Abstract

Angular color uniformity (ACU) is one of the most important optical parameters of white lighting emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, we proposed a kind of phosphor coating method to enhance ACU of phosphor-converted white LEDs with conventional chips by the combination of substrate structure design and phosphor dip-transfer coating. Through this method, compact and optimal phosphor layer arrangements for high ACU can be realized. Optical simulations and experiments were conducted to examine its ACU performance. Compared with conventional phosphor dispensing coating, the present method shows very high ACU performance. Extremely small angular correlated color temperature (CCT) deviations were obtained, which are less than 200K at average CCTs ranging from 4000K to 6000K.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

H. Zheng, X. B. Luo, “Correlated color temperature consistency enhancement of white light-emitting diodes through substrate structure design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 484–487 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zheng, S. Liu, X. B. Luo, “Enhancing angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by phosphor dip-transfer coating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(12), 1987–1993 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

2010

2009

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 070208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 68460X (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white light emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. A. Darhuber, S. M. Troian, J. M. Davis, S. M. Miller, S. Wagner, “Selective dip-transfer coating of chemically micropatterned surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(9), 5119–5126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Braune, B.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 68460X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, B.

Chen, C. C.

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, F.

Chiu, C. Y.

Chung, C. Y.

Chung, T. Y.

Darhuber, A. A.

A. A. Darhuber, S. M. Troian, J. M. Davis, S. M. Miller, S. Wagner, “Selective dip-transfer coating of chemically micropatterned surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(9), 5119–5126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. M.

A. A. Darhuber, S. M. Troian, J. M. Davis, S. M. Miller, S. Wagner, “Selective dip-transfer coating of chemically micropatterned surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(9), 5119–5126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X.

Gan, Z. Q.

Hartmann, P.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 070208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, R.

Huang, H. T.

Huang, Y. P.

Kaempf, M.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 68460X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 070208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kromotis, P.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 68460X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white light emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leising, G.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 070208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Z. Y. Liu, C. Li, B. H. Yu, Y. H. Wang, H. B. Niu, “Uniform white emission of WLEDs realized by multilayer phosphor with pyramidal shape and inversed concentration distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1558–1560 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, C. Li, B. H. Yu, Y. H. Wang, H. B. Niu, “Effects of YAG: Ce phosphor particle size on luminous flux and angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(6), 329–335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

H. Zheng, S. Liu, X. B. Luo, “Enhancing angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by phosphor dip-transfer coating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(12), 1987–1993 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Zheng, Z. Qin, Z. Q. Gan, B. L. Wu, S. Liu, “Design of a novel freeform lens for LED uniform illumination and conformal phosphor coating,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13727–13737 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, X. B. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. M. Wang, S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. L. Wu, X. B. Luo, H. Zheng, S. Liu, “Effect of gold wire bonding process on angular correlated color temperature uniformity of white light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24115–24121 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Liu, C. Li, B. H. Yu, Y. H. Wang, H. B. Niu, “Uniform white emission of WLEDs realized by multilayer phosphor with pyramidal shape and inversed concentration distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1558–1560 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, C. Li, B. H. Yu, Y. H. Wang, H. B. Niu, “Effects of YAG: Ce phosphor particle size on luminous flux and angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(6), 329–335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. B.

H. Zheng, S. Liu, X. B. Luo, “Enhancing angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes by phosphor dip-transfer coating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(12), 1987–1993 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zheng, X. B. Luo, “Correlated color temperature consistency enhancement of white light-emitting diodes through substrate structure design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25, 484–487 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, H. Zheng, Z. Qin, Z. Q. Gan, B. L. Wu, S. Liu, “Design of a novel freeform lens for LED uniform illumination and conformal phosphor coating,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13727–13737 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zheng, X. B. Luo, R. Hu, B. Cao, X. Fu, Y. M. Wang, S. Liu, “Conformal phosphor coating using capillary microchannel for controlling color deviation of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5092–5098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hu, X. B. Luo, “A model for calculating the bidirectional scattering properties of phosphor layer in white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(21), 3376–3380 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Wu, X. B. Luo, H. Zheng, S. Liu, “Effect of gold wire bonding process on angular correlated color temperature uniformity of white light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24115–24121 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35(11), 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. M.

A. A. Darhuber, S. M. Troian, J. M. Davis, S. M. Miller, S. Wagner, “Selective dip-transfer coating of chemically micropatterned surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(9), 5119–5126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Niu, H. B.

