Abstract

We introduce an Y-Er disilicate thin film deposited on top of a silicon photonic crystal cavity as a gain medium for active silicon photonic devices. Using photoluminescence analysis, we demonstrate that Er luminescence at 1.54 μm is enhanced by coupling with the cavity modes, and that the directionality of the Er optical emission can be controlled through far-field optimization of the cavity. We determine the maximum excitation power that can be coupled into the cavity to be 12 mW, which is limited by free carrier absorption and thermal heating. At maximum excitation, we observe that nearly 30% of the Er population is in the excited state, as estimated from the direct measurement of the emitted power. Finally, using time-resolved photoluminescence measurements, we determine a value of 2.3 for the Purcell factor of the system at room temperature. These results indicate that overcoating a silicon photonic nanostructure with an Er-rich dielectric layer is a promising method for achieving light emission at 1.54 µm wavelength on a silicon platform.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Fabrication and characterization of erbium-doped toroidal microcavity lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(8), 083103 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071101 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  35. M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev.171(2), 283–291 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  36. W. Fowler and D. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev.128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  37. C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  38. L. C. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J. M. Gerard, “Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities: Theory,” Phys. Rev. B60(19), 13276–13279 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Notomi, “Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys.73(9), 096501 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  40. J. M. Gérard, “Solid-State Cavity-Quantum Electrodynamics with Self-Assembled Quantum Dots,” Top. Appl. Phys.90, 269–314 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  41. G. L. J. A. Rikken and Y. A. R. R. Kessener, “Local field effects and electric and magnetic dipole transitions in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(6), 880–883 (1995).
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2013 (1)

A. Shakoor, R. Lo Savio, P. Cardile, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, K. Welna, S. Boninelli, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, T. F. Krauss, M. Galli, and L. O’Faolain, “Room temperature all-silicon photonic crystal nanocavity light emitting diode at sub-bandgap wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(1), 114–121 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

C. P. Reardon, I. H. Rey, K. Welna, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal slow light waveguides and cavities,” J. Vis. Exp. (69): e50216 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and M. Galli, “Room-temperature emission at telecom wavelengths from silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, P. Cardile, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Energy transfer and enhanced 1.54 μm emission in erbium-ytterbium disilicate thin films,” Opt. Express19(21), 20761–20772 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, L. Dal Negro, and J. Vuckovic, “Observation of Transparency of Erbium-doped Silicon nitride in photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Express18(13), 13863–13873 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vuckovic, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express18(3), 2601–2612 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, P. Cardile, and F. Priolo, “Enhanced down conversion of photons emitted by photoexcited ErxY2-xSi2O7 films grown on silicon,” Phys. Rev. B81(4), 041411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Suh, M. Lee, J. S. Chang, H. Lee, N. Park, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “Cooperative upconversion and optical gain in ion-beam sputter-deposited ErxY2-xSiO5 waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7724–7731 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er 3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43, 335102 (2010).

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, “Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys.73(9), 096501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

H.-S. Hsu, C. Cai, and A. M. Armani, “Ultra-low-threshold Er:Yb sol-gel microlaser on silicon,” Opt. Express17(25), 23265–23271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

M. El Kurdi, X. Checoury, S. David, T. P. Ngo, N. Zerounian, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, “Quality factor of Si-based photonic crystal L3 nanocavities probed with an internal source,” Opt. Express16(12), 8780–8791 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. M. Piro, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “The influence of stoichiometry on the structural stability and on the optical emission of erbium silicate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujita, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Light emission from silicon in photonic crystal nanocavity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(4), 1090–1097 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. M. Shainline and J. Xu, “Silicon as an emissive optical medium,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 334–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, “Observation of enhanced photoluminescence from silicon photonic crystal nanocavity at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(21), 211104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater.19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A74(5), 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Fabrication and characterization of erbium-doped toroidal microcavity lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(8), 083103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. M. Xu, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline silicon,” Nat. Mater.4(12), 887–891 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

J. M. Gérard, “Solid-State Cavity-Quantum Electrodynamics with Self-Assembled Quantum Dots,” Top. Appl. Phys.90, 269–314 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, “An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode,” Nature410(6825), 192–194 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. C. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J. M. Gerard, “Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities: Theory,” Phys. Rev. B60(19), 13276–13279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

E. Snoeks, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Concentration quenching in erbium implanted alkali silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater.5(3), 159–167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.79(3), 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation, and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. L. J. A. Rikken and Y. A. R. R. Kessener, “Local field effects and electric and magnetic dipole transitions in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(6), 880–883 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Polman, and R. Serna, “Temperature dependence and quenching processes of the intra-4f luminescence of Er in crystalline Si,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter49(23), 16313–16320 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Franzò, F. Priolo, S. Coffa, A. Polman, and A. Carnera, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Er-doped crystalline Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(17), 2235–2237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Davies, “The optical properties of luminescent centres in silicon,” Phys. Rep.176(3-4), 83–188 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54-µm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev.171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

W. Fowler and D. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev.128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev.69, 681–681 (1946).

