Abstract

We investigate the dependence of various efficiencies in GaN-based vertical blue light-emitting diode (LED) structures on the thickness and doping concentration of the n-GaN layer by using numerical simulations. The electrical efficiency (EE) and the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) are found to increase as the thickness or doping concentration increases due to the improvement of current spreading. On the contrary, the light extraction efficiency (LEE) decreases with increasing doping concentration or n-GaN thickness by the free-carrier absorption. By combining the results of EE, IQE, and LEE, wall-plug efficiency (WPE) of the vertical LED is calculated, and the optimum thickness and doping concentration of the n-GaN layer is found for obtaining the maximum WPE.

© 2013 OSA

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  39. G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50(1-3), 142–147 (1997).
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  40. D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  43. H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 026103 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  45. H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, P. M. Fauchet, “Hot electron relaxation time in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 711–713 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  46. M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(3), 535–542 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  49. J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  50. D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (6)

J. H. Son, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, Y. H. Song, H. K. Lee, J. W. Choi, J. L. Lee, “Enhancement of wall-plug efficiency in vertical InGaN/GaN LEDs by improved current spreading,” Opt. Express 20(S2Suppl 2), A287–A292 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-102-A287 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, J. S. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, “High-power single-chip InGaN light-emitting diode with 3.3 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(21), 1358–1360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhao, H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-film-flip-chip InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A765–A776 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-105-A765 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, J. I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, C. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, H. M. Jung, M. S. Noh, J. M. Lee, E. S. Nam, “Efficiency and electron leakage characteristics in GaN-based light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking-layer structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1866–1868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, “Effect of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2886–2894 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-2886 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (8)

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, A. D. Podoltsev, “Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, “Structural parameter dependence of light extraction efficiency in photonic crystal InGaN vertical light-emitting diode structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(5), 714–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-9-9398 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Long, I. K. Hwang, S. W. Ryu, “Design optimization of photonic crystal structure for improved light extraction of GaN LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1257–1263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H. G. Park, Y. H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 026103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(3), 535–542 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, P. M. Fauchet, “Hot electron relaxation time in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50(1-3), 142–147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, J. D.

M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(3), 535–542 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
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O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
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Ansmann, P.

O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
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S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H. G. Park, Y. H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
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T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, J. S. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, “High-power single-chip InGaN light-emitting diode with 3.3 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(21), 1358–1360 (2012).
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H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
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Baur, J.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
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G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50(1-3), 142–147 (1997).
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F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
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M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(3), 535–542 (2001).
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G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50(1-3), 142–147 (1997).
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Bergbauer, W.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
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C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
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V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
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F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
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B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
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Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
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Bolgov, S. S.

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, A. D. Podoltsev, “Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251110 (2010).
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W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
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Brennan, K. F.

M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(3), 535–542 (2001).
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D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
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Bustarret, E.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
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G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
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G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
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Chen, J. R.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
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Cheung, N. W.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
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Cho, H. K.

Cho, J.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
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H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
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Choe, Y. H.

Choi, J.

Choi, J. H.

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, C. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, H. M. Jung, M. S. Noh, J. M. Lee, E. S. Nam, “Efficiency and electron leakage characteristics in GaN-based light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking-layer structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1866–1868 (2011).
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H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-19-8654 .
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Choi, J. W.

Choi, K. K.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
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Craford, M.

Craven, M.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
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M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
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A. David, M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
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J. J. Wierer, A. David, M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
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Delaney, K. T.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
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DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deneuville, A.

G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50(1-3), 142–147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drechsel, P.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
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H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 026103 (2007).
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Egawa, T.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
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Eri, T.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
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X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
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J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
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M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(3), 535–542 (2001).
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H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, P. M. Fauchet, “Hot electron relaxation time in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 711–713 (1999).
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V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freudenberg, F.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Froehlich, S.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Galler, B.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
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Garetto, C.

M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(3), 535–542 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ghillino, E.

M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(3), 535–542 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ghione, G.

M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(3), 535–542 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gibart, P.

G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50(1-3), 142–147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goano, M.

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(3), 535–542 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gorbunov, R.

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gotz, W.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M. J.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ha, J. S.

T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, J. S. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, “High-power single-chip InGaN light-emitting diode with 3.3 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(21), 1358–1360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, B.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

Hasegawa, H.

H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 026103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hopler, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. K.

D. H. Long, I. K. Hwang, S. W. Ryu, “Design optimization of photonic crystal structure for improved light extraction of GaN LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1257–1263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

Jeong, T.

T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, J. S. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, “High-power single-chip InGaN light-emitting diode with 3.3 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(21), 1358–1360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jimbo, T.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, N. M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H. M.