Z. Y. Liu, C. Li, B. H. Yu, Y. H. Wang, H. B. Niu, “Uniform white emission of WLEDs realized by multilayer phosphor with pyramidal shape and inversed concentration distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1558–1560 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, C. Li, B. H. Yu, Y. H. Wang, H. B. Niu, “Effects of YAG: Ce phosphor particle size on luminous flux and angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(6), 329–335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pachler, P.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 070208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Y. N.

Petersen, K.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 68460X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z.

Schweighart, M.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 070208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S. Y.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white light emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sommer, C.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 070208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, J.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 68460X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

Sung, Y. E.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white light emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tasch, S.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 070208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Troian, S. M.

A. A. Darhuber, S. M. Troian, J. M. Davis, S. M. Miller, S. Wagner, “Selective dip-transfer coating of chemically micropatterned surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(9), 5119–5126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. C.

Wagner, S.

A. A. Darhuber, S. M. Troian, J. M. Davis, S. M. Miller, S. Wagner, “Selective dip-transfer coating of chemically micropatterned surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(9), 5119–5126 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Wang, Y. H.

Z. Y. Liu, C. Li, B. H. Yu, Y. H. Wang, H. B. Niu, “Uniform white emission of WLEDs realized by multilayer phosphor with pyramidal shape and inversed concentration distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1558–1560 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Chen, C. C. Chen, C. Y. Chiu, Y. N. Peng, Y. H. Wang, T. H. Yang, T. Y. Chung, C. Y. Chung, “High uniformity in angular correlated-color-temperature distribution of white LEDs from 2800K to 6500K,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6622–6630 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Liu, C. Li, B. H. Yu, Y. H. Wang, H. B. Niu, “Effects of YAG: Ce phosphor particle size on luminous flux and angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(6), 329–335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. M.

Wenzl, F. P.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(7), 070208 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. L.

Wu, D.

Yang, T. H.

Yu, B. H.

Z. Y. Liu, C. Li, B. H. Yu, Y. H. Wang, H. B. Niu, “Uniform white emission of WLEDs realized by multilayer phosphor with pyramidal shape and inversed concentration distribution,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1558–1560 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, C. Li, B. H. Yu, Y. H. Wang, H. B. Niu, “Effects of YAG: Ce phosphor particle size on luminous flux and angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(6), 329–335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yum, J. H.

J. H. Yum, S. Y. Seo, S. Lee, Y. E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white light emitting diode on gallium nitride,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Z. Y. Liu, C. Li, B. H. Yu, Y. H. Wang, H. B. Niu, “Effects of YAG: Ce phosphor particle size on luminous flux and angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white LEDs,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(6), 329–335 (2012).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three kinds of phosphor coating structures. (a) Conformal phosphor coating. (b) Conventional phosphor dispensing coating. (c) Designed phosphor structure to enhance ACU.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of phosphor dip-transfer coating on a cuboid bump structure. (a) Transferring mixture of phosphor and silicone to the end of cylindrical post by dip-transfer coating. (b) and (c) Coating phosphor on top surface of cuboid bump structure. (d) LED module after phosphor dip-transfer coating

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic illustration of white LED optical models. (a) LED module with conventional phosphor dispensing coating. (b) LED module with conformal phosphor coating. (c) LED module with present phosphor coating and cuboid bump structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular CCT distribution comparison between present phosphor coating method, conformal coating and convention coating method at different average CCTs by simulations. (a) About 4500K. (b) About 6000K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Picture of designed lead-frame LED packaging substrate

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of angular CCT measurement method.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

LED modules after completing phosphor dip-transfer coating. (a) Phosphor layer geometry built by Surface Evolver simulation. (b), (c) and (d) Pictures of phosphor layer in top view, angle view and side view, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Angular color distribution comparison between present phosphor coating and phosphor dispensing coating at average CCT of 4500K.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Angular color distribution of LED modules by present phosphor coating in experiments. (a) CCT distribution at different average CCTs. (b) CCT deviations.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Angular color distribution by optimizing cuboid bump structure. (a) Average CCT of about 4200K. (b) Average CCT of about 6000K.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Luminous efficiency and CRI comparison between present phosphor coating and phosphor dispensing coating at average CCT of 4500K and driving current of 350mA.

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