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alkemade, P. F. A.

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation, and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Andreani, L. C.

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and M. Galli, “Room-temperature emission at telecom wavelengths from silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J. M. Gerard, “Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities: Theory,” Phys. Rev. B60(19), 13276–13279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, “Observation of enhanced photoluminescence from silicon photonic crystal nanocavity at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(21), 211104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Axmann, A.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54-µm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Baek, B.

Belotti, M.

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bensahel, D.

Bongiorno, C.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater.19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boninelli, S.

A. Shakoor, R. Lo Savio, P. Cardile, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, K. Welna, S. Boninelli, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, T. F. Krauss, M. Galli, and L. O’Faolain, “Room temperature all-silicon photonic crystal nanocavity light emitting diode at sub-bandgap wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(1), 114–121 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cai, C.

Campidelli, Y.

Cardile, P.

A. Shakoor, R. Lo Savio, P. Cardile, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, K. Welna, S. Boninelli, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, T. F. Krauss, M. Galli, and L. O’Faolain, “Room temperature all-silicon photonic crystal nanocavity light emitting diode at sub-bandgap wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(1), 114–121 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and M. Galli, “Room-temperature emission at telecom wavelengths from silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

A. Shakoor, R. Lo Savio, P. Cardile, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, K. Welna, S. Boninelli, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, T. F. Krauss, M. Galli, and L. O’Faolain, “Room temperature all-silicon photonic crystal nanocavity light emitting diode at sub-bandgap wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(1), 114–121 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, P. Cardile, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Energy transfer and enhanced 1.54 μm emission in erbium-ytterbium disilicate thin films,” Opt. Express19(21), 20761–20772 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, P. Cardile, and F. Priolo, “Enhanced down conversion of photons emitted by photoexcited ErxY2-xSi2O7 films grown on silicon,” Phys. Rev. B81(4), 041411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. M. Piro, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “The influence of stoichiometry on the structural stability and on the optical emission of erbium silicate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater.19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Polman, and R. Serna, “Temperature dependence and quenching processes of the intra-4f luminescence of Er in crystalline Si,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter49(23), 16313–16320 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Franzò, F. Priolo, S. Coffa, A. Polman, and A. Carnera, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Er-doped crystalline Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(17), 2235–2237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev.69, 681–681 (1946).

Qin, G. G.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er 3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43, 335102 (2010).

Ran, G. Z.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er 3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43, 335102 (2010).

Reardon, C.

Reardon, C. P.

C. P. Reardon, I. H. Rey, K. Welna, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal slow light waveguides and cavities,” J. Vis. Exp. (69): e50216 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rey, I. H.

C. P. Reardon, I. H. Rey, K. Welna, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal slow light waveguides and cavities,” J. Vis. Exp. (69): e50216 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rikken, G. L. J. A.

G. L. J. A. Rikken and Y. A. R. R. Kessener, “Local field effects and electric and magnetic dipole transitions in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(6), 880–883 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, J.

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54-µm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Serna, R.

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation, and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Polman, and R. Serna, “Temperature dependence and quenching processes of the intra-4f luminescence of Er in crystalline Si,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter49(23), 16313–16320 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shainline, J. M.

J. M. Shainline and J. Xu, “Silicon as an emissive optical medium,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 334–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shakoor, A.

A. Shakoor, R. Lo Savio, P. Cardile, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, K. Welna, S. Boninelli, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, T. F. Krauss, M. Galli, and L. O’Faolain, “Room temperature all-silicon photonic crystal nanocavity light emitting diode at sub-bandgap wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(1), 114–121 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and M. Galli, “Room-temperature emission at telecom wavelengths from silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shao, G.

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, “An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode,” Nature410(6825), 192–194 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Y. F.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er 3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43, 335102 (2010).

Shin, J. H.

K. Suh, M. Lee, J. S. Chang, H. Lee, N. Park, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “Cooperative upconversion and optical gain in ion-beam sputter-deposited ErxY2-xSiO5 waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7724–7731 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation, and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.79(3), 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snoeks, E.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.79(3), 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Concentration quenching in erbium implanted alkali silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater.5(3), 159–167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, M. J.

Suh, K.

Sung, G. Y.

Tanaka, Y.

M. Fujita, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Light emission from silicon in photonic crystal nanocavity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(4), 1090–1097 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tchebotareva, A.

