Abstract

The time-domain counterpart of traditional spatial holography is formalized and experimentally demonstrated. This concept involves the recording, generation and/or processing of complex (amplitude and phase) optical time-domain signals using intensity-only temporal detection and/or modulation optical devices. The resulting procedures greatly simplify present approaches aimed to similar generation and processing tasks. As a proof-of-concept, we successfully demonstrate a time-domain computer holography scheme. This scheme is used for experimental generation of user-defined complex optical temporal signals, in particular, a sequence of arbitrarily chirped Gaussian-like optical pulses and complex-modulation (16-QAM) optical telecommunication data streams, by CW-light intensity-only modulation.

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2012

2011

D. J. Geisler, N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, T. He, L. Paraschis, O. Gerstel, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Bandwidth scalable, coherent transmitter based on the parallel synthesis of multiple spectral slices using optical arbitrary waveform generation,” Opt. Express19(9), 8242–8253 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chiba, T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, “75-km SMF transmission of optical 16 QAM signal generated by a monolithic quad-parallel Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 977–979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, V. Mikhailov, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Novel method of generating QAM-16 signals at 21.3 Gbaud and transmission over 480 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 36–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and S. Gupta, “Silicon photonics: Silicon’s time lens,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 8–10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Walmsley and C. Dorrer, “Characterization of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1(2), 308–437 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

2003

2002

1999

J. Azaña, L. R. Chen, M. A. Muriel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of real-time Fourier transformation using linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett.35(25), 2223–2224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. Ding, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, and A. M. Weiner, “Time-domain image processing using dynamic holography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.4(2), 332–341 (1998).

T. Zhang and I. Yamaguchi, “Three-dimensional microscopy with phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett.23(15), 1221–1223 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

X. A. Shen, A. Nguyen, J. W. Perry, D. L. Huestis, and R. Kachru, “Time-domain holographic digital memory,” Science278(5335), 96–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Watanabe and M. Shirasaki, “Exact compensation for both chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(3), 243–248 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

B. H. Kolner, “Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(8), 1951–1963 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science265(5173), 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

1969

1966

B. R. Brown and A. W. Lohmann, “Complex spatial filtering with binary masks,” Appl. Opt.5(6), 967–969 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Waters, “Holographic image synthesis utilizing theoretical methods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.9(11), 405–407 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

D. Gabor, G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, A. Funkhouser, and A. Labeyrie, “Reconstruction of phase objects by holography,” Nature208(5016), 1159–1162 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962

1948

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azaña, J.

J. Azaña, L. R. Chen, M. A. Muriel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of real-time Fourier transformation using linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett.35(25), 2223–2224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bablumian, A.

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barros, D. J.

Bashaw, M. C.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science265(5173), 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayvel, P.

S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, V. Mikhailov, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Novel method of generating QAM-16 signals at 21.3 Gbaud and transmission over 480 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 36–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blanche, P. A.

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, B. R.

Brumm, D.

D. Gabor, G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, A. Funkhouser, and A. Labeyrie, “Reconstruction of phase objects by holography,” Nature208(5016), 1159–1162 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. R.

J. Azaña, L. R. Chen, M. A. Muriel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of real-time Fourier transformation using linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett.35(25), 2223–2224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, A.

A. Chiba, T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, “75-km SMF transmission of optical 16 QAM signal generated by a monolithic quad-parallel Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 977–979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Christenson, C.

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, and A. M. Weiner, “Time-domain image processing using dynamic holography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.4(2), 332–341 (1998).

Dorrer, C.

Farsi, A.

M. Fridman, A. Farsi, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Demonstration of temporal cloaking,” Nature481(7379), 62–65 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flores, D.

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontaine, N. K.

Fridman, M.

M. Fridman, A. Farsi, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Demonstration of temporal cloaking,” Nature481(7379), 62–65 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funkhouser, A.

