Abstract

Transparent display is one of the most promising concepts among the next generation information display devices. Nevertheless, conventional transparent displays have two inherent problems: low forward light efficiency due to the light being emitted also in a backward direction; and low legibility due to the visual interruption caused by the light coming from the background. In this work, a cholesteric liquid crystal (Ch-LC) based, actively operational blind panel is combined with transparent organic light-emitting diodes (TR-OLEDs) to recycle the light wasted by backward propagation in transparent displays while blocking the light from behind the display, pursuing both improved forward light efficiency and enhanced image legibility. By tuning the reflectance spectrum of the Ch-LC panel to match the emission spectrum of TR-OLEDs, we achieved luminous efficiency increase by as large as 21% (85%) when the top metal cathode side (the bottom ITO side) of the OLEDs fa'transparent OLED' ces the blind panel. Maximum transmittance of the proposed device reached a high value of 60%, successfully demonstrating a new window-like transparent display concept.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. R. A. M. Hikmet and H. Kemperman, “Electrically switchable mirrors and optical components made from liquid-crystal gels,” Nature392(6675), 476–479 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Relaix, C. Bourgerette, and M. Mitov, “Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251907 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals enabled via surface initiated photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 505–507 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

S. M. Lee, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Nanoplasmon-enhanced transparent plasma display devices,” Small8(9), 1350–1354 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

H. Cho, J. M. Choi, and S. Yoo, “Highly transparent organic light-emitting diodes with a metallic top electrode: the dual role of a Cs2CO3 layer,” Opt. Express19(2), 1113–1121 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, S. Hofmann, M. Furno, M. Thomschke, Y. H. Kim, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Influence of organic capping layers on the performance of transparent organic light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1443–1445 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-S. Song, Y.-S. Kim, and H. Yang, “Construction of highly transparent plasma display devices using hydrothermally synthesized green-emitting LaPO4:Ce, Tb nanophosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(5), J137–J142 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Lee, S. H. Oh, and K. C. Choi, “Highly transparent SU-8 photoresist barrier rib for a transparent AC plasma display panel,” J. Display Technol.7(1), 40–43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals enabled via surface initiated photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 505–507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C.-Y. Lo, O.-H. Huttunen, J. H. Keinänen, J. Petäjä, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS-controlled paper-like transmissive flexible display,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(2), 410–418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Tasolamprou, M. Motov, D. C. Zografopoulos, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical and experimental studies of hyperreflective polymer-network cholesteric liquid crystal structures with helicity inversion,” Opt. Commun.282(5), 903–907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

W. Kowalsky, P. Görrn, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, H.-H. Johannes, and T. Riedl, “See-through OLED displays,” Proc. SPIE6486, 64860F, 64860F-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Mitov and N. Dessaud, “Going beyond the reflectance limit of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.5(5), 361–364 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Relaix, C. Bourgerette, and M. Mitov, “Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

1998 (2)

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. Kemperman, “Electrically switchable mirrors and optical components made from liquid-crystal gels,” Nature392(6675), 476–479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Antikainen, M.

M. Antikainen, J. Haaranen, J. Honkala, M. Lahonen, V.-M. Liias, A. Pakkala, T. Pikänen, E. Soininen, and R. Törnqvist, “Transparent emissive thin-film electroluminescent display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 885–887 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bourgerette, C.

S. Relaix, C. Bourgerette, and M. Mitov, “Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals enabled via surface initiated photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 505–507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burrows, P. E.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.-F.

C.-C. Wu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, W.-F. Chang, T.-L. Chiu, and S.-W. Liu, “Fully integration of transflective hybrid device consisting of PSCT and In-cell OLED,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers42, 1602–1605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. J.

Chiu, T.-L.

C.-C. Wu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, W.-F. Chang, T.-L. Chiu, and S.-W. Liu, “Fully integration of transflective hybrid device consisting of PSCT and In-cell OLED,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers42, 1602–1605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D.-H.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

Choi, J. M.

Choi, K. C.

S. M. Lee, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Nanoplasmon-enhanced transparent plasma display devices,” Small8(9), 1350–1354 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-M. Lee, S. H. Oh, and K. C. Choi, “Highly transparent SU-8 photoresist barrier rib for a transparent AC plasma display panel,” J. Display Technol.7(1), 40–43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. K.

