Abstract

We present a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) study of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film solar cell, with nano scale patterns on the substrate surface. The patterns, based on the geometry of anisotropically etched silicon gratings, are optimized with respect to the period and anti-reflection (AR) coating thickness for maximal absorption in the range of the solar spectrum. The structure is shown to increase the cell efficiency by 10.2% compared to a similar flat solar cell with an optimized AR coating thickness. An increased back reflection can be obtained with a 50nm zinc oxide layer on the back reflector, which gives an additional efficiency increase, leading to a total of 14.9%. In addition, the patterned cells are shown to be up to 3.8% more efficient than an optimized textured reference cell based on the Asahi U-type glass surface. The effects of variations of the optimized solar cell structure due to the manufacturing process are investigated, and shown to be negligible for variations below ±10%.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  30. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. v. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012 (3)

A. Abass, K. Q. Le, A. Alù, M. Burgelman, B. Maes, “Dual-interface gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Van Aken, J. Löffler, M. C. Heijna, W. J. Soppe, “Inline deposited thin-film silicon solar cells on imprinted foil using linear pecvd sources,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 358, 2268–2271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Mavrokefalos, S. E. Han, S. Yerci, M. S. Branham, G. Chen, “Efficient light trapping in inverted nanopyramid thin crystalline silicon membranes for solar cell applications,” Nano Lett. 12, 2792–2796 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. v. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Van Aken, M. C. Heijna, J. Löffler, W. J. Soppe, “Dynamically deposited thin-film silicon solar cells on imprinted foil,” Energy Procedia 10, 88–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

T. Saga, “Advances in crystalline silicon solar cell technology for industrial mass production,” NGP Asia Mater. 2, 96–102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Rath, Y. Liu, M. de Jong, J. de Wild, J. Schuttauf, M. Brinza, R. Schropp, “Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, e129–e135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Electrophotonic enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells through photonic crystal photoactive layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 043305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-si:h solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 354, 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

M. Berginski, J. Hupkes, M. Schulte, G. Schope, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, M. Wuttig, “The effect of front zno:al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells.” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. Catchpole, S. Pillai, “Surface plasmons for enhanced silicon light-emitting diodes and solar cells,” J. Lumin. 121, 315 – 318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Rostan, U. Rau, V. Nguyen, T. Kirchartz, M. Schubert, J. Werner, “Low-temperature a-si:h/zno/al back contacts for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 1345–1352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “Tco and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Solar Energy 77, 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 12, 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. Banerjee, S. Guha, “Study of back reflectors for amorphous silicon alloy solar cell application,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1030–1035 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. Campbell, “Light trapping in textured solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 21, 165–172 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abass, A.

A. Abass, K. Q. Le, A. Alù, M. Burgelman, B. Maes, “Dual-interface gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Agustsson, O.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Alù, A.

A. Abass, K. Q. Le, A. Alù, M. Burgelman, B. Maes, “Dual-interface gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Andreu, J.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Antony, A.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Arkhipov, V.

J. Poortmans, V. Arkhipov, Thin Film Solar Cells: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications (John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. v. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-si:h solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bailat, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 12, 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

A. Banerjee, S. Guha, “Study of back reflectors for amorphous silicon alloy solar cell application,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1030–1035 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berginski, M.

M. Berginski, J. Hupkes, M. Schulte, G. Schope, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, M. Wuttig, “The effect of front zno:al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bertomeu, J.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Bittkau, K.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Bochem, H.-P.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Borrajo, J.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Branham, M. S.

A. Mavrokefalos, S. E. Han, S. Yerci, M. S. Branham, G. Chen, “Efficient light trapping in inverted nanopyramid thin crystalline silicon membranes for solar cell applications,” Nano Lett. 12, 2792–2796 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brinza, M.

J. Rath, Y. Liu, M. de Jong, J. de Wild, J. Schuttauf, M. Brinza, R. Schropp, “Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, e129–e135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Burgelman, M.

