Abstract

This work reports the capability of depth profile analysis of thin CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) absorber layer (1.89 μm) with a sub-hundred nanometer resolution by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The LIBS analysis was carried out with a commercial CIGS solar cell on flexible substrate by using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (λ = 532 nm, τ = 5 ns, top-hat profile) and an intensified charge-coupled device spectrometer in atmospheric conditions. The measured LIBS elemental profiles across the CIGS layer agreed closely to those measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The resolution of depth profile analysis was about 88 nm. Owing to the short measurement time of LIBS and the capability of in-air measurement, it is expected that LIBS can be applied for in situ analysis of elemental composition and their distribution across the film thickness during development and manufacturing of CIGS solar cells.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013

J. H. Yoon, T. Y. Seong, J. H. Jeong, “Effect of a Mo back contact on Na diffusion in CIGS thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 58–63 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. Jeong, “Reproducibility of CIGS thin film analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(4), 473–481 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, H. S. Shim, S. Jeong, “Quantitative analysis of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films with fluctuation of operational parameters using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(6), 890–900 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

S. Darwiche, M. Benmansour, N. Eliezer, D. Morvan, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for photovoltaic silicon wafer analysis,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 463–471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Lim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. Lee, “Characterization of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film in solar cell devices,” Surf. Interface Anal. 44(6), 724–728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Schleussner, T. Törndahl, M. Linnarsson, U. Zimmermann, T. Wätjen, M. Edoff, “Development of gallium gradients in three-stage Cu(In, Ga)Se2 co-evaporation processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(3), 284–293 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. S. Shim, C. K. Kim, J. H. Yoo, R. E. Russo, S. Jeong, “Analysis of the absorption layer of CIGS solar cell by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51(7), B115–B120 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

Y. Jeong, C. W. Kim, D. W. Park, S. C. Jung, J. Lee, H. S. Shim, “Field modulation in Na-incorporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) polycrystalline films influenced by alloy-hardening and pair-annihilation probabilities,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 581 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, W. Roland, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Islam, T. Sakurai, A. Yamada, S. Otagiri, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, K. Akimoto, “Determination of Cu(In1-x, Gax)3Se5 defect phase in MBE grown Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film by Rietveld analysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 231–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Niki, M. Contreras, I. Repins, M. Powalla, K. Kushiya, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, “CIGS absorbers and processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(6), 453–466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x, Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Abdelhamid, S. Grassini, E. Angelini, G. M. Ingo, M. A. Harith, “Depth profiling of coated metallic artifacts adopting laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(8), 695–701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. G. Papazoglou, V. Papadakis, D. Anglos, “In situ interferometric depth and topography monitoring in LIBS elemental profiling of multi-layer structures,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 483–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Herz, A. Eicke, F. Kessler, R. Wächter, M. Powalla, “Diffusion Barriers for CIGS solar cells on metallic substrates,” Thin Solid Films 431−432, 392−397 (2003).

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegård, J. Malmström, L. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga Grading on Solar Cell Performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 77–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. T. Heath, J. D. Cohen, W. N. Shafarman, D. X. Liao, A. A. Rockett, “Effect of Ga content on defect states in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4540–4542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. L. Eisgruber, B. Joshi, N. Gomez, J. Britt, T. Vincent, “In situ X-ray fluorescence used for real-time control of CuInxGa1-xSe2 thin film composition,” Thin Solid Films 408(1-2), 64–72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. P. Mateo, J. M. Vadillo, J. J. Laserna, “Irradiance-dependent depth profiling of layered materials using laser-induced plasma spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16(11), 1317–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Milán, P. Lucena, L. M. Cabalín, J. J. Laserna, “Depth profiling of phosphorus in photonic-grade silicon using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52(3), 444–448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vadillo, C. C. Garcia, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, “Nanometric range depth-resolved analysis of coated-steels using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry with a 308 nm collimated beam,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 13, 793–797 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. W. Niles, K. Ramanathan, F. Hasoon, R. Noufi, “Na impurity chemistry in photovoltaic CIGS thin films: Investigation with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(6), 3044–3049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Hidalgo, F. Martín, J. J. Laserna, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of titanium dioxide antireflection coatings in photovoltaic cells,” Anal. Chem. 68(7), 1095–1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdelhamid, M.