Choquette, K.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, H. Y.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dessaud, N.

M. Mitov and N. Dessaud, “Going beyond the reflectance limit of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.5(5), 361–364 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elvikis, P.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferreira, P.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forrest, S. R.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, H.

C.-Y. Lo, O.-H. Huttunen, J. H. Keinänen, J. Petäjä, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS-controlled paper-like transmissive flexible display,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(2), 410–418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Furno, M.

Ge, Z.

J.-H. Lee, H. Xianyu, Z. Ge, X. Zhu, Y.-H. Lu, C.-W. Teng, K.-C. Liu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hybrid transflective displays using vertically integrated transparent OLED and reflective LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38, 1810–1812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Görrn, P.

W. Kowalsky, P. Görrn, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, H.-H. Johannes, and T. Riedl, “See-through OLED displays,” Proc. SPIE6486, 64860F, 64860F-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ha, N. Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haaranen, J.

M. Antikainen, J. Haaranen, J. Honkala, M. Lahonen, V.-M. Liias, A. Pakkala, T. Pikänen, E. Soininen, and R. Törnqvist, “Transparent emissive thin-film electroluminescent display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 885–887 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.-H.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Heikenfeld, J.

J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, “High-transmission electrowetting light valves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(15), 151121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hikmet, R. A. M.

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. Kemperman, “Electrically switchable mirrors and optical components made from liquid-crystal gels,” Nature392(6675), 476–479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, S.

Honkala, J.

M. Antikainen, J. Haaranen, J. Honkala, M. Lahonen, V.-M. Liias, A. Pakkala, T. Pikänen, E. Soininen, and R. Törnqvist, “Transparent emissive thin-film electroluminescent display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 885–887 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.-C.

Huang, Y.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huh, J. W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hurtubise, J. M.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals enabled via surface initiated photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 505–507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huttunen, O.-H.

C.-Y. Lo, O.-H. Huttunen, J. H. Keinänen, J. Petäjä, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS-controlled paper-like transmissive flexible display,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(2), 410–418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, K. C.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, D. Y.

S. M. Lee, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Nanoplasmon-enhanced transparent plasma display devices,” Small8(9), 1350–1354 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, S. M.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johannes, H.-H.

W. Kowalsky, P. Görrn, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, H.-H. Johannes, and T. Riedl, “See-through OLED displays,” Proc. SPIE6486, 64860F, 64860F-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Joo, C. W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keinänen, J. H.

C.-Y. Lo, O.-H. Huttunen, J. H. Keinänen, J. Petäjä, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS-controlled paper-like transmissive flexible display,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(2), 410–418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kemperman, H.

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. Kemperman, “Electrically switchable mirrors and optical components made from liquid-crystal gels,” Nature392(6675), 476–479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khalfin, V.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

S. M. Lee, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Nanoplasmon-enhanced transparent plasma display devices,” Small8(9), 1350–1354 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, R. H.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. H.

Kim, Y.-S.

W.-S. Song, Y.-S. Kim, and H. Yang, “Construction of highly transparent plasma display devices using hydrothermally synthesized green-emitting LaPO4:Ce, Tb nanophosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(5), J137–J142 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

W. Kowalsky, P. Görrn, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, H.-H. Johannes, and T. Riedl, “See-through OLED displays,” Proc. SPIE6486, 64860F, 64860F-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kriezis, E. E.

A. C. Tasolamprou, M. Motov, D. C. Zografopoulos, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical and experimental studies of hyperreflective polymer-network cholesteric liquid crystal structures with helicity inversion,” Opt. Commun.282(5), 903–907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kröger, M.

W. Kowalsky, P. Görrn, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, H.-H. Johannes, and T. Riedl, “See-through OLED displays,” Proc. SPIE6486, 64860F, 64860F-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lahonen, M.