A. Abass, K. Q. Le, A. Alù, M. Burgelman, B. Maes, “Dual-interface gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, P.

P. Campbell, “Light trapping in textured solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 21, 165–172 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 354, 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Castañer, L.

T. Markvart, L. Castañer, Solar Cells: Materials, Manufacture and Operation (Elsevier Ltd., 2005).

Catchpole, K.

K. Catchpole, S. Pillai, “Surface plasmons for enhanced silicon light-emitting diodes and solar cells,” J. Lumin. 121, 315 – 318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells.” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

A. Mavrokefalos, S. E. Han, S. Yerci, M. S. Branham, G. Chen, “Efficient light trapping in inverted nanopyramid thin crystalline silicon membranes for solar cell applications,” Nano Lett. 12, 2792–2796 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubero, O.

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, M.

J. Rath, Y. Liu, M. de Jong, J. de Wild, J. Schuttauf, M. Brinza, R. Schropp, “Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, e129–e135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Wild, J.

J. Rath, Y. Liu, M. de Jong, J. de Wild, J. Schuttauf, M. Brinza, R. Schropp, “Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, e129–e135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dittmar, G.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Droz, C.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 12, 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. v. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-si:h solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Franken, R. H.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, R.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordijn, A.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells.” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

A. Banerjee, S. Guha, “Study of back reflectors for amorphous silicon alloy solar cell application,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1030–1035 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haase, C.

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. E.

A. Mavrokefalos, S. E. Han, S. Yerci, M. S. Branham, G. Chen, “Efficient light trapping in inverted nanopyramid thin crystalline silicon membranes for solar cell applications,” Nano Lett. 12, 2792–2796 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haug, F.-J.

A. Naqavi, K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, V. Paeder, T. Scharf, H. P. Herzig, C. Ballif, “Understanding of photocurrent enhancement in real thin film solar cells: towards optimal one-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Express 19, 128–140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heijna, M. C.

B. B. Van Aken, J. Löffler, M. C. Heijna, W. J. Soppe, “Inline deposited thin-film silicon solar cells on imprinted foil using linear pecvd sources,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 358, 2268–2271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Van Aken, M. C. Heijna, J. Löffler, W. J. Soppe, “Dynamically deposited thin-film silicon solar cells on imprinted foil,” Energy Procedia 10, 88–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

Hoffmann, A.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Hupkes, J.

M. Berginski, J. Hupkes, M. Schulte, G. Schope, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, M. Wuttig, “The effect of front zno:al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A. R.

A. R. Jha, Solar Cell Technology and Applications (Auerbach Publications, 2010).

Jiang, B.

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, P.

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kail, F.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Kirchartz, T.

P. Rostan, U. Rau, V. Nguyen, T. Kirchartz, M. Schubert, J. Werner, “Low-temperature a-si:h/zno/al back contacts for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 1345–1352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kluth, O.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D.-H.

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Electrophotonic enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells through photonic crystal photoactive layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 043305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, U.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 12, 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lare, M. C. v.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. v. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, K. Q.

A. Abass, K. Q. Le, A. Alù, M. Burgelman, B. Maes, “Dual-interface gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lechner, P.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. B. T.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-si:h solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linn, N. C.

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

J. Rath, Y. Liu, M. de Jong, J. de Wild, J. Schuttauf, M. Brinza, R. Schropp, “Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, e129–e135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, J.

B. B. Van Aken, J. Löffler, M. C. Heijna, W. J. Soppe, “Inline deposited thin-film silicon solar cells on imprinted foil using linear pecvd sources,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 358, 2268–2271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Van Aken, M. C. Heijna, J. Löffler, W. J. Soppe, “Dynamically deposited thin-film silicon solar cells on imprinted foil,” Energy Procedia 10, 88–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, R.

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Electrophotonic enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells through photonic crystal photoactive layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 043305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, P.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 354, 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macedo, I.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Maes, B.

