Abstract

A low driving voltage and fast response blue phase III (BPIII) liquid-crystal device with very low dielectric anisotropy is demonstrated. To stabilize BPIII in a wide temperature range (> 15°C), a chiral molecule with good solubility was chosen. By studying field-dependent polarization state of the transmitting light, it was found that the field-induced birefringence becomes saturated in the high field. However, the transmitting intensity exhibits a tendency to increase as the electric field increases. This indicates that the electro-optical behavior in BPIII device may be from the flexoelectric effect, which induces tilted optical axis and then induces birefringence. Because the phase transition from BPIII to chiral nematic phase does not happen, the device shows no hysteresis effect and no residual birefringence, exhibits fast response, and can be a candidate for fast photonic application.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. O. Chojnowska and R. Dabrowski, “The influence of cyano compound on liquid crystal blue phase range,” Photonics Letters of Poland4(2), 81 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. P. Crooker, Chirality in Liquid Crystals (Springer, 2001), p.186.
  3. H.-S. Kitzerow, P. P. Crooker, S. L. Kowk, and G. Heppke, “A blue phase with negative dielectric anisotropy in an electric field. Statics and dynamics,” J. Phys. France51(12), 1303–1312 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. E. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 107801 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.113(12), 123103 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H.-S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: A review,” Proc. SPIE7232, 723205, 723205-14 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. K. Yang and P. P. Crooker, “Chiral-racemic phase diagrams of blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A35(10), 4419–4423 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Karatairi, B. Rozic, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.81(4), 041703 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S.-I. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, Y. Haseba, D.-U. Cho, S.-W. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Improvement of electro-optical properties on polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst.39(4), 487–491 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Sato and A. Yoshizawa, “Electro-optical switching in a blue phase III exhibited by a chiral liquid crystal oligomer,” Adv. Mater.19(23), 4145–4148 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Optimized flexoelectric response in a chiral liquid-crystal phase device,” J. Appl. Phys.98(3), 034109 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(2), 128–133 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.113(12), 123103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

O. Chojnowska and R. Dabrowski, “The influence of cyano compound on liquid crystal blue phase range,” Photonics Letters of Poland4(2), 81 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-I. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, Y. Haseba, D.-U. Cho, S.-W. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Improvement of electro-optical properties on polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst.39(4), 487–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. E. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 107801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

E. Karatairi, B. Rozic, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.81(4), 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(2), 128–133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H.-S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: A review,” Proc. SPIE7232, 723205, 723205-14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Sato and A. Yoshizawa, “Electro-optical switching in a blue phase III exhibited by a chiral liquid crystal oligomer,” Adv. Mater.19(23), 4145–4148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Optimized flexoelectric response in a chiral liquid-crystal phase device,” J. Appl. Phys.98(3), 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

H.-S. Kitzerow, P. P. Crooker, S. L. Kowk, and G. Heppke, “A blue phase with negative dielectric anisotropy in an electric field. Statics and dynamics,” J. Phys. France51(12), 1303–1312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

D. K. Yang and P. P. Crooker, “Chiral-racemic phase diagrams of blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A35(10), 4419–4423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aya, S.

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blatch, A. E.

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Optimized flexoelectric response in a chiral liquid-crystal phase device,” J. Appl. Phys.98(3), 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Broughton, B. J.

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Optimized flexoelectric response in a chiral liquid-crystal phase device,” J. Appl. Phys.98(3), 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Castles, F.

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(2), 128–133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cates, M. E.

O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. E. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 107801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, C.-C.

H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.113(12), 123103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.113(12), 123103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.-L.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D.-U.

S.-I. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, Y. Haseba, D.-U. Cho, S.-W. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Improvement of electro-optical properties on polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst.39(4), 487–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.-W.

S.-I. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, Y. Haseba, D.-U. Cho, S.-W. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Improvement of electro-optical properties on polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst.39(4), 487–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chojnowska, O.

O. Chojnowska and R. Dabrowski, “The influence of cyano compound on liquid crystal blue phase range,” Photonics Letters of Poland4(2), 81 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, M. J.