D. Gabor, G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, A. Funkhouser, and A. Labeyrie, “Reconstruction of phase objects by holography,” Nature208(5016), 1159–1162 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, A. Funkhouser, and A. Labeyrie, “Reconstruction of phase objects by holography,” Nature208(5016), 1159–1162 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

M. Fridman, A. Farsi, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Demonstration of temporal cloaking,” Nature481(7379), 62–65 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

Garner, H. R.

Gavioli, G.

S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, V. Mikhailov, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Novel method of generating QAM-16 signals at 21.3 Gbaud and transmission over 480 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 36–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Geisler, D. J.

Gerstel, O.

Gu, T.

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, S.

B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and S. Gupta, “Silicon photonics: Silicon’s time lens,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 8–10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, T.

Heanue, J. F.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science265(5173), 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heritage, J. P.

Hesselink, L.

J. F. Heanue, M. C. Bashaw, and L. Hesselink, “Volume holographic storage and retrieval of digital data,” Science265(5173), 749–752 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higuma, K.

A. Chiba, T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, “75-km SMF transmission of optical 16 QAM signal generated by a monolithic quad-parallel Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 977–979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W. Y.

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huebschman, M. L.

Huestis, D. L.

X. A. Shen, A. Nguyen, J. W. Perry, D. L. Huestis, and R. Kachru, “Time-domain holographic digital memory,” Science278(5335), 96–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, J.

A. Chiba, T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, “75-km SMF transmission of optical 16 QAM signal generated by a monolithic quad-parallel Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 977–979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ip, E.

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali, D. R. Solli, and S. Gupta, “Silicon photonics: Silicon’s time lens,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 8–10 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jannson, J.

Jannson, T.

Ji, Y.

Kachru, R.

X. A. Shen, A. Nguyen, J. W. Perry, D. L. Huestis, and R. Kachru, “Time-domain holographic digital memory,” Science278(5335), 96–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J. M.

Kathaperumal, M.

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, M.

Kawanishi, T.

A. Chiba, T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, “75-km SMF transmission of optical 16 QAM signal generated by a monolithic quad-parallel Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 977–979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Killey, R. I.

S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, V. Mikhailov, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Novel method of generating QAM-16 signals at 21.3 Gbaud and transmission over 480 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 36–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, C.

Kolner, B. H.

B. H. Kolner, “Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.30(8), 1951–1963 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

D. Gabor, G. W. Stroke, D. Brumm, A. Funkhouser, and A. Labeyrie, “Reconstruction of phase objects by holography,” Nature208(5016), 1159–1162 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Lau, A. P.

Lau, A. P. T.

Leith, E. N.

Lin, W.

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Lohmann, A. W.

Lu, C.

Makovejs, S.

S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, V. Mikhailov, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Novel method of generating QAM-16 signals at 21.3 Gbaud and transmission over 480 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 36–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Melloch, M. R.

Y. Ding, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, and A. M. Weiner, “Time-domain image processing using dynamic holography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.4(2), 332–341 (1998).

Mikhailov, V.

S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, V. Mikhailov, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Novel method of generating QAM-16 signals at 21.3 Gbaud and transmission over 480 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 36–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Millar, D. S.

S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, V. Mikhailov, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Novel method of generating QAM-16 signals at 21.3 Gbaud and transmission over 480 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 36–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Munjuluri, B.

Muriel, M. A.

J. Azaña, L. R. Chen, M. A. Muriel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of real-time Fourier transformation using linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Electron. Lett.35(25), 2223–2224 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, A.

X. A. Shen, A. Nguyen, J. W. Perry, D. L. Huestis, and R. Kachru, “Time-domain holographic digital memory,” Science278(5335), 96–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, D. D.

Y. Ding, D. D. Nolte, M. R. Melloch, and A. M. Weiner, “Time-domain image processing using dynamic holography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.4(2), 332–341 (1998).

Norwood, R. A.

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okawachi, Y.

M. Fridman, A. Farsi, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Demonstration of temporal cloaking,” Nature481(7379), 62–65 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osten, W.

Paraschis, L.