A. Abass, K. Q. Le, A. Alù, M. Burgelman, B. Maes, “Dual-interface gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Markvart, T.

T. Markvart, L. Castañer, Solar Cells: Materials, Manufacture and Operation (Elsevier Ltd., 2005).

Martin, A.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Mavrokefalos, A.

A. Mavrokefalos, S. E. Han, S. Yerci, M. S. Branham, G. Chen, “Efficient light trapping in inverted nanopyramid thin crystalline silicon membranes for solar cell applications,” Nano Lett. 12, 2792–2796 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meier, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 12, 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Min, W.-L.

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, E.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 354, 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “Tco and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Solar Energy 77, 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naqavi, A.

Nguyen, V.

P. Rostan, U. Rau, V. Nguyen, T. Kirchartz, M. Schubert, J. Werner, “Low-temperature a-si:h/zno/al back contacts for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 1345–1352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paeder, V.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1998).

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells.” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Catchpole, S. Pillai, “Surface plasmons for enhanced silicon light-emitting diodes and solar cells,” J. Lumin. 121, 315 – 318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. v. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-si:h solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poortmans, J.

J. Poortmans, V. Arkhipov, Thin Film Solar Cells: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications (John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Rath, J.

J. Rath, Y. Liu, M. de Jong, J. de Wild, J. Schuttauf, M. Brinza, R. Schropp, “Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, e129–e135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Rath, J. K.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rau, U.

P. Rostan, U. Rau, V. Nguyen, T. Kirchartz, M. Schubert, J. Werner, “Low-temperature a-si:h/zno/al back contacts for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 1345–1352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rech, B.

M. Berginski, J. Hupkes, M. Schulte, G. Schope, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, M. Wuttig, “The effect of front zno:al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “Tco and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Solar Energy 77, 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, J.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Rostan, P.

P. Rostan, U. Rau, V. Nguyen, T. Kirchartz, M. Schubert, J. Werner, “Low-temperature a-si:h/zno/al back contacts for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 1345–1352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Royer, F.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 354, 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruske, M.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saga, T.

T. Saga, “Advances in crystalline silicon solar cell technology for industrial mass production,” NGP Asia Mater. 2, 96–102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samulski, E. T.

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Electrophotonic enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells through photonic crystal photoactive layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 043305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schade, H.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 12, 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scharf, T.

Schope, G.

M. Berginski, J. Hupkes, M. Schulte, G. Schope, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, M. Wuttig, “The effect of front zno:al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schöpe, G.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schotsaert, J.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Schropp, R.

J. Rath, Y. Liu, M. de Jong, J. de Wild, J. Schuttauf, M. Brinza, R. Schropp, “Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, e129–e135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Schropp, R. E. I.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. v. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-si:h solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

P. Rostan, U. Rau, V. Nguyen, T. Kirchartz, M. Schubert, J. Werner, “Low-temperature a-si:h/zno/al back contacts for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 1345–1352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, M.

M. Berginski, J. Hupkes, M. Schulte, G. Schope, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, M. Wuttig, “The effect of front zno:al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuttauf, J.

J. Rath, Y. Liu, M. de Jong, J. de Wild, J. Schuttauf, M. Brinza, R. Schropp, “Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, e129–e135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shah, A. V.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 12, 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sittinger, V.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Söderström, K.

Söderström, T.

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soppe, W. J.

B. B. Van Aken, J. Löffler, M. C. Heijna, W. J. Soppe, “Inline deposited thin-film silicon solar cells on imprinted foil using linear pecvd sources,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 358, 2268–2271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Van Aken, M. C. Heijna, J. Löffler, W. J. Soppe, “Dynamically deposited thin-film silicon solar cells on imprinted foil,” Energy Procedia 10, 88–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Springer, J.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “Tco and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Solar Energy 77, 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stiebig, H.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 354, 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Berginski, J. Hupkes, M. Schulte, G. Schope, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, M. Wuttig, “The effect of front zno:al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stolk, R. L.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sukmanowski, J.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 354, 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.-H.