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Optimized flexoelectric response in a chiral liquid-crystal phase device,” J. Appl. Phys.98(3), 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H. J.

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(2), 128–133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Optimized flexoelectric response in a chiral liquid-crystal phase device,” J. Appl. Phys.98(3), 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cordoyiannis, G.

E. Karatairi, B. Rozic, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.81(4), 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crooker, P. P.

H.-S. Kitzerow, P. P. Crooker, S. L. Kowk, and G. Heppke, “A blue phase with negative dielectric anisotropy in an electric field. Statics and dynamics,” J. Phys. France51(12), 1303–1312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Yang and P. P. Crooker, “Chiral-racemic phase diagrams of blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A35(10), 4419–4423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dabrowski, R.

O. Chojnowska and R. Dabrowski, “The influence of cyano compound on liquid crystal blue phase range,” Photonics Letters of Poland4(2), 81 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ema, K.

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, D. J.

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(2), 128–133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, P. R.

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Glorieux, C.

E. Karatairi, B. Rozic, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.81(4), 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haseba, Y.

S.-I. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, Y. Haseba, D.-U. Cho, S.-W. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Improvement of electro-optical properties on polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst.39(4), 487–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Henrich, O.

O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. E. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 107801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heppke, G.

H.-S. Kitzerow, P. P. Crooker, S. L. Kowk, and G. Heppke, “A blue phase with negative dielectric anisotropy in an electric field. Statics and dynamics,” J. Phys. France51(12), 1303–1312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

S.-I. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, Y. Haseba, D.-U. Cho, S.-W. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Improvement of electro-optical properties on polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst.39(4), 487–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, P.-J.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, T.

S.-I. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, Y. Haseba, D.-U. Cho, S.-W. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Improvement of electro-optical properties on polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst.39(4), 487–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jakli, A.

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karatairi, E.

E. Karatairi, B. Rozic, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.81(4), 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, H.

S.-I. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, Y. Haseba, D.-U. Cho, S.-W. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Improvement of electro-optical properties on polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst.39(4), 487–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitzerow, H.-S.

H.-S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: A review,” Proc. SPIE7232, 723205, 723205-14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-S. Kitzerow, P. P. Crooker, S. L. Kowk, and G. Heppke, “A blue phase with negative dielectric anisotropy in an electric field. Statics and dynamics,” J. Phys. France51(12), 1303–1312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kowk, S. L.

H.-S. Kitzerow, P. P. Crooker, S. L. Kowk, and G. Heppke, “A blue phase with negative dielectric anisotropy in an electric field. Statics and dynamics,” J. Phys. France51(12), 1303–1312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kralj, S.

E. Karatairi, B. Rozic, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.81(4), 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kutnjak, Z.

E. Karatairi, B. Rozic, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.81(4), 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, J.-L.

H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.113(12), 123103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.-C.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Le, K. V.

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.-H.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Malik, Q. M.

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(2), 128–133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marenduzzo, D.

O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. E. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 107801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mieczkowski, J.

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S. M.

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(2), 128–133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nagamura, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nounesis, G.

E. Karatairi, B. Rozic, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.81(4), 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rozic, B.

E. Karatairi, B. Rozic, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.81(4), 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasaki, Y.

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

M. Sato and A. Yoshizawa, “Electro-optical switching in a blue phase III exhibited by a chiral liquid crystal oligomer,” Adv. Mater.19(23), 4145–4148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shiu, J.-W.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stratford, K.

O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. E. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 107801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, J.

E. Karatairi, B. Rozic, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.81(4), 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, Y.-C.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, C.-H.

H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.113(12), 123103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tzitzios, V.

E. Karatairi, B. Rozic, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.81(4), 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S.-T.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.-I.

S.-I. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, Y. Haseba, D.-U. Cho, S.-W. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Improvement of electro-optical properties on polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst.39(4), 487–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. K.

D. K. Yang and P. P. Crooker, “Chiral-racemic phase diagrams of blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A35(10), 4419–4423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshizawa, A.