M. Abdelhamid, S. Grassini, E. Angelini, G. M. Ingo, M. A. Harith, “Depth profiling of coated metallic artifacts adopting laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(8), 695–701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, K.

M. M. Islam, T. Sakurai, A. Yamada, S. Otagiri, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, K. Akimoto, “Determination of Cu(In1-x, Gax)3Se5 defect phase in MBE grown Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film by Rietveld analysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 231–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angelini, E.

M. Abdelhamid, S. Grassini, E. Angelini, G. M. Ingo, M. A. Harith, “Depth profiling of coated metallic artifacts adopting laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(8), 695–701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anglos, D.

D. G. Papazoglou, V. Papadakis, D. Anglos, “In situ interferometric depth and topography monitoring in LIBS elemental profiling of multi-layer structures,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 483–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benmansour, M.

S. Darwiche, M. Benmansour, N. Eliezer, D. Morvan, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for photovoltaic silicon wafer analysis,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 463–471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bodegård, M.

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegård, J. Malmström, L. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga Grading on Solar Cell Performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 77–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Britt, J.

I. L. Eisgruber, B. Joshi, N. Gomez, J. Britt, T. Vincent, “In situ X-ray fluorescence used for real-time control of CuInxGa1-xSe2 thin film composition,” Thin Solid Films 408(1-2), 64–72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cabalín, L. M.

Cohen, J. D.

J. T. Heath, J. D. Cohen, W. N. Shafarman, D. X. Liao, A. A. Rockett, “Effect of Ga content on defect states in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4540–4542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Contreras, M.

S. Niki, M. Contreras, I. Repins, M. Powalla, K. Kushiya, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, “CIGS absorbers and processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(6), 453–466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Contreras, M. A.

M. A. Contreras, J. Tuttle, A. Gabor, A. Tennant, K. Ramanathan, “High Efficiency Cu(in, Ga)Se2-based solar cells: processing of novel absorber structures,” in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on First World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 68−75.

Darwiche, S.

S. Darwiche, M. Benmansour, N. Eliezer, D. Morvan, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for photovoltaic silicon wafer analysis,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 463–471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Edoff, M.

S. M. Schleussner, T. Törndahl, M. Linnarsson, U. Zimmermann, T. Wätjen, M. Edoff, “Development of gallium gradients in three-stage Cu(In, Ga)Se2 co-evaporation processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(3), 284–293 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Egaas, B.

C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x, Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eicke, A.

K. Herz, A. Eicke, F. Kessler, R. Wächter, M. Powalla, “Diffusion Barriers for CIGS solar cells on metallic substrates,” Thin Solid Films 431−432, 392−397 (2003).

Eisgruber, I. L.

I. L. Eisgruber, B. Joshi, N. Gomez, J. Britt, T. Vincent, “In situ X-ray fluorescence used for real-time control of CuInxGa1-xSe2 thin film composition,” Thin Solid Films 408(1-2), 64–72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eliezer, N.

S. Darwiche, M. Benmansour, N. Eliezer, D. Morvan, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for photovoltaic silicon wafer analysis,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 463–471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fons, P.

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, A.

M. A. Contreras, J. Tuttle, A. Gabor, A. Tennant, K. Ramanathan, “High Efficiency Cu(in, Ga)Se2-based solar cells: processing of novel absorber structures,” in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on First World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 68−75.

Garcia, C. C.

J. M. Vadillo, C. C. Garcia, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, “Nanometric range depth-resolved analysis of coated-steels using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry with a 308 nm collimated beam,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 13, 793–797 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, N.

I. L. Eisgruber, B. Joshi, N. Gomez, J. Britt, T. Vincent, “In situ X-ray fluorescence used for real-time control of CuInxGa1-xSe2 thin film composition,” Thin Solid Films 408(1-2), 64–72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grassini, S.