J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Fabrication and characterization of erbium-doped toroidal microcavity lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(8), 083103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Fabrication and characterization of erbium-doped toroidal microcavity lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(8), 083103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A74(5), 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, C.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.79(3), 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van den Hoven, G. N.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.79(3), 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation, and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van Uffelen, J. W. M.

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.79(3), 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev.171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wei, F.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er 3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43, 335102 (2010).

Welna, K.

A. Shakoor, R. Lo Savio, P. Cardile, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, K. Welna, S. Boninelli, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, T. F. Krauss, M. Galli, and L. O’Faolain, “Room temperature all-silicon photonic crystal nanocavity light emitting diode at sub-bandgap wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(1), 114–121 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Reardon, I. H. Rey, K. Welna, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal slow light waveguides and cavities,” J. Vis. Exp. (69): e50216 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. M. Shainline and J. Xu, “Silicon as an emissive optical medium,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 334–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. M.

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. M. Xu, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline silicon,” Nat. Mater.4(12), 887–891 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Xu, W. J.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er 3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43, 335102 (2010).

Yao, Q. G.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er 3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43, 335102 (2010).

Yao, S. D.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er 3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43, 335102 (2010).

Yerci, S.

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er 3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43, 335102 (2010).

Zerounian, N.

Zwiller, V.

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient luminescence and energy transfer in erbium silicate thin films,” Adv. Mater.19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

S. Iwamoto, Y. Arakawa, and A. Gomyo, “Observation of enhanced photoluminescence from silicon photonic crystal nanocavity at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(21), 211104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Lo Savio, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, A. Shakoor, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and M. Galli, “Room-temperature emission at telecom wavelengths from silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, F. Priolo, S. Coffa, A. Polman, and A. Carnera, “Room-temperature electroluminescence from Er-doped crystalline Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.64(17), 2235–2237 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Ennen, J. Schneider, G. Pomrenke, and A. Axmann, “1.54-µm luminescence of erbium-implanted III-V semiconductors and silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.43(10), 943–945 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, “Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(25), 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Lo Savio, M. Miritello, A. M. Piro, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “The influence of stoichiometry on the structural stability and on the optical emission of erbium silicate thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Galli, S. L. Portalupi, M. Belotti, L. C. Andreani, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Creatore, L. C. Andreani, M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Modification of erbium radiative lifetime in planar silicon slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 103112 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Fujita, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, “Light emission from silicon in photonic crystal nanocavity,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.14(4), 1090–1097 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

A. Polman, G. N. van den Hoven, J. S. Custer, J. H. Shin, R. Serna, and P. F. A. Alkemade, “Erbium in crystal silicon: optical activation, excitation, and concentration limits,” J. Appl. Phys.77(3), 1256–1262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. N. van den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.79(3), 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Kalkman, A. Tchebotareva, A. Polman, T. J. Kippenberg, B. Min, and K. J. Vahala, “Fabrication and characterization of erbium-doped toroidal microcavity lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.99(8), 083103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er 3+ 1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43, 335102 (2010).

J. Vis. Exp. (1)

C. P. Reardon, I. H. Rey, K. Welna, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal slow light waveguides and cavities,” J. Vis. Exp. (69): e50216 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

A. Shakoor, R. Lo Savio, P. Cardile, S. L. Portalupi, D. Gerace, K. Welna, S. Boninelli, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, T. F. Krauss, M. Galli, and L. O’Faolain, “Room temperature all-silicon photonic crystal nanocavity light emitting diode at sub-bandgap wavelengths,” Laser Photonics Rev.7(1), 114–121 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shainline and J. Xu, “Silicon as an emissive optical medium,” Laser Photonics Rev.1(4), 334–348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. G. Cloutier, P. A. Kossyrev, and J. M. Xu, “Optical gain and stimulated emission in periodic nanopatterned crystalline silicon,” Nat. Mater.4(12), 887–891 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

W. L. Ng, M. A. Lourenço, R. M. Gwilliam, S. Ledain, G. Shao, and K. P. Homewood, “An efficient room-temperature silicon-based light-emitting diode,” Nature410(6825), 192–194 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