Pedrini, G.

Perry, J. W.

X. A. Shen, A. Nguyen, J. W. Perry, D. L. Huestis, and R. Kachru, “Time-domain holographic digital memory,” Science278(5335), 96–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rachwal, B.

P. A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W. Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, T.

A. Chiba, T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, M. Sudo, and J. Ichikawa, “75-km SMF transmission of optical 16 QAM signal generated by a monolithic quad-parallel Mach-Zehnder optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(14), 977–979 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Savory, S. J.

S. Makovejs, D. S. Millar, V. Mikhailov, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Novel method of generating QAM-16 signals at 21.3 Gbaud and transmission over 480 km,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(1), 36–38 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schwab, X.

Scott, R. P.

Shen, X. A.

X. A. Shen, A. Nguyen, J. W. Perry, D. L. Huestis, and R. Kachru, “Time-domain holographic digital memory,” Science278(5335), 96–100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shirasaki, M.

S. Watanabe and M. Shirasaki, “Exact compensation for both chromatic dispersion and Kerr effect in a transmission fiber using optical phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol.14(3), 243–248 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siddiqui, O.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Space-time duality between classical spatial holography and time-domain holography: (a) Implementation steps of classical spatial holography; (b) Implementation of the concept of time-domain holography as the temporal counterpart of spatial-domain holography. For the sake of simplicity, the optical temporal signals are represented by their amplitude envelope. OC, optical coupler; PD, photodetector; R, resistor; AWG, arbitrary waveform generator; MZM, Mach-Zehnder modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup used to demonstrate the time-domain equivalent of CGH for optical complex signal generation usign a single MZM. The figure also shows the signal in time (black) and frequency (blue) along the setup. The optical path is represented by black lines, whereas the electrical path is represented by red lines. AWG, electrical arbitrary waveform generator; CW, continous wave; MZM, Mach-Zenhder modulator; EDFA, Erbium-doped fiber amplifier; BP, band pass; PD, photodetector; OSC, sampling oscilloscope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

16-symbol sequence of Gaussian pulses arbitrary chirped. (a) Electrical signal v(t) generated by the AWG; (b) Power spectral density (PSD) of the optical signal after the intensity modulation; (c) PSD of the optical signal after the band pass filtering; (d) Intensity of the generated complex waveform (blue) and target intensity (red); (e) Phase of the generated complex waveform (blue), obtained by applying off-line digital signal processing to the electrical interferogram measured in the detection process, and target phase profile (red).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

1024-symbol 16-QAM optical data stream. (a) A portion of the numerically designed temporal hologram, shown over 16 consecutive symbols, as generated by the electrical AWG; (b) Intensity and (c) phase profiles of the generated complex optical signal (blue line) and target data stream (red line) over the signal portion (16 symbols) shown in (a); (d) Constellation of the generated data stream (blue points) and ideal constellation of a16-QAM signal.

Equations (4)

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i(t) | e S (t)+j e LO (t) | 2 =| e s0 (t) | + 2 i LO + 2 i LO | e s0 (t) |sin( ω i t+{ e s0 (t) }+ ϕ S ϕ LO ),
I(ω) E s0 (ω) E s0 (ω)+ i LO δ(ω)+ 2π i LO E s0 (ω ω i ) e j( ϕ S ϕ LO π/2 ) +2π i LO E s0 (ω ω i ) e j( ϕ S ϕ LO π/2 ) ,
E out (ω) E s0 (ω ω LO ) E s0 (ω ω LO )+ i LO δ(ω ω LO )+ 2π i LO E s0 (ω ω S ) e j( ϕ S ϕ LO π/2 ) +2π i LO E s0 (ω ω S +2 ω LO ) e j( ϕ S ϕ LO π/2 ) .
e s0 (t)= m=1 1024 [ r m exp{ 1 2 (tm T S ) 2 T 0 2 +j ϕ m } ] , r m = i m 2 + q m 2 , ϕ m =arctg( q m i m ),

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