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, C. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, H. M. Jung, M. S. Noh, J. M. Lee, E. S. Nam, “Efficiency and electron leakage characteristics in GaN-based light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking-layer structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1866–1868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kamimura, Y.

H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 026103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, A.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. J.

Kim, C. H.

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, C. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, H. M. Jung, M. S. Noh, J. M. Lee, E. S. Nam, “Efficiency and electron leakage characteristics in GaN-based light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking-layer structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1866–1868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kim, J. K.

Kim, K. H.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. K.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. K.

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kneissl, M.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. S.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. K.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laubsch, A.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, H. K.

Lee, J. L.

Lee, J. M.

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, C. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, H. M. Jung, M. S. Noh, J. M. Lee, E. S. Nam, “Efficiency and electron leakage characteristics in GaN-based light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking-layer structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1866–1868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. D.

Lee, Y. H.

Lelikov, Y.

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. B.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ling, S. C.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, Z.

Long, D. H.

D. H. Long, I. K. Hwang, S. W. Ryu, “Design optimization of photonic crystal structure for improved light extraction of GaN LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1257–1263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Malyutenko, V. K.

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, A. D. Podoltsev, “Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Martynov, I.

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mei, P.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D. S.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mishima, T.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monnard, R.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Mueller-Mach, R.

Munkholm, A.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nam, E. S.

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, C. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, H. M. Jung, M. S. Noh, J. M. Lee, E. S. Nam, “Efficiency and electron leakage characteristics in GaN-based light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking-layer structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1866–1868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noh, M. S.

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, C. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, H. M. Jung, M. S. Noh, J. M. Lee, E. S. Nam, “Efficiency and electron leakage characteristics in GaN-based light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking-layer structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1866–1868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oder, T. N.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oshima, Y.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozgur, U.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. G.

S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H. G. Park, Y. H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peter, M.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Podoltsev, A. D.

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, A. D. Podoltsev, “Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rebane, Y.

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rieger, W.

O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rode, P.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Romano, L. T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruden, P.

M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(3), 535–542 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, C. J.

Ryu, H. Y.

T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, J. S. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, “High-power single-chip InGaN light-emitting diode with 3.3 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(21), 1358–1360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, J. I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, C. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, H. M. Jung, M. S. Noh, J. M. Lee, E. S. Nam, “Efficiency and electron leakage characteristics in GaN-based light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking-layer structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1866–1868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, “Effect of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2886–2894 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-2886 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, “Structural parameter dependence of light extraction efficiency in photonic crystal InGaN vertical light-emitting diode structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(5), 714–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, S. W.

D. H. Long, I. K. Hwang, S. W. Ryu, “Design optimization of photonic crystal structure for improved light extraction of GaN LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1257–1263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sabathil, M.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sands, T.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T.-Y.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shan, Q.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, M.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shim, H.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shim, J. I.

H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, J. I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, C. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, H. M. Jung, M. S. Noh, J. M. Lee, E. S. Nam, “Efficiency and electron leakage characteristics in GaN-based light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking-layer structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1866–1868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, “Effect of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2886–2894 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-2886 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, “Structural parameter dependence of light extraction efficiency in photonic crystal InGaN vertical light-emitting diode structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(5), 714–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shimada, R.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. S.

H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, J. I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shreter, Y.

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soga, T.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

Sone, C.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. O.

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

Stauss, P.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steranka, F.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tarkin, D.

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Umeno, M.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Wang, S. C.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, J.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wicks, G. W.

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, P. M. Fauchet, “Hot electron relaxation time in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. C.

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, H.

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, P. M. Fauchet, “Hot electron relaxation time in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yonenaga, I.

H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 026103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

Zhao, P.

Zhou, L.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. R. Chen, Y. C. Wu, S. C. Ling, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, Y. K. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Investigation of wavelength-dependent efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 779–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (19)

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: A differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, J. I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H. G. Park, Y. H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, N. M. Johnson, “Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1360–1362 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, K. K. Kim, K. K. Choi, H. Kim, J. O. Song, J. Cho, K. H. Baik, C. Sone, Y. Park, T.-Y. Seong, “Design of high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting diodes with vertical injection geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 023510 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Malyutenko, S. S. Bolgov, A. D. Podoltsev, “Current crowding effect on the ideality factor and efficiency droop in blue lateral InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 251110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Soga, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ye, G. W. Wicks, P. M. Fauchet, “Hot electron relaxation time in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(5), 711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, “Reduction of efficiency droop in InGaN light emitting diodes by coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, U. Ozgur, H. Morkoc, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Jeong, J. H. Baek, J. S. Ha, H. Y. Ryu, “High-power single-chip InGaN light-emitting diode with 3.3 W output power,” Electron. Lett. 48(21), 1358–1360 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, “Structural parameter dependence of light extraction efficiency in photonic crystal InGaN vertical light-emitting diode structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(5), 714–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. H. Long, I. K. Hwang, S. W. Ryu, “Design optimization of photonic crystal structure for improved light extraction of GaN LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1257–1263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, C. H. Kim, J. H. Choi, H. M. Jung, M. S. Noh, J. M. Lee, E. S. Nam, “Efficiency and electron leakage characteristics in GaN-based light-emitting diodes without AlGaN electron-blocking-layer structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1866–1868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (2)