M. Antikainen, J. Haaranen, J. Honkala, M. Lahonen, V.-M. Liias, A. Pakkala, T. Pikänen, E. Soininen, and R. Törnqvist, “Transparent emissive thin-film electroluminescent display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 885–887 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y.-H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T.-C. Lin, S.-C. Hsu, H.-Y. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device,” Opt. Express13(23), 9431–9438 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Lee, H. Xianyu, Z. Ge, X. Zhu, Y.-H. Lu, C.-W. Teng, K.-C. Liu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hybrid transflective displays using vertically integrated transparent OLED and reflective LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38, 1810–1812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Wu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, W.-F. Chang, T.-L. Chiu, and S.-W. Liu, “Fully integration of transflective hybrid device consisting of PSCT and In-cell OLED,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers42, 1602–1605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-I.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

S. M. Lee, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Nanoplasmon-enhanced transparent plasma display devices,” Small8(9), 1350–1354 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-M.

Leo, K.

Li, X.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liias, V.-M.

M. Antikainen, J. Haaranen, J. Honkala, M. Lahonen, V.-M. Liias, A. Pakkala, T. Pikänen, E. Soininen, and R. Törnqvist, “Transparent emissive thin-film electroluminescent display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 885–887 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-F.

C.-C. Wu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, W.-F. Chang, T.-L. Chiu, and S.-W. Liu, “Fully integration of transflective hybrid device consisting of PSCT and In-cell OLED,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers42, 1602–1605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-Y.

Lin, T.-C.

Lin, Y.-H.

Liu, K.-C.

J.-H. Lee, H. Xianyu, Z. Ge, X. Zhu, Y.-H. Lu, C.-W. Teng, K.-C. Liu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hybrid transflective displays using vertically integrated transparent OLED and reflective LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38, 1810–1812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.-W.

C.-C. Wu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, W.-F. Chang, T.-L. Chiu, and S.-W. Liu, “Fully integration of transflective hybrid device consisting of PSCT and In-cell OLED,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers42, 1602–1605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Lo, O.-H. Huttunen, J. H. Keinänen, J. Petäjä, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS-controlled paper-like transmissive flexible display,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(2), 410–418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-H.

J.-H. Lee, H. Xianyu, Z. Ge, X. Zhu, Y.-H. Lu, C.-W. Teng, K.-C. Liu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hybrid transflective displays using vertically integrated transparent OLED and reflective LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38, 1810–1812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

McConney, M. E.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals enabled via surface initiated photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 505–507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meitl, M.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, J.

W. Kowalsky, P. Görrn, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, H.-H. Johannes, and T. Riedl, “See-through OLED displays,” Proc. SPIE6486, 64860F, 64860F-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitov, M.

S. Relaix, C. Bourgerette, and M. Mitov, “Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitov and N. Dessaud, “Going beyond the reflectance limit of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.5(5), 361–364 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, J.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Motov, M.

A. C. Tasolamprou, M. Motov, D. C. Zografopoulos, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical and experimental studies of hyperreflective polymer-network cholesteric liquid crystal structures with helicity inversion,” Opt. Commun.282(5), 903–907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S. H.

Ohtsuka, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pakkala, A.

M. Antikainen, J. Haaranen, J. Honkala, M. Lahonen, V.-M. Liias, A. Pakkala, T. Pikänen, E. Soininen, and R. Törnqvist, “Transparent emissive thin-film electroluminescent display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 885–887 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. I.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parthasarathy, G.

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petäjä, J.

C.-Y. Lo, O.-H. Huttunen, J. H. Keinänen, J. Petäjä, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS-controlled paper-like transmissive flexible display,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(2), 410–418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pikänen, T.

M. Antikainen, J. Haaranen, J. Honkala, M. Lahonen, V.-M. Liias, A. Pakkala, T. Pikänen, E. Soininen, and R. Törnqvist, “Transparent emissive thin-film electroluminescent display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 885–887 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Relaix, S.

S. Relaix, C. Bourgerette, and M. Mitov, “Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riedl, T.

W. Kowalsky, P. Görrn, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, H.-H. Johannes, and T. Riedl, “See-through OLED displays,” Proc. SPIE6486, 64860F, 64860F-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, J.-W.

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soininen, E.

M. Antikainen, J. Haaranen, J. Honkala, M. Lahonen, V.-M. Liias, A. Pakkala, T. Pikänen, E. Soininen, and R. Törnqvist, “Transparent emissive thin-film electroluminescent display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 885–887 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, W.-S.

W.-S. Song, Y.-S. Kim, and H. Yang, “Construction of highly transparent plasma display devices using hydrothermally synthesized green-emitting LaPO4:Ce, Tb nanophosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(5), J137–J142 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Steckl, A. J.