M. Abdelhamid, S. Grassini, E. Angelini, G. M. Ingo, M. A. Harith, “Depth profiling of coated metallic artifacts adopting laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(8), 695–701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ham, H. J.

S. H. Lee, C. K. Kim, J. H. In, D. S. Kim, H. J. Ham, S. H. Jeong, “Nd:YAG laser ablation characteristics of thin CIGS solar cell films,” Appl. Phys. B. in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Hariskos, D.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, W. Roland, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harith, M. A.

M. Abdelhamid, S. Grassini, E. Angelini, G. M. Ingo, M. A. Harith, “Depth profiling of coated metallic artifacts adopting laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(8), 695–701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hasoon, F.

D. W. Niles, K. Ramanathan, F. Hasoon, R. Noufi, “Na impurity chemistry in photovoltaic CIGS thin films: Investigation with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(6), 3044–3049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heath, J. T.

J. T. Heath, J. D. Cohen, W. N. Shafarman, D. X. Liao, A. A. Rockett, “Effect of Ga content on defect states in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4540–4542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herz, K.

K. Herz, A. Eicke, F. Kessler, R. Wächter, M. Powalla, “Diffusion Barriers for CIGS solar cells on metallic substrates,” Thin Solid Films 431−432, 392−397 (2003).

Hidalgo, M.

M. Hidalgo, F. Martín, J. J. Laserna, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of titanium dioxide antireflection coatings in photovoltaic cells,” Anal. Chem. 68(7), 1095–1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

In, J. H.

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. Jeong, “Reproducibility of CIGS thin film analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(4), 473–481 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, H. S. Shim, S. Jeong, “Quantitative analysis of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films with fluctuation of operational parameters using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(6), 890–900 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, C. K. Kim, J. H. In, D. S. Kim, H. J. Ham, S. H. Jeong, “Nd:YAG laser ablation characteristics of thin CIGS solar cell films,” Appl. Phys. B. in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Ingo, G. M.

M. Abdelhamid, S. Grassini, E. Angelini, G. M. Ingo, M. A. Harith, “Depth profiling of coated metallic artifacts adopting laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 65(8), 695–701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, S.

M. M. Islam, T. Sakurai, A. Yamada, S. Otagiri, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, K. Akimoto, “Determination of Cu(In1-x, Gax)3Se5 defect phase in MBE grown Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film by Rietveld analysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 231–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Niki, M. Contreras, I. Repins, M. Powalla, K. Kushiya, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, “CIGS absorbers and processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(6), 453–466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. M.

M. M. Islam, T. Sakurai, A. Yamada, S. Otagiri, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, K. Akimoto, “Determination of Cu(In1-x, Gax)3Se5 defect phase in MBE grown Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film by Rietveld analysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 231–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, P.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, W. Roland, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J. H.

J. H. Yoon, T. Y. Seong, J. H. Jeong, “Effect of a Mo back contact on Na diffusion in CIGS thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 58–63 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. Jeong, “Reproducibility of CIGS thin film analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(4), 473–481 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, H. S. Shim, S. Jeong, “Quantitative analysis of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films with fluctuation of operational parameters using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(6), 890–900 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. S. Shim, C. K. Kim, J. H. Yoo, R. E. Russo, S. Jeong, “Analysis of the absorption layer of CIGS solar cell by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51(7), B115–B120 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, S. H.

S. H. Lee, C. K. Kim, J. H. In, D. S. Kim, H. J. Ham, S. H. Jeong, “Nd:YAG laser ablation characteristics of thin CIGS solar cell films,” Appl. Phys. B. in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.

Y. Jeong, C. W. Kim, D. W. Park, S. C. Jung, J. Lee, H. S. Shim, “Field modulation in Na-incorporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) polycrystalline films influenced by alloy-hardening and pair-annihilation probabilities,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 581 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, B.

I. L. Eisgruber, B. Joshi, N. Gomez, J. Britt, T. Vincent, “In situ X-ray fluorescence used for real-time control of CuInxGa1-xSe2 thin film composition,” Thin Solid Films 408(1-2), 64–72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. C.

