Abstract

The anti-reflection coating(ARC) based on dielectric nano-particles has been recently proposed as a new way to achieve the low reflectance required for solar cell front surfaces. In this scenario, the Mie modes associated with the dielectric nano-particles are utilized to facilitate photon forward scattering. In this work, versatile designs together with systematically optimized geometry are examined, for the ARCs based on dielectric scatterers. It is found that the Si3N4-TiO2 or SiO2-TiO2 stack is capable of providing low reflectance while maintaining a flat and passivated ARC-semiconductor interface which can be beneficial for reduced interface recombination and prevent VOC degradation associated with topography on the active materials. It is also confirmed that the plasmonic nano-particles placed at the front side of solar cells is not a preferred scheme, even with thorough geometrical optimization. At the ultimate design based on mixed graded index(GI) Mie-scattering, the averaged reflectance can be as low as 0.25%. Such a low reflectance is currently only achievable by ultra-long silicon nano-tips, but silicon nano-tips introduce severe surface recombination. On the other hand, the mixed GI Mie design preserves a flat and passivated ARC-silicon interface, with total thickness reduced to 279.8nm, much thinner than 1.6μm for silicon nanotips. In addition, the light trapping capability of mixed GI Mie design is much better than silicon nanotips. In fact, when compared to the state-of-art TiO2 light trapping anti-reflection coating, the mixed GI Mie design provides same light trapping capability while providing much lower reflectance.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (4)

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Tseng, M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, “Antireflection and light trapping of subwavelength surface structures formed by colloidal lithography on thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(2), 135–142 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Q. Le, A. Abass, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, A. Alù, “Comparing plasmonic and dielectric gratings for absorption enhancement in thin-film organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 20(S1), A39–A50 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

M. Yang, Z. Fu, F. Lin, X. Zhu, “Incident angle dependence of absorption enhancement in plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A763–A771 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Design of nanostructured plasmonic back contacts for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1219–A1230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, A. Naqavi, C. Ballif, “Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Mann, R. R. Grote, R. M. Osgood, J. A. Schuller, “Dielectric particle and void resonators for thin film solar cell textures,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25729–25740 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, M. A. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, S. M. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Müller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Muller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. S. Hegedus, R. Kaplan, “Analysis of quantum efficiency and optical enhancement in amorphous Si p–i–n solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 257–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Brammer, W. Reetz, N. Senoussaoui, O. Vetterl, O. Kluth, B. Rech, H. Stiebig, H. Wagner, “Optical properties of silicon-based thin-film solar cells in substrate and superstrate configuration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 74(1-4), 469–478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Abass, A.

Akimov, Y. A.

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, D. T.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alù, A.

Atwater, H. A.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailat, J.

V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, A. Naqavi, C. Ballif, “Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, F. J.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, S. M. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

Boccard, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bottler, W.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brammer, T.

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Muller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Brammer, W. Reetz, N. Senoussaoui, O. Vetterl, O. Kluth, B. Rech, H. Stiebig, H. Wagner, “Optical properties of silicon-based thin-film solar cells in substrate and superstrate configuration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 74(1-4), 469–478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bunte, E.

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Muller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Callahan, D. M.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cantoni, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carius, R.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Design of nanostructured plasmonic back contacts for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1219–A1230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, S. M. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charrière, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.-G.

K.-H. Hung, T.-G. Chen, T.-T. Yang, P. Yu, C.-Y. Hong, Y.-R. Wu, G.-C. Chi, “Antireflective scheme for InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells based on TiO2 biomimetic structures,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (IEEE, 2012), 003322 - 003324.

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G.-C.

K.-H. Hung, T.-G. Chen, T.-T. Yang, P. Yu, C.-Y. Hong, Y.-R. Wu, G.-C. Chi, “Antireflective scheme for InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells based on TiO2 biomimetic structures,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (IEEE, 2012), 003322 - 003324.

Cui, Y.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Despeisse, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Droz, C.

V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Escarré, J.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Z.

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, M. A. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grote, R. R.

Haase, C.

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Müller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hagemann, V.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Haug, F. J.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haug, F.-J.

F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, A. Naqavi, C. Ballif, “Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegedus, S. S.

S. S. Hegedus, R. Kaplan, “Analysis of quantum efficiency and optical enhancement in amorphous Si p–i–n solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 257–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Hong, C.-Y.

K.-H. Hung, T.-G. Chen, T.-T. Yang, P. Yu, C.-Y. Hong, Y.-R. Wu, G.-C. Chi, “Antireflective scheme for InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells based on TiO2 biomimetic structures,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (IEEE, 2012), 003322 - 003324.

Hsu, C.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C.-M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, Y.-K.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, K.-H.