M. Sato and A. Yoshizawa, “Electro-optical switching in a blue phase III exhibited by a chiral liquid crystal oligomer,” Adv. Mater.19(23), 4145–4148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro-optic Kerr effect in polymer stabilized liquid crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sato and A. Yoshizawa, “Electro-optical switching in a blue phase III exhibited by a chiral liquid crystal oligomer,” Adv. Mater.19(23), 4145–4148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Yan, Z. Luo, S.-T. Wu, J.-W. Shiu, Y.-C. Lai, K.-L. Cheng, S.-H. Liu, P.-J. Hsieh, and Y.-C. Tsai, “Low voltage and high contrast blue phase liquid crystal with red-shifted Bragg reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(1), 011113 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. J. Broughton, M. J. Clarke, A. E. Blatch, and H. J. Coles, “Optimized flexoelectric response in a chiral liquid-crystal phase device,” J. Appl. Phys.98(3), 034109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Chen, J.-L. Lai, C.-C. Chan, and C.-H. Tseng, “Fast tunable reflection in amorphous blue phase III liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.113(12), 123103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

K. V. Le, S. Aya, Y. Sasaki, H. Choi, F. Araoka, K. Ema, J. Mieczkowski, A. Jakli, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Liquid crystalline amorphous blue phase and its large electrooptical Kerr effect,” J. Mater. Chem.21(9), 2855–2857 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. France (1)

H.-S. Kitzerow, P. P. Crooker, S. L. Kowk, and G. Heppke, “A blue phase with negative dielectric anisotropy in an electric field. Statics and dynamics,” J. Phys. France51(12), 1303–1312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

F. Castles, S. M. Morris, D. J. Gardiner, Q. M. Malik, and H. J. Coles, “Ultra-fast-switching flexoelectric liquid-crystal display with high contrast,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(2), 128–133 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

S.-I. Yamamoto, T. Iwata, Y. Haseba, D.-U. Cho, S.-W. Choi, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Improvement of electro-optical properties on polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst.39(4), 487–491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photonics Letters of Poland (1)

O. Chojnowska and R. Dabrowski, “The influence of cyano compound on liquid crystal blue phase range,” Photonics Letters of Poland4(2), 81 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. K. Yang and P. P. Crooker, “Chiral-racemic phase diagrams of blue-phase liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. A35(10), 4419–4423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

E. Karatairi, B. Rozic, Z. Kutnjak, V. Tzitzios, G. Nounesis, G. Cordoyiannis, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, and S. Kralj, “Nanoparticle-induced widening of the temperature range of liquid-crystalline blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.81(4), 041703 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

O. Henrich, K. Stratford, M. E. Cates, and D. Marenduzzo, “Structure of blue phase III of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 107801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H.-S. Kitzerow, “Blue phases come of age: A review,” Proc. SPIE7232, 723205, 723205-14 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. P. Crooker, Chirality in Liquid Crystals (Springer, 2001), p.186.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: PDF (585 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The light intensities through the cell, which is mounted with two crossed polarizers, at different temperatures. The applied voltage is 200-V square wave.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Before and After switching the transmitting states of the BPIII cell under crossed polarizers. An image was provided behind the bottom polarizer. (a) Before turning on voltage, due to the optical isotropy of BPIII, the backing image cannot be seen. (b) After turning on the 200-V square wave, the backing image appears clearly. (Media 1)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The electro-optical property of the BPIII cell at 24°C. (b) Threshold fields of the BPIII cell at various temperatures.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The response times of the BPIII cell at 24°C. (b) The response times of the BPIII cell at various temperatures.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The transmitted spectra of BPIII at various applied voltages at 24 °C.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The electric-field-dependence induced birefringence in the BPIII cell at 24°C, which is calculated by polarimetry. The wavelength of the incident light is 635 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The hysteresis ratio in the BPIII cell (the hysteresis ratio is defined by the ratio of the transmitting intensity difference ΔI in the electric field and Imax, as hysteresis = (ΔI/Imax) × 100%).

Equations (1)

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I sin 2 ( 2φ ) sin 2 ( πδn(E)d /λ )

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