Y. Jeong, C. W. Kim, D. W. Park, S. C. Jung, J. Lee, H. S. Shim, “Field modulation in Na-incorporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) polycrystalline films influenced by alloy-hardening and pair-annihilation probabilities,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 581 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kessler, F.

K. Herz, A. Eicke, F. Kessler, R. Wächter, M. Powalla, “Diffusion Barriers for CIGS solar cells on metallic substrates,” Thin Solid Films 431−432, 392−397 (2003).

Kim, C. K.

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, H. S. Shim, S. Jeong, “Quantitative analysis of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films with fluctuation of operational parameters using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(6), 890–900 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. Jeong, “Reproducibility of CIGS thin film analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(4), 473–481 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. S. Shim, C. K. Kim, J. H. Yoo, R. E. Russo, S. Jeong, “Analysis of the absorption layer of CIGS solar cell by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51(7), B115–B120 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, C. K. Kim, J. H. In, D. S. Kim, H. J. Ham, S. H. Jeong, “Nd:YAG laser ablation characteristics of thin CIGS solar cell films,” Appl. Phys. B. in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. W.

Y. Jeong, C. W. Kim, D. W. Park, S. C. Jung, J. Lee, H. S. Shim, “Field modulation in Na-incorporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) polycrystalline films influenced by alloy-hardening and pair-annihilation probabilities,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 581 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

S. H. Lee, C. K. Kim, J. H. In, D. S. Kim, H. J. Ham, S. H. Jeong, “Nd:YAG laser ablation characteristics of thin CIGS solar cell films,” Appl. Phys. B. in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kushiya, K.

S. Niki, M. Contreras, I. Repins, M. Powalla, K. Kushiya, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, “CIGS absorbers and processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(6), 453–466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laserna, J. J.

M. P. Mateo, J. M. Vadillo, J. J. Laserna, “Irradiance-dependent depth profiling of layered materials using laser-induced plasma spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16(11), 1317–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vadillo, C. C. Garcia, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, “Nanometric range depth-resolved analysis of coated-steels using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry with a 308 nm collimated beam,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 13, 793–797 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Milán, P. Lucena, L. M. Cabalín, J. J. Laserna, “Depth profiling of phosphorus in photonic-grade silicon using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. 52(3), 444–448 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Hidalgo, F. Martín, J. J. Laserna, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of titanium dioxide antireflection coatings in photovoltaic cells,” Anal. Chem. 68(7), 1095–1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

W. C. Lim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. Lee, “Characterization of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film in solar cell devices,” Surf. Interface Anal. 44(6), 724–728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jeong, C. W. Kim, D. W. Park, S. C. Jung, J. Lee, H. S. Shim, “Field modulation in Na-incorporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) polycrystalline films influenced by alloy-hardening and pair-annihilation probabilities,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 581 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. Jeong, “Reproducibility of CIGS thin film analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(4), 473–481 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, H. S. Shim, S. Jeong, “Quantitative analysis of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films with fluctuation of operational parameters using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(6), 890–900 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. S. Shim, C. K. Kim, J. H. Yoo, R. E. Russo, S. Jeong, “Analysis of the absorption layer of CIGS solar cell by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51(7), B115–B120 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, C. K. Kim, J. H. In, D. S. Kim, H. J. Ham, S. H. Jeong, “Nd:YAG laser ablation characteristics of thin CIGS solar cell films,” Appl. Phys. B. in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

W. C. Lim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. Lee, “Characterization of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film in solar cell devices,” Surf. Interface Anal. 44(6), 724–728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, D. X.

J. T. Heath, J. D. Cohen, W. N. Shafarman, D. X. Liao, A. A. Rockett, “Effect of Ga content on defect states in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4540–4542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, W. C.

W. C. Lim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. Lee, “Characterization of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film in solar cell devices,” Surf. Interface Anal. 44(6), 724–728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Linnarsson, M.