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szyszka, B.

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Terrazzoni-Daudrix, V.

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells.” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tumbleston, J. R.

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Electrophotonic enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells through photonic crystal photoactive layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 043305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 12, 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Aken, B. B.

B. B. Van Aken, J. Löffler, M. C. Heijna, W. J. Soppe, “Inline deposited thin-film silicon solar cells on imprinted foil using linear pecvd sources,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 358, 2268–2271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Van Aken, M. C. Heijna, J. Löffler, W. J. Soppe, “Dynamically deposited thin-film silicon solar cells on imprinted foil,” Energy Procedia 10, 88–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van der Werf, C. H. M.

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vanecek, M.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 12, 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “Tco and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Solar Energy 77, 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verschuuren, M. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. v. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-si:h solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vetter, M.

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Werner, J.

P. Rostan, U. Rau, V. Nguyen, T. Kirchartz, M. Schubert, J. Werner, “Low-temperature a-si:h/zno/al back contacts for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 1345–1352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wuttig, M.

M. Berginski, J. Hupkes, M. Schulte, G. Schope, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, M. Wuttig, “The effect of front zno:al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wyrsch, N.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 12, 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yerci, S.

A. Mavrokefalos, S. E. Han, S. Yerci, M. S. Branham, G. Chen, “Efficient light trapping in inverted nanopyramid thin crystalline silicon membranes for solar cell applications,” Nano Lett. 12, 2792–2796 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. Haase, H. Stiebig, “Thin-film silicon solar cells with efficient periodic light trapping texture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 061116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Tumbleston, D.-H. Ko, E. T. Samulski, R. Lopez, “Electrophotonic enhancement of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells through photonic crystal photoactive layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 043305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-si:h solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 183503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Energy Procedia (1)

B. B. Van Aken, M. C. Heijna, J. Löffler, W. J. Soppe, “Dynamically deposited thin-film silicon solar cells on imprinted foil,” Energy Procedia 10, 88–93 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

A. Banerjee, S. Guha, “Study of back reflectors for amorphous silicon alloy solar cell application,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1030–1035 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, O. Cubero, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, C. Ballif, “Plasmonic absorption in textured silver back reflectors of thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 064509 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Berginski, J. Hupkes, M. Schulte, G. Schope, H. Stiebig, B. Rech, M. Wuttig, “The effect of front zno:al surface texture and optical transparency on efficient light trapping in silicon thin-film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 074903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, F. Lederer, “Absorption enhancement in solar cells by localized plasmon polaritons,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 123102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Franken, R. L. Stolk, H. Li, C. H. M. van der Werf, J. K. Rath, R. E. I. Schropp, “Understanding light trapping by light scattering textured back electrodes in thin film n-i-p-type silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 014503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells.” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

K. Catchpole, S. Pillai, “Surface plasmons for enhanced silicon light-emitting diodes and solar cells,” J. Lumin. 121, 315 – 318 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Crys. Sol. (2)

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 354, 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Van Aken, J. Löffler, M. C. Heijna, W. J. Soppe, “Inline deposited thin-film silicon solar cells on imprinted foil using linear pecvd sources,” J. Non-Crys. Sol. 358, 2268–2271 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

A. Mavrokefalos, S. E. Han, S. Yerci, M. S. Branham, G. Chen, “Efficient light trapping in inverted nanopyramid thin crystalline silicon membranes for solar cell applications,” Nano Lett. 12, 2792–2796 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. v. Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

NGP Asia Mater. (1)

T. Saga, “Advances in crystalline silicon solar cell technology for industrial mass production,” NGP Asia Mater. 2, 96–102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Abass, K. Q. Le, A. Alù, M. Burgelman, B. Maes, “Dual-interface gratings for broadband absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 85, 115449 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. (1)

