. Grzybowski, “Nanoscale forces and their uses in self-assembly,” Small 5(14), 1600–1630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, S. J.

S. J. Wilson and M. C. Hutley, “The optical properties of moth eye antireflection surfaces,” J. Mod. Opt. 29, 993–1009 (1982).

Wilts, B. D.

D. G. Stavenga, B. D. Wilts, H. L. Leertouwer, and T. Hariyama, “Polarized iridescence of the multilayered elytra of the Japanese jewel beetle, Chrysochroa fulgidissima,” Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 366(1565), 709–723 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Leertouwer, B. D. Wilts, and D. G. Stavenga, “Refractive index and dispersion of butterfly chitin and bird keratin measured by polarizing interference microscopy,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24061–24066 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wozny, J.

M. D. Shawkey, L. D’Alba, J. Wozny, C. M. Eliason, J. A. H. Koop, and L. Jia, “Structural color change following hydration and dehydration of iridescent mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) feathers,” Zoology (Jena) 114(2), 59–68 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xi, J.-Q.

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and J.-Q. Xi, “Low‐refractive‐index materials: A new class of optical thin‐film materials,” Phys. Status Solidi B 244(8), 3002–3008 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Xu, C.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Q. Yang, X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, W. Guo, and C.-H. Chang, “Antireflection effects at nanostructured material interfaces and the suppression of thin-film interference,” Nanotechnology 24(23), 235202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, H. W.

Yoshioka, S.

E. Nakamura, S. Yoshioka, and S. Kinoshita, “Structural Color of Rock Dove’s Neck Feather,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77(12), 124801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshioka, S. S.

S. S. Yoshioka and S. S. Kinoshita, “Direct determination of the refractive index of natural multilayer systems,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5), 051917 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-C.

C.-Y. Fang, Y.-L. Liu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, D.-H. Wan, and C.-C. Yu, “Nanoparticle Stacks with Graded Refractive Indices Enhance the Omnidirectional Light Harvesting of Solar Cells and the Light Extraction of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(11), 1412–1421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

J. Zi, X. Yu, Y. Li, X. Hu, C. Xu, X. Wang, X. Liu, and R. Fu, “Coloration strategies in peacock feathers,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(22), 12576–12578 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, L.

M. Li, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Zhuang, X. Wang, and H. Shen, “Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO 2/SiN x: H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 1–8 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, T. R.

Zhang, X. A.

Q. Yang, X. A. Zhang, A. Bagal, W. Guo, and C.-H. Chang, “Antireflection effects at nanostructured material interfaces and the suppression of thin-film interference,” Nanotechnology 24(23), 235202 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, L.

M. Li, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Zhuang, X. Wang, and H. Shen, “Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO 2/SiN x: H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 1–8 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zi, J.

Adv. Funct. Mater.

C.-Y. Fang, Y.-L. Liu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, D.-H. Wan, and C.-C. Yu, “Nanoparticle Stacks with Graded Refractive Indices Enhance the Omnidirectional Light Harvesting of Solar Cells and the Light Extraction of Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(11), 1412–1421 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Lond.

J. A. Endler and P. Mielke., “Comparing entire colour patterns as birds see them,” Biol. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. 86(4), 405–431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biophoton. Int.

M. D. Abràmoff, P. J. Magalhães, and S. J. Ram, “Image processing with ImageJ,” Biophoton. Int. 11, 36–42 (2004).

ChemPhysChem

M. Nolte, I. Dönch, and A. Fery, “Freestanding polyelectrolyte films as sensors for osmotic pressure,” ChemPhysChem 7(9), 1985–1989 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Phys. Commun.

A. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. Joannopoulos, and S. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Photoenergy

M. Li, L. Zeng, Y. Chen, L. Zhuang, X. Wang, and H. Shen, “Realization of Colored Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells with SiO 2/SiN x: H Double Layer Antireflection Coatings,” Int. J. Photoenergy 2013, 1–8 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. C. Lee, “Dependent scattering of an obliquely incident plane wave by a collection of parallel cylinders,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(10), 4952–4957 (1990).
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J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Color and nanostructure of iridescent feathers. (a,d) Optical images of iridescent feathers from the grey peacock-pheasant (a) and band-tailed pigeon (d). (b,e) TEM images of feather barbule cross-sections; lower insets are FFTs of pictured regions. (c) SEM longitudinal view of melanosomes, with labels indicating melanosomes (m), keratin channels (k) and air spaces (a). (f) Measured average grey value (dashed line) versus z for the boxed region shown in (e) along with refractive index n(z) versus z (solid line) calculated with Eq. (2). (g) Schematic diagram of GRIN model. All scale bars are 500 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Match between measured and modeled reflectance spectra in the peacock-pheasant (a,b) and pigeon (c,d). Lines show empirical (solid, y-axis) and predicted reflectance (dashed, secondary y-axis) for candidate optical models. (a,c) Model 1: cortex and graded index melanosome layer. (b,d) Model 2: amorphous melanosome nanostructure. Values used in calculations: nmel = 2.00, nair = 1.00, kmel = 0.1, and nker = 1.56. All models have air as the substrate. Amplitudes of the spectra were adjusted to allow for easier comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and calculated changes in reflectance with incident angle for grey peacock-pheasant feathers. False color maps showing measured (a,c) and calculated (b,d) reflectance versus wavelength and incident angle (blue: minimum, red: maximum). Upper panels are results for light polarized perpendicular to melanosomes (p-polarization) and lower panels are with light polarized parallel to melanosomes (s-polarization). Schematic shows optical setup (white rectangle: feather surface, black arrows: light direction, vertical dashed line: surface normal).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Antireflection and interference suppression by a GRIN structure. (a) Reflectance versus reduced frequency (dmel/λ) for a GRIN layer under bulk keratin (nker = 1.56) both without (solid line) and with absorption (dashed line, kmel = 0.1). Horizontal green line is reflectance calculated for a bare keratin-air interface (R = 4.8%). (b) Reflectance versus phase thickness δ at dmel/λ = 1.24 (marked by vertical arrow in (a)) for a GRIN (pink) and uniform (black) composite structure varying in cortex thickness (dker). Note the log scale for the y-axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Colorspace expansion by a GRIN layer. (a) Calculated spectra in CIE colorspace for different combinations of dker and dmel. Lines are minimum convex polygons enclosing spectra (solid: GRIN, dashed: uniform). Outsets show extreme spectra corresponding to indicated points for GRIN (dark lines, closed circles) and equivalent uniform layers (light lines, open circles) with similar optical thickness and optimized for minimal reflectance (i.e. nkerdker = λ/4); vertical arrows correspond to dmel/λ = 1.24 as in Fig. 4(a). (b) Calculated spectra in avian tetrahedral colorspace (pink: GRIN, black: uniform) with vertices corresponding to long- (red), medium- (green), short- (blue) and UV-sensitive cones (violet) in a bird retina. Absorption by melanin was neglected in order to highlight the independent effects of nanostructure on color, and for comparison with Eq. (3) calculations.

Equations (1)

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n(z)= n air + Θ r ( n mel n air ) z 2 2zr

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