S. M. Schleussner, T. Törndahl, M. Linnarsson, U. Zimmermann, T. Wätjen, M. Edoff, “Development of gallium gradients in three-stage Cu(In, Ga)Se2 co-evaporation processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(3), 284–293 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lotter, E.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, W. Roland, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lucena, P.

Lundberg, O.

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegård, J. Malmström, L. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga Grading on Solar Cell Performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 77–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malmström, J.

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegård, J. Malmström, L. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga Grading on Solar Cell Performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 77–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martín, F.

M. Hidalgo, F. Martín, J. J. Laserna, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of titanium dioxide antireflection coatings in photovoltaic cells,” Anal. Chem. 68(7), 1095–1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mateo, M. P.

M. P. Mateo, J. M. Vadillo, J. J. Laserna, “Irradiance-dependent depth profiling of layered materials using laser-induced plasma spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16(11), 1317–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, K.

M. M. Islam, T. Sakurai, A. Yamada, S. Otagiri, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, K. Akimoto, “Determination of Cu(In1-x, Gax)3Se5 defect phase in MBE grown Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film by Rietveld analysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 231–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Niki, M. Contreras, I. Repins, M. Powalla, K. Kushiya, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, “CIGS absorbers and processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(6), 453–466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Menner, R.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, W. Roland, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Milán, M.

Morvan, D.

S. Darwiche, M. Benmansour, N. Eliezer, D. Morvan, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for photovoltaic silicon wafer analysis,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 463–471 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Niki, S.

M. M. Islam, T. Sakurai, A. Yamada, S. Otagiri, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, K. Akimoto, “Determination of Cu(In1-x, Gax)3Se5 defect phase in MBE grown Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film by Rietveld analysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 231–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Niki, M. Contreras, I. Repins, M. Powalla, K. Kushiya, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, “CIGS absorbers and processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(6), 453–466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Niles, D. W.

D. W. Niles, K. Ramanathan, F. Hasoon, R. Noufi, “Na impurity chemistry in photovoltaic CIGS thin films: Investigation with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(6), 3044–3049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noufi, R.

D. W. Niles, K. Ramanathan, F. Hasoon, R. Noufi, “Na impurity chemistry in photovoltaic CIGS thin films: Investigation with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(6), 3044–3049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Otagiri, S.

M. M. Islam, T. Sakurai, A. Yamada, S. Otagiri, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, K. Akimoto, “Determination of Cu(In1-x, Gax)3Se5 defect phase in MBE grown Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film by Rietveld analysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 231–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paetel, S.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, W. Roland, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Palanco, S.

J. M. Vadillo, C. C. Garcia, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, “Nanometric range depth-resolved analysis of coated-steels using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry with a 308 nm collimated beam,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 13, 793–797 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Papadakis, V.

D. G. Papazoglou, V. Papadakis, D. Anglos, “In situ interferometric depth and topography monitoring in LIBS elemental profiling of multi-layer structures,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 483–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Papazoglou, D. G.

D. G. Papazoglou, V. Papadakis, D. Anglos, “In situ interferometric depth and topography monitoring in LIBS elemental profiling of multi-layer structures,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 483–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. W.

Y. Jeong, C. W. Kim, D. W. Park, S. C. Jung, J. Lee, H. S. Shim, “Field modulation in Na-incorporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) polycrystalline films influenced by alloy-hardening and pair-annihilation probabilities,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 581 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perkins, C. L.

C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x, Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Powalla, M.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, W. Roland, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Niki, M. Contreras, I. Repins, M. Powalla, K. Kushiya, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, “CIGS absorbers and processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(6), 453–466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Herz, A. Eicke, F. Kessler, R. Wächter, M. Powalla, “Diffusion Barriers for CIGS solar cells on metallic substrates,” Thin Solid Films 431−432, 392−397 (2003).

Ramanathan, K.

D. W. Niles, K. Ramanathan, F. Hasoon, R. Noufi, “Na impurity chemistry in photovoltaic CIGS thin films: Investigation with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(6), 3044–3049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Contreras, J. Tuttle, A. Gabor, A. Tennant, K. Ramanathan, “High Efficiency Cu(in, Ga)Se2-based solar cells: processing of novel absorber structures,” in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on First World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 68−75.