J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, “High-transmission electrowetting light valves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(15), 151121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Suzaki, G.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takanishi, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, S. C.

Tasolamprou, A. C.

A. C. Tasolamprou, M. Motov, D. C. Zografopoulos, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical and experimental studies of hyperreflective polymer-network cholesteric liquid crystal structures with helicity inversion,” Opt. Commun.282(5), 903–907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Teng, C.-W.

J.-H. Lee, H. Xianyu, Z. Ge, X. Zhu, Y.-H. Lu, C.-W. Teng, K.-C. Liu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hybrid transflective displays using vertically integrated transparent OLED and reflective LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38, 1810–1812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thomschke, M.

Tondiglia, V. P.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals enabled via surface initiated photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 505–507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Törnqvist, R.

M. Antikainen, J. Haaranen, J. Honkala, M. Lahonen, V.-M. Liias, A. Pakkala, T. Pikänen, E. Soininen, and R. Törnqvist, “Transparent emissive thin-film electroluminescent display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 885–887 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Toshiyoshi, H.

C.-Y. Lo, O.-H. Huttunen, J. H. Keinänen, J. Petäjä, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS-controlled paper-like transmissive flexible display,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(2), 410–418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, T. J.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals enabled via surface initiated photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 505–507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.-C.

C.-C. Wu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, W.-F. Chang, T.-L. Chiu, and S.-W. Liu, “Fully integration of transflective hybrid device consisting of PSCT and In-cell OLED,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers42, 1602–1605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S.-T.

J.-H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y.-H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T.-C. Lin, S.-C. Hsu, H.-Y. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device,” Opt. Express13(23), 9431–9438 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Lee, H. Xianyu, Z. Ge, X. Zhu, Y.-H. Lu, C.-W. Teng, K.-C. Liu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hybrid transflective displays using vertically integrated transparent OLED and reflective LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38, 1810–1812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H.

J.-H. Lee, H. Xianyu, Z. Ge, X. Zhu, Y.-H. Lu, C.-W. Teng, K.-C. Liu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hybrid transflective displays using vertically integrated transparent OLED and reflective LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38, 1810–1812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

W.-S. Song, Y.-S. Kim, and H. Yang, “Construction of highly transparent plasma display devices using hydrothermally synthesized green-emitting LaPO4:Ce, Tb nanophosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(5), J137–J142 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

Yoon, J.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C. J.

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

J.-H. Lee, X. Zhu, Y.-H. Lin, W. K. Choi, T.-C. Lin, S.-C. Hsu, H.-Y. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device,” Opt. Express13(23), 9431–9438 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Lee, H. Xianyu, Z. Ge, X. Zhu, Y.-H. Lu, C.-W. Teng, K.-C. Liu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hybrid transflective displays using vertically integrated transparent OLED and reflective LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38, 1810–1812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zografopoulos, D. C.

A. C. Tasolamprou, M. Motov, D. C. Zografopoulos, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical and experimental studies of hyperreflective polymer-network cholesteric liquid crystal structures with helicity inversion,” Opt. Commun.282(5), 903–907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Heikenfeld and A. J. Steckl, “High-transmission electrowetting light valves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(15), 151121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Transparent organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.68(19), 2606–2608 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Parthasarathy, P. E. Burrows, V. Khalfin, V. G. Kozlov, and S. R. Forrest, “A metal-free cathode for organic semiconductor devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(17), 2138–2140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Relaix, C. Bourgerette, and M. Mitov, “Broadband reflective liquid crystalline gels due to the ultraviolet light screening made by the liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(25), 251907 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals enabled via surface initiated photopolymerization,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.)47(1), 505–507 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

W.-S. Song, Y.-S. Kim, and H. Yang, “Construction of highly transparent plasma display devices using hydrothermally synthesized green-emitting LaPO4:Ce, Tb nanophosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(5), J137–J142 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