K.-H. Hung, T.-G. Chen, T.-T. Yang, P. Yu, C.-Y. Hong, Y.-R. Wu, G.-C. Chi, “Antireflective scheme for InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells based on TiO2 biomimetic structures,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (IEEE, 2012), 003322 - 003324.

Jen, Y.-J.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, R.

S. S. Hegedus, R. Kaplan, “Analysis of quantum efficiency and optical enhancement in amorphous Si p–i–n solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 10(4), 257–269 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kluth, O.

T. Brammer, W. Reetz, N. Senoussaoui, O. Vetterl, O. Kluth, B. Rech, H. Stiebig, H. Wagner, “Optical properties of silicon-based thin-film solar cells in substrate and superstrate configuration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 74(1-4), 469–478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koh, W. S.

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krause, M.

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Muller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, U.

V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

P. C. Tseng, M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, “Antireflection and light trapping of subwavelength surface structures formed by colloidal lithography on thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(2), 135–142 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Le, K. Q.

Lee, C.-S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-Y.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, F.

Liu, T.-A.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, H.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maes, B.

Mann, S. A.

Meier, J.

V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, D.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Min, C.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, E.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Design of nanostructured plasmonic back contacts for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1219–A1230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, J.

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Muller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Müller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Munday, J. N.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naqavi, A.

F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, A. Naqavi, C. Ballif, “Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

Ouyang, Z.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paeder, V.

Paetzold, U. W.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Design of nanostructured plasmonic back contacts for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1219–A1230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C.-L.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, C.-Y.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peumans, P.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pieters, B. E.

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, M. A. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, S. M.

F. J. Beck, S. M. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rau, U.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, B. E. Pieters, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Design of nanostructured plasmonic back contacts for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(S6Suppl 6), A1219–A1230 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rech, B.

T. Brammer, W. Reetz, N. Senoussaoui, O. Vetterl, O. Kluth, B. Rech, H. Stiebig, H. Wagner, “Optical properties of silicon-based thin-film solar cells in substrate and superstrate configuration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 74(1-4), 469–478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reetz, W.

T. Brammer, W. Reetz, N. Senoussaoui, O. Vetterl, O. Kluth, B. Rech, H. Stiebig, H. Wagner, “Optical properties of silicon-based thin-film solar cells in substrate and superstrate configuration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 74(1-4), 469–478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schade, H.

V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scharf, T.

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

Senoussaoui, N.

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Müller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Muller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Brammer, W. Reetz, N. Senoussaoui, O. Vetterl, O. Kluth, B. Rech, H. Stiebig, H. Wagner, “Optical properties of silicon-based thin-film solar cells in substrate and superstrate configuration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 74(1-4), 469–478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V.

V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sian, S. Y.

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Söderström, K.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, A. Naqavi, C. Ballif, “Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19(1), 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, P.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiebig, H.

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Müller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Senoussaoui, M. Krause, J. Muller, E. Bunte, T. Brammer, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film solar cells with periodic grating coupler,” Thin Solid Films 451–452, 397–401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Brammer, W. Reetz, N. Senoussaoui, O. Vetterl, O. Kluth, B. Rech, H. Stiebig, H. Wagner, “Optical properties of silicon-based thin-film solar cells in substrate and superstrate configuration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 74(1-4), 469–478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. A.

P. C. Tseng, M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, “Antireflection and light trapping of subwavelength surface structures formed by colloidal lithography on thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(2), 135–142 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, P. C.

P. C. Tseng, M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, “Antireflection and light trapping of subwavelength surface structures formed by colloidal lithography on thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(2), 135–142 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Verschuuren, M. A.

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetterl, O.

T. Brammer, W. Reetz, N. Senoussaoui, O. Vetterl, O. Kluth, B. Rech, H. Stiebig, H. Wagner, “Optical properties of silicon-based thin-film solar cells in substrate and superstrate configuration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 74(1-4), 469–478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wächter, C.

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, H.

T. Brammer, W. Reetz, N. Senoussaoui, O. Vetterl, O. Kluth, B. Rech, H. Stiebig, H. Wagner, “Optical properties of silicon-based thin-film solar cells in substrate and superstrate configuration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 74(1-4), 469–478 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-R.

K.-H. Hung, T.-G. Chen, T.-T. Yang, P. Yu, C.-Y. Hong, Y.-R. Wu, G.-C. Chi, “Antireflective scheme for InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells based on TiO2 biomimetic structures,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (IEEE, 2012), 003322 - 003324.

Wyrsch, N.

V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

Yang, T.-T.

K.-H. Hung, T.-G. Chen, T.-T. Yang, P. Yu, C.-Y. Hong, Y.-R. Wu, G.-C. Chi, “Antireflective scheme for InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells based on TiO2 biomimetic structures,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (IEEE, 2012), 003322 - 003324.