S. L. Portalupi, M. Galli, C. Reardon, T. F. Krauss, L. O’Faolain, L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, “Planar photonic crystal cavities with far-field optimization for high coupling efficiency and quality factor,” Opt. Express18(15), 16064–16073 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-S. Hsu, C. Cai, and A. M. Armani, “Ultra-low-threshold Er:Yb sol-gel microlaser on silicon,” Opt. Express17(25), 23265–23271 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, L. Dal Negro, and J. Vuckovic, “Observation of Transparency of Erbium-doped Silicon nitride in photonic crystal nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Express18(13), 13863–13873 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gong, M. Makarova, S. Yerci, R. Li, M. J. Stevens, B. Baek, S. W. Nam, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. Vuckovic, and L. Dal Negro, “Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform,” Opt. Express18(3), 2601–2612 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. El Kurdi, X. Checoury, S. David, T. P. Ngo, N. Zerounian, P. Boucaud, O. Kermarrec, Y. Campidelli, and D. Bensahel, “Quality factor of Si-based photonic crystal L3 nanocavities probed with an internal source,” Opt. Express16(12), 8780–8791 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miritello, P. Cardile, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Energy transfer and enhanced 1.54 μm emission in erbium-ytterbium disilicate thin films,” Opt. Express19(21), 20761–20772 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Suh, M. Lee, J. S. Chang, H. Lee, N. Park, G. Y. Sung, and J. H. Shin, “Cooperative upconversion and optical gain in ion-beam sputter-deposited ErxY2-xSiO5 waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7724–7731 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

E. Snoeks, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Concentration quenching in erbium implanted alkali silicate glasses,” Opt. Mater.5(3), 159–167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

G. Davies, “The optical properties of luminescent centres in silicon,” Phys. Rep.176(3-4), 83–188 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (3)

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev.171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. Fowler and D. Dexter, “Relation between absorption and emission probabilities in luminescent centers in ionic solids,” Phys. Rev.128(5), 2154–2165 (1962).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev.69, 681–681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an erbium-doped microdisk laser on a silicon chip,” Phys. Rev. A74(5), 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, P. Cardile, and F. Priolo, “Enhanced down conversion of photons emitted by photoexcited ErxY2-xSi2O7 films grown on silicon,” Phys. Rev. B81(4), 041411 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Andreani, G. Panzarini, and J. M. Gerard, “Strong-coupling regime for quantum boxes in pillar microcavities: Theory,” Phys. Rev. B60(19), 13276–13279 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

S. Coffa, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, A. Polman, and R. Serna, “Temperature dependence and quenching processes of the intra-4f luminescence of Er in crystalline Si,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter49(23), 16313–16320 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. L. J. A. Rikken and Y. A. R. R. Kessener, “Local field effects and electric and magnetic dipole transitions in dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74(6), 880–883 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

M. Notomi, “Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals,” Rep. Prog. Phys.73(9), 096501 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Top. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. M. Gérard, “Solid-State Cavity-Quantum Electrodynamics with Self-Assembled Quantum Dots,” Top. Appl. Phys.90, 269–314 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Fundamentals and Technology (Academic, 1999)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-section scheme of the top-coated Si PhC membrane. (b) Scanning electron microscopy image of a top-coated L3 cavity, after the Y-Er disilicate deposition and following thermal treatment. Blue-dashed circles indicate the holes shrunk and displaced to increase the Q-factor, while red-dashed circles indicate the holes enlarged by ∆r to enhance the far-field vertical coupling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL emission from top-coated L3 cavities by varying (a) the lattice parameter and (b) the far-field optimization parameter. The dashed black line in (a) is the shape of PL observed in the Y-Er disilicate film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Normalized spectra of cavity mode PL for different pump powers; the normalization factors are indicated in the legend. (b) Trend of fundamental mode wavelength (full squares) and Q-factor (open triangles) for different pump powers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PL emission vs pump power. The dashed red line is not a fit and is derived from Eq. (2). The dashed blue line is the calculated trend of the excited Er fraction in presence of Yb. The population inversion threshold is indicated as a green line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Decay curves of fundamental cavity mode PL (black curve); PL collected from the PhC lattice outside the cavity region (red line). The dashed green line is the best fit of the black curve obtained by using Eq. (3).

Equations (9)

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dN 1 ( t ) dt =σφ( N Er -N 1 ( t ) )- N 1 τ -C [ N 1 ( t ) ] 2 .
N 1 ( φ )= 1 2Cτ [ 1+σφτ( 2+4CN Er τ+σφτ ) -( 1+σφτ ) ].
I 1 ( t ) I( 0 ) = 1 ( 1+N 1 (0)C×τ ) e t/τ -N 1 (0)C×τ .
( 1 τ ) PhC = 1 τ R + 1 τ nR .
( 1 τ ) cav =F P 1 τ R + 1 τ nR .
F P =[ ( 1 τ ) cav - ( 1 τ ) PhC ] τ R +1.
F P,ideal = 3 ( λ/n ) 3 Q 2 V eff .
V eff = ε( r ) | E( r ) | 2 dr ε( r max ) | E( r max ) | 2 .
F P = 3 λ 3 Q 2 n ε max V eff 1 3 p( r ) | f( r ) | 2 dr .

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