C.-Y. Lo, O.-H. Huttunen, J. H. Keinänen, J. Petäjä, H. Fujita, and H. Toshiyoshi, “MEMS-controlled paper-like transmissive flexible display,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(2), 410–418 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 43–47 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitov and N. Dessaud, “Going beyond the reflectance limit of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater.5(5), 361–364 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. Kemperman, “Electrically switchable mirrors and optical components made from liquid-crystal gels,” Nature392(6675), 476–479 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. C. Tasolamprou, M. Motov, D. C. Zografopoulos, and E. E. Kriezis, “Theoretical and experimental studies of hyperreflective polymer-network cholesteric liquid crystal structures with helicity inversion,” Opt. Commun.282(5), 903–907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Org. Electron. (1)

J. W. Huh, J. Moon, J. W. Lee, D.-H. Cho, J.-W. Shin, J.-H. Han, J. Hwang, C. W. Joo, H. Y. Chu, and J.-I. Lee, “Directed emissive high efficient white transparent organic light emitting diodes with double layered capping layers,” Org. Electron.13(8), 1386–1391 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Kowalsky, P. Görrn, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, H.-H. Johannes, and T. Riedl, “See-through OLED displays,” Proc. SPIE6486, 64860F, 64860F-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. I. Park, Y. Xiong, R. H. Kim, P. Elvikis, M. Meitl, D. H. Kim, J. Wu, J. Yoon, C. J. Yu, Z. Liu, Y. Huang, K. C. Hwang, P. Ferreira, X. Li, K. Choquette, and J. A. Rogers, “Printed assemblies of inorganic light-emitting diodes for deformable and semitransparent displays,” Science325(5943), 977–981 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

S. M. Lee, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Nanoplasmon-enhanced transparent plasma display devices,” Small8(9), 1350–1354 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. Antikainen, J. Haaranen, J. Honkala, M. Lahonen, V.-M. Liias, A. Pakkala, T. Pikänen, E. Soininen, and R. Törnqvist, “Transparent emissive thin-film electroluminescent display,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers31, 885–887 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Lee, H. Xianyu, Z. Ge, X. Zhu, Y.-H. Lu, C.-W. Teng, K.-C. Liu, and S.-T. Wu, “Hybrid transflective displays using vertically integrated transparent OLED and reflective LCD,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers38, 1810–1812 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Wu, C.-F. Lin, J.-H. Lee, W.-F. Chang, T.-L. Chiu, and S.-W. Liu, “Fully integration of transflective hybrid device consisting of PSCT and In-cell OLED,” SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers42, 1602–1605 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 1999).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual illustration of the proposed actively transparent display that consists of a TR-OLED and a Ch-LC-based blind panel that can be electrically switched between transmission (‘T’) state and reflection (‘R’) state. Its representative operational modes are shown: (a) ‘window’ mode and (b) ‘display’ mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two different states of the Ch-LC molecules: (a) planar (reflecting) state and (b) homeotropic (transparent) state. (c) Cross-sectional schematic illustration of the proposed transparent display. (d) Close-up picture of the prototype transparent display with a TR-OLED and a Ch-LC-based blind panel. Five finger-shape patterns correspond to the active areas of the individual TR-OLED devices. The TR-OLED is in a configuration of glass/ITO/NPB (50 nm)/Alq3 (50 nm)/ Cs2CO3 (1.5 nm)/Ag (15 nm)/ ZnS (35 nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical properties of the TR-OLED and the Ch-LC blind panel. (a) Emission spectrum of the TR-OLED and the reflection spectrum of the blind panel. (b) Green wavelength cut-off observed in the transmittance spectrum of the Ch-LC blind panel. (c) Obscure transparent green TR-OLED pixel due to the light from the background image (d) Lucid green TR-OLED pixel with improved legibility assisted by the Ch-LC blind panel. TR-OLED pixel is operating at the same luminance level in in both (c) and (d).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Luminance (L) versus current density (J) curves of the fabricated TR-OLED before/after attaching the blind panel to the (a) top and (b) bottom side of the TR-OLED.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmittance spectrum of the TR-OLED with/without the Ch-LC blind panel, measured during the ‘window mode’ operation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a), (b) The Ch-LC blind panel in reflection state: (a) when observed from the normal direction (the panel designed for green reflection band); (b) when observed from a tilted angle (blue-shifted reflection band). (c), (d) The Ch-LC blind panel in transmission state: (c) when observed from the normal direction; (d) when observed from a tilted angle.

Equations (1)

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p n o < λ reflected <p n e

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