Repins, I.

C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x, Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Niki, M. Contreras, I. Repins, M. Powalla, K. Kushiya, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, “CIGS absorbers and processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 18(6), 453–466 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rockett, A. A.

J. T. Heath, J. D. Cohen, W. N. Shafarman, D. X. Liao, A. A. Rockett, “Effect of Ga content on defect states in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4540–4542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roland, W.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, W. Roland, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Russo, R. E.

Sakurai, T.

M. M. Islam, T. Sakurai, A. Yamada, S. Otagiri, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, K. Akimoto, “Determination of Cu(In1-x, Gax)3Se5 defect phase in MBE grown Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film by Rietveld analysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 231–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schleussner, S. M.

S. M. Schleussner, T. Törndahl, M. Linnarsson, U. Zimmermann, T. Wätjen, M. Edoff, “Development of gallium gradients in three-stage Cu(In, Ga)Se2 co-evaporation processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(3), 284–293 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T. Y.

J. H. Yoon, T. Y. Seong, J. H. Jeong, “Effect of a Mo back contact on Na diffusion in CIGS thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 58–63 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shafarman, W. N.

J. T. Heath, J. D. Cohen, W. N. Shafarman, D. X. Liao, A. A. Rockett, “Effect of Ga content on defect states in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4540–4542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, H.

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H. S.

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, H. S. Shim, S. Jeong, “Quantitative analysis of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films with fluctuation of operational parameters using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(6), 890–900 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, H. S. Shim, C. K. Kim, J. H. Yoo, R. E. Russo, S. Jeong, “Analysis of the absorption layer of CIGS solar cell by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 51(7), B115–B120 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jeong, C. W. Kim, D. W. Park, S. C. Jung, J. Lee, H. S. Shim, “Field modulation in Na-incorporated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) polycrystalline films influenced by alloy-hardening and pair-annihilation probabilities,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 581 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolt, L.

O. Lundberg, M. Bodegård, J. Malmström, L. Stolt, “Influence of the Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thickness and Ga Grading on Solar Cell Performance,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 77–88 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, A.

M. A. Contreras, J. Tuttle, A. Gabor, A. Tennant, K. Ramanathan, “High Efficiency Cu(in, Ga)Se2-based solar cells: processing of novel absorber structures,” in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on First World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 68−75.

To, B.

C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x, Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Törndahl, T.

S. M. Schleussner, T. Törndahl, M. Linnarsson, U. Zimmermann, T. Wätjen, M. Edoff, “Development of gallium gradients in three-stage Cu(In, Ga)Se2 co-evaporation processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(3), 284–293 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, J.

M. A. Contreras, J. Tuttle, A. Gabor, A. Tennant, K. Ramanathan, “High Efficiency Cu(in, Ga)Se2-based solar cells: processing of novel absorber structures,” in Proceeding of IEEE Conference on First World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 1994), pp. 68−75.

Vadillo, J. M.

M. P. Mateo, J. M. Vadillo, J. J. Laserna, “Irradiance-dependent depth profiling of layered materials using laser-induced plasma spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 16(11), 1317–1321 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vadillo, C. C. Garcia, S. Palanco, J. J. Laserna, “Nanometric range depth-resolved analysis of coated-steels using laser-induced breakdown spectrometry with a 308 nm collimated beam,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 13, 793–797 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, T.

I. L. Eisgruber, B. Joshi, N. Gomez, J. Britt, T. Vincent, “In situ X-ray fluorescence used for real-time control of CuInxGa1-xSe2 thin film composition,” Thin Solid Films 408(1-2), 64–72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wächter, R.

K. Herz, A. Eicke, F. Kessler, R. Wächter, M. Powalla, “Diffusion Barriers for CIGS solar cells on metallic substrates,” Thin Solid Films 431−432, 392−397 (2003).

Wätjen, T.

S. M. Schleussner, T. Törndahl, M. Linnarsson, U. Zimmermann, T. Wätjen, M. Edoff, “Development of gallium gradients in three-stage Cu(In, Ga)Se2 co-evaporation processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(3), 284–293 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wischmann, W.