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based light emitters,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 57(1), 79–87 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Farahmand, C. Garetto, E. Bellotti, K. F. Brennan, M. Goano, E. Ghillino, G. Ghione, J. D. Albrecht, P. Ruden, “Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in the III-nitride wurtzite phase materials system: binaries and ternaries,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 48(3), 535–542 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Hopler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oshima, T. Suzuki, T. Eri, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Watanabe, M. Shibata, T. Mishima, “Thermal and optical properties of bulk GaN crystals fabricated through hydride vapor phase epitaxy with void-assisted separation,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 103509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Hasegawa, Y. Kamimura, K. Edagawa, I. Yonenaga, “Dislocation-related optical absorption in plastically deformed GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 026103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs – designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

G. Bentoumi, A. Deneuville, B. Beaumont, P. Gibart, “Influence of Si doping level on the Raman and IR reflectivity spectra and optical absorption spectrum of GaN,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 50(1-3), 142–147 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-19-8654 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Ryu, J. I. Shim, “Effect of current spreading on the efficiency droop of InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(4), 2886–2894 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-4-2886 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-26-21835 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Son, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, Y. H. Song, H. K. Lee, J. W. Choi, J. L. Lee, “Enhancement of wall-plug efficiency in vertical InGaN/GaN LEDs by improved current spreading,” Opt. Express 20(S2Suppl 2), A287–A292 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-102-A287 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zhao, H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-film-flip-chip InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A765–A776 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-105-A765 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-9-9398 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Gotz, F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

Ü. Özgür, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, H. Morkoç, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: Efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semiconductors (1)

Y. Lelikov, N. Bochkareva, R. Gorbunov, I. Martynov, Y. Rebane, D. Tarkin, Y. Shreter, “Measurement of the absorption coefficient for light laterally propagating in light-emitting diode structures with In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells,” Semiconductors 42(11), 1342–1345 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

O. Ambacher, W. Rieger, P. Ansmann, H. Angerer, T. D. Moustakas, M. Stutzmann, “Sub-bandgap absorption of gallium nitride determined by photothermal deflection spectroscopy,” Solid State Commun. 97(5), 365–370 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. Piprek, Semiconductor Optoelectronic Devices (Academic Press, 2003), chap. 9.

APSYS by Crosslight Software, Inc., Burnaby, Canada, http://www.crosslight.com

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2006), chap. 9.

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House Inc., 1995).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the simulated vertical LED structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Computational domain of the vertical LED structure for finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption coefficient of blue light by the free-carrier absorption as a function of electron concentration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Electron concentration in the horizontal direction of the QW plane for several doping concentration from 1018 to 1019 cm−3 when the thickness of the n-GaN is 3 μm. (b) Electron concentration in the horizontal direction of the QW plane for the n-GaN thickness of 2, 3, and 4 μm when doping concentration at the n-GaN is 5 × 1018 cm−3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Voltage versus current relations (I-V curves) for several doping concentration from 1018 to 1019 cm−3 when the n-GaN thickness is 3 μm. (b) Electrical efficiency (EE) at 350 mA is plotted as a function of doping concentration at the n-GaN layer for three n-GaN thicknesses of 2, 3, and 4 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) versus current relations for several doping concentration from 1018 to 1019 cm−3 when the n-GaN thickness is 3 μm. (b) IQE at 350 mA is plotted as a function of doping concentration at the n-GaN layer for three n-GaN thicknesses of 2, 3, and 4 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Light extraction efficiency (LEE) at 350 mA is plotted as a function of doping concentration at the n-GaN layer for three n-GaN thicknesses of 2, 3, and 4 μm when αb is (a) 5 and (b) 20 cm−1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wall-plug efficiency (WPE) at 350 mA is plotted as a function of doping concentration at the n-GaN layer for three thicknesses of 2, 3, and 4 μm when αb is (a) 5 and (b) 20 cm−1.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η WPE = P out IV ,
η elec = h ν ¯ eV , η int = P int /h ν ¯ I/e , η extraction = P out P int ,
η WPE = η elec η int η extraction .
α= α b + α f ,
n e =7.2× 10 13 cm -1 [ α f (0.6 eV)] 2 +2.2× 10 15 cm -2 α f (0.6 eV)

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