Abstract

The performance of a differential carrier phase recovery algorithm is investigated for the quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation format with an integrated tunable laser. The phase noise of the widely-tunable laser measured using a digital coherent receiver is shown to exhibit significant drift compared to a standard distributed feedback (DFB) laser due to enhanced low frequency noise component. The simulated performance of the differential algorithm is compared to the Viterbi-Viterbi phase estimation at different baud rates using the measured phase noise for the integrated tunable laser.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 12–21 (2006).
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  9. S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, and J. Chen, “Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1075–1077 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 609–620 (2013).
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  14. T. Duthel, G. Clarici, C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, C. Schulien, and S. Wiese, “Laser linewidth estimation by means of coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(20), 1568–1570 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Kikuchi, “Impact of 1/f-type FM noise on coherent optical communications,” Electron. Lett.23, 885–887 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Li, K. Larsen, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Over 10 dB net coding gain based on 20% overhead hard decision forward error correction in 100G optical communication systems,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2011, paper Tu.6.A.3 (2011)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1164–1179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. G. Taylor, “Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing,” J. Light-wave Technol.27(7), 901–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, and J. Chen, “Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1075–1077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Duthel, G. Clarici, C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, C. Schulien, and S. Wiese, “Laser linewidth estimation by means of coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(20), 1568–1570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, and R. Noe, “Hardware-efficient coherent digital receiver concept with feedforward carrier recovery for M-QAM constellations,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(8), 989–999 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

1987 (1)

K. Kikuchi, “Impact of 1/f-type FM noise on coherent optical communications,” Electron. Lett.23, 885–887 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. J. Viterbi and A. N. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of psk-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

Chen, J.

S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, and J. Chen, “Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1075–1077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, “Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems,” in Proceedings of OFC 2007, paper OThK4 (2007).

Clarici, G.

T. Duthel, G. Clarici, C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, C. Schulien, and S. Wiese, “Laser linewidth estimation by means of coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(20), 1568–1570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Man, E.

de Waardt, H.

Duthel, T.

T. Duthel, G. Clarici, C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, C. Schulien, and S. Wiese, “Laser linewidth estimation by means of coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(20), 1568–1570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, K. Giok-Djan, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fludger, C.

Fludger, C. R. S.

T. Duthel, G. Clarici, C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, C. Schulien, and S. Wiese, “Laser linewidth estimation by means of coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(20), 1568–1570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, J.

Geyer, J. C.

T. Duthel, G. Clarici, C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, C. Schulien, and S. Wiese, “Laser linewidth estimation by means of coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(20), 1568–1570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giok-Djan, K.

Hoffmann, S.

Ip, E.

Kahn, J. M.

Kam, P. Y.

S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, and J. Chen, “Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1075–1077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaneda, N.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, “Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems,” in Proceedings of OFC 2007, paper OThK4 (2007).

Katoh, K.

Kikuchi, K.

Koc, U.-V.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, “Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems,” in Proceedings of OFC 2007, paper OThK4 (2007).

Larsen, K.

B. Li, K. Larsen, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Over 10 dB net coding gain based on 20% overhead hard decision forward error correction in 100G optical communication systems,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2011, paper Tu.6.A.3 (2011)

Lavery, D.

Leven, A.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, “Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems,” in Proceedings of OFC 2007, paper OThK4 (2007).

Li, B.

B. Li, K. Larsen, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Over 10 dB net coding gain based on 20% overhead hard decision forward error correction in 100G optical communication systems,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2011, paper Tu.6.A.3 (2011)

Ly-Gagnon, D.-S.

Maher, R.

Millar, D. S.

Monroy, I. T.

B. Li, K. Larsen, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Over 10 dB net coding gain based on 20% overhead hard decision forward error correction in 100G optical communication systems,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2011, paper Tu.6.A.3 (2011)

Noe, R.

Pfau, T.

Savory, S. J.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 609–620 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1164–1179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, E.-D.

Schulien, C.

T. Duthel, G. Clarici, C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, C. Schulien, and S. Wiese, “Laser linewidth estimation by means of coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(20), 1568–1570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, K. Giok-Djan, and H. de Waardt, “Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(1), 64–72 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seimetz, M.

M. Seimetz, “Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high-order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation,” in Proceedings of OFC 2008, paper OTuM2 (2008).

Taylor, M. G.

M. G. Taylor, “Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing,” J. Light-wave Technol.27(7), 901–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, B.

Thomsen, B. C.

Tsukamoto, S.

van den Borne, D.

Viterbi, A. J.

A. J. Viterbi and A. N. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of psk-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Viterbi, A. N.

A. J. Viterbi and A. N. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of psk-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, S.

T. Duthel, G. Clarici, C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, C. Schulien, and S. Wiese, “Laser linewidth estimation by means of coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(20), 1568–1570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wuth, T.

Yu, C.

S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, and J. Chen, “Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1075–1077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, and J. Chen, “Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1075–1077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zibar, D.

B. Li, K. Larsen, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Over 10 dB net coding gain based on 20% overhead hard decision forward error correction in 100G optical communication systems,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2011, paper Tu.6.A.3 (2011)

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Kikuchi, “Impact of 1/f-type FM noise on coherent optical communications,” Electron. Lett.23, 885–887 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent optical receivers: algorithms and subsystems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1164–1179 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Duthel, G. Clarici, C. R. S. Fludger, J. C. Geyer, C. Schulien, and S. Wiese, “Laser linewidth estimation by means of coherent detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(20), 1568–1570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu, and J. Chen, “Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(15), 1075–1077 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. J. Viterbi and A. N. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of psk-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory29(4), 543–551 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Light-wave Technol. (1)

M. G. Taylor, “Phase estimation methods for optical coherent detection using digital signal processing,” J. Light-wave Technol.27(7), 901–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (2)

Other (3)

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, “Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems,” in Proceedings of OFC 2007, paper OThK4 (2007).

M. Seimetz, “Laser linewidth limitations for optical systems with high-order modulation employing feed forward digital carrier phase estimation,” in Proceedings of OFC 2008, paper OTuM2 (2008).

B. Li, K. Larsen, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “Over 10 dB net coding gain based on 20% overhead hard decision forward error correction in 100G optical communication systems,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2011, paper Tu.6.A.3 (2011)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup to measure the phase noise characteristics of the lasers under test. (PD: Photodiode)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured phase noise fluctuations for (a) integrated tunable laser and (b) DFB laser using coherent detection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FM-noise spectra for the lasers under test with analytical fit to extract the low-frequency noise components.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Performance of the differential carrier phase recovery algorithm compared to VVPE for the integrated tunable laser at different baud rates.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Required SNR to achieve a target BER of (a) 10−2 and (b) 10−3 for the differential algorithm and the VVPE.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Extracted Parameters for lasers under test

Equations (5)

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ψ ( t ) = arctan [ E Q ( t ) E I ( t ) ] ,
ν ( t ) = 1 2 π d ψ ( t ) d t .
S ν ( f ) = s 2 f 2 + s 1 f + s 0 ,
θ est = 1 4 arg k = 1 N r k 4 ,
Δ θ = arg ( r k ) arg ( r k 1 ) ,

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