Yu, P.

P. C. Tseng, M. A. Tsai, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, “Antireflection and light trapping of subwavelength surface structures formed by colloidal lithography on thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(2), 135–142 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Hung, T.-G. Chen, T.-T. Yang, P. Yu, C.-Y. Hong, Y.-R. Wu, G.-C. Chi, “Antireflective scheme for InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells based on TiO2 biomimetic structures,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (IEEE, 2012), 003322 - 003324.

Zahren, C.

H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Müller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

ACS Nano (1)

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F. J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Y. A. Akimov, W. S. Koh, S. Y. Sian, S. Ren, “Nanoparticle-enhanced thin film solar cells: Metallic or dielectric nanoparticles?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 073111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, S. M. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. W. Paetzold, E. Moulin, D. Michaelis, W. Bottler, C. Wächter, V. Hagemann, M. Meier, R. Carius, U. Rau, “Plasmonic reflection grating back contacts for microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, A. Naqavi, C. Ballif, “Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084516 (2011).
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S. Pillai, F. J. Beck, K. R. Catchpole, Z. Ouyang, M. A. Green, “The effect of dielectric spacer thickness on surface plasmon enhanced solar cells for front and rear side depositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073105 (2011).
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Nat Commun (1)

P. Spinelli, M. A. Verschuuren, A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on subwavelength surface Mie resonators,” Nat Commun 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
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H. Stiebig, N. Senoussaoui, C. Zahren, C. Haase, J. Müller, “Silicon thin-film solar cells with rectangular-shaped grating couplers,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 14(1), 13–24 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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T. Brammer, W. Reetz, N. Senoussaoui, O. Vetterl, O. Kluth, B. Rech, H. Stiebig, H. Wagner, “Optical properties of silicon-based thin-film solar cells in substrate and superstrate configuration,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 74(1-4), 469–478 (2002).
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S. Pillai, M. A. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. 94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
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K.-H. Hung, T.-G. Chen, T.-T. Yang, P. Yu, C.-Y. Hong, Y.-R. Wu, G.-C. Chi, “Antireflective scheme for InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple junction solar cells based on TiO2 biomimetic structures,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, (IEEE, 2012), 003322 - 003324.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The cross-section and the topview of the cylindrical dielectric scatterer anti-reflection coating. The geometrical parameters under global optimization is labeled in the cross sectional view. (Left) Cylindrical TiO2 scatterers with Si3N4 wrapping. (Right) Cylindrical TiO2 scatterers with SiO2 wrapping.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Left) the spectral reflectance for TiO2-Si3N4 and TiO2-SiO2 dielectric scatterer ARC. (Right) the corresponding field profiles Ey at y = 0 for λ = 400nm and λ = 800nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The cross-section and the topview of the cylindrical surface plasmonic (SP) assisted dielectric scatterer anti-reflection coating. The geometrical parameters under global optimization is labeled in the cross sectional view.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Left) the spectral transmittance(T), reflectance(R), and metal absorbance(Abs) for the surface plasmonic assisted dielectric scatterer anti-reflection coating. (Right) the corresponding field profiles Ey at y = 0, for λ = 400nm,λ = 600nm, λ = 800nm, and λ = 1000nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The cross-section and the topview of the cylindrical mixed graded index(GI) Mie scattering anti-reflection coating. The geometrical parameters under global optimization is labeled in the cross sectional view. This structure will be abbreviated as mixed GI Mie ARC below.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of mixed graded index Mie scattering anti-reflection coating with ultra-low reflectance silicon nano-tip ARC in reference [7] and the state-of-art light trapping anti-reflection TiO2 coating in [5]. The dimension for TiO2 nanotip ARC [5] is P = 0.6μm, the dimension for the silicon nanotip ARC [7] is L = 1.6μm and P = 0.2μm, and the dimension for the planar multi-layer ARC is from [6].

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Left) the simulation structure for calculating the reflectance of anti-reflection coatings for Fig. 2, Fig. 4, Fig. 6, and Fig. 9 and the Ravg in Table 1. (Right) the simulation structure for calculating the integrated absorbance weight by AM1.5 spectrum, AInt, in Table 1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The cross-sectional and topview of the sidewall-free (SWF) Mie scattering anti-reflection coating and the geometrical parameters under global optimization.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The spectral reflectance of the sidewall-free cylindrical Mie scattering ARC at its optimal geometry.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of different anti-reflection coatings at their respective optimized geometry

Equations (2)

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A(λ)= 1 2 V ω ε 0 ε (λ) | E ( r ) | 2 dv 1 2 S Re{ E ( r )× H * ( r ) }d s .
A Int = V Si, Ref V Si λ hc Ω(λ)A(λ)dλ λ hc Ω(λ)dλ .

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