P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter, S. Paetel, W. Roland, R. Menner, W. Wischmann, M. Powalla, “New world record efficiency for Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells beyond 20%,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Won, S.

W. C. Lim, J. Lee, S. Won, Y. Lee, “Characterization of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film in solar cell devices,” Surf. Interface Anal. 44(6), 724–728 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, A.

M. M. Islam, T. Sakurai, A. Yamada, S. Otagiri, S. Ishizuka, K. Matsubara, S. Niki, K. Akimoto, “Determination of Cu(In1-x, Gax)3Se5 defect phase in MBE grown Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 thin film by Rietveld analysis,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(1), 231–234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishizuka, A. Yamada, M. M. Islam, H. Shibata, P. Fons, T. Sakurai, K. Akimoto, S. Niki, “Na-induced variations in the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin film,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J. H.

Yoon, J. H.

J. H. Yoon, T. Y. Seong, J. H. Jeong, “Effect of a Mo back contact on Na diffusion in CIGS thin film solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(1), 58–63 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, U.

S. M. Schleussner, T. Törndahl, M. Linnarsson, U. Zimmermann, T. Wätjen, M. Edoff, “Development of gallium gradients in three-stage Cu(In, Ga)Se2 co-evaporation processes,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(3), 284–293 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

M. Hidalgo, F. Martín, J. J. Laserna, “Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry of titanium dioxide antireflection coatings in photovoltaic cells,” Anal. Chem. 68(7), 1095–1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

S. H. Lee, C. K. Kim, J. H. In, D. S. Kim, H. J. Ham, S. H. Jeong, “Nd:YAG laser ablation characteristics of thin CIGS solar cell films,” Appl. Phys. B. in press., doi:.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. T. Heath, J. D. Cohen, W. N. Shafarman, D. X. Liao, A. A. Rockett, “Effect of Ga content on defect states in CuIn1-xGaxSe2 photovoltaic devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(24), 4540–4542 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Appl. Surf. Sci.

C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x, Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Diffusion Barriers for CIGS solar cells on metallic substrates

K. Herz, A. Eicke, F. Kessler, R. Wächter, M. Powalla, “Diffusion Barriers for CIGS solar cells on metallic substrates,” Thin Solid Films 431−432, 392−397 (2003).

J. Anal. At. Spectrom.

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. Jeong, “Reproducibility of CIGS thin film analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(4), 473–481 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. H. In, C. K. Kim, S. H. Lee, H. S. Shim, S. Jeong, “Quantitative analysis of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin films with fluctuation of operational parameters using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28(6), 890–900 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Papazoglou, V. Papadakis, D. Anglos, “In situ interferometric depth and topography monitoring in LIBS elemental profiling of multi-layer structures,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 483–488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of the CIGS layer (TCO and buffer layers were removed) and (b) schematic diagram of the LIBS experiment set up.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Surface morphology, (b) ablation depth and (c) cross-sectional profiles of the LIBS craters for varying laser shot number. (Laser irradiance: 0.15 GW/cm2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Surface morphology and (b) cross-sectional profiles of the SIMS craters.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical LIBS spectra of the CIGS layer in spectral regions of (a) 375-470nm and (b) 500-600nm (gate delay: 0.2μs, gate width: 10μs).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity correlation of the Ga and In line pairs used for summation intensity calculation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Depth profiles of the CIGS absorber layer measured by (a) LIBS and (b) SIMS. The LIBS intensity profile of Na was independently scaled for clear comparison with the SIMS data

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the Ga/In intensity ratios predicted by LIBS and SIMS with respect to film depth.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Calibration curve of the LIBS Na intensity and (b) the Na profiles predicted by LIBS and SIMS.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Properties of LIBS craters for increasing laser shot number

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectral characteristics of Ga, In, Cu and Na emission lines. (λij: transition wavelength, Aij: transition probability, Ei and Ej: upper and lower energy levels, and gi-gj: degeneracy of upper and lower energy state)a

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