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. 12, 113–142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. (1)

P. Campbell, “Light trapping in textured solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 21, 165–172 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

P. Rostan, U. Rau, V. Nguyen, T. Kirchartz, M. Schubert, J. Werner, “Low-temperature a-si:h/zno/al back contacts for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 1345–1352 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy (1)

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, M. Vanecek, “Tco and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Solar Energy 77, 917–930 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

J. Müller, G. Schöpe, O. Kluth, B. Rech, V. Sittinger, B. Szyszka, R. Geyer, P. Lechner, H. Schade, M. Ruske, G. Dittmar, H.-P. Bochem, “State-of-the-art mid-frequency sputtered zno films for thin film silicon solar cells and modules,” Thin Solid Films 442, 158–162 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Rath, Y. Liu, M. de Jong, J. de Wild, J. Schuttauf, M. Brinza, R. Schropp, “Transparent conducting oxide layers for thin film silicon solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 518, e129–e135 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

M. Vetter, J. Andreu, J. Borrajo, A. Martin, J. Rodriguez, O. Agustsson, J. Schotsaert, K. Bittkau, R. Carius, A. Gordijn, A. Hoffmann, I. Macedo, J. Rath, R. Schropp, A. Antony, J. Bertomeu, F. Kail, “Development of high performance industrial tco glass for very large area a-si:h pv modules,” in “EU PVSEC Proceedings,” 2676–2679 (2011).

Lumerical FDTD Solutions, Available from http://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/fdtd/ .

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1998).

A. R. Jha, Solar Cell Technology and Applications (Auerbach Publications, 2010).

T. Markvart, L. Castañer, Solar Cells: Materials, Manufacture and Operation (Elsevier Ltd., 2005).

J. Poortmans, V. Arkhipov, Thin Film Solar Cells: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications (John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, 2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two different imprinted solar cell structures made from the same anisotropically etched silicon grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Solar cell geometry (a) and incident light polarizations relative to the cell (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimentally determined refractive index of a-Si (a). The solar spectrum and absorbed portion in the a-Si with 60nm AR coating and a period of 600nm (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intentity distribution through the sample for wavelengths (a) λ = 400nm, (b) λ = 500nm, (c) λ = 600nm, and (d) λ = 700nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Integrated quantum efficiency of a-Si solar cells for varying AR coating thicknesses. The black and red curves show the IQE of the structure 1 solar cell with a 600nm period for s- and p-polarization respectively, while the blue and magenta curves are for two flat cells with 500nm and 290nm a-Si layer thicknesses respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

IQE of s-polarized (a) and p-polarized (b) light as a function of lattice period and AR coating thickness for structure 1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6 but for solar cell structure 2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Average IQE of solar cell structure 1 (a) and 2 (b) as a function of lattice period and AR coating thickness.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Geometry of the cell with initial a-Si layer thickness x = 500nm and variation parameter δ (a). The corresponding IQE as a function of δ (b).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Geometry of the cell with initial AR coating layer thickness y = 104nm and variation parameter γ (a). The corresponding IQE as a function of γ (b).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Geometry of three cell grooves with variable widths (a) and the corresponding IQE as a function of the variation parameters w1 and w2 for the s-polarization (b) and p-polarization (c).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Geometry of the cell with a nc-ZnO layer (left) and IQE as a function of the layer thickness h3 (right).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Average IQE of the solar cell with a ZnO back reflector layer for structure 1 (a) and 2 (b) as a function of lattice period and AR coating thickness.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Imprint solar cell model based on an Asahi surface (a) and the Asahi U-type surface profiles used for the modelling (b).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

IQE of the flat and the Asahi U-type textured reference cells with 100nm ZnO in the back reflector layer, compared to structure 1 and 2 cells with optimized lattice periods, for varying AR coating thickness.

Equations (1)

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IQE = λ I sun ( λ ) QE ( λ ) d λ λ I sun ( λ ) d λ .

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