Abstract

We performed time-domain terahertz (THz) spectroscopy on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) network films coated on quartz substrates from dispersion solutions by spraying method. The rGO network films demonstrate high conductivity of about 900 S/cm in the THz frequency range after a high temperature reduction process. The frequency-dependent conductivities and the refractive indexes of the rGO films have been obtained and analyzed with respect to the Drude free-electron model, which is characterized by large scattering rate. Finally, we demonstrate that the THz conductivities can be manipulated by controlling the reduction process, which correlates well with the DC conductivity above the percolation limit.

© 2013 OSA

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P. Kim, and A. K. Geim, “Room-temperature quantum hall effect in graphene,” Science 315(5817), 1379 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Xiao, M. Ishigami, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Intrinsic and extrinsic performance limits of graphene devices on SiO2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(4), 206–209 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 491–495 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  9. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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  15. G. Eda, G. Fanchini, and M. Chhowalla, “Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(5), 270–274 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. O. C. Compton and S. T. Nguyen, “Graphene oxide, highly reduced graphene oxide, and graphene: Versatile building blocks for carbon-based materials,” Small 6(6), 711–723 (2010).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. M. Acik, G. Lee, C. Mattevi, M. Chhowalla, K. Cho, and Y. J. Chabal, “Unusual infrared-absorption mechanism in thermally reduced graphene oxide,” Nat. Mater. 9(10), 840–845 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. J. L. Tomaino, A. D. Jameson, J. W. Kevek, M. J. Paul, A. M. van der Zande, R. A. Barton, P. L. McEuen, E. D. Minot, and Y.-S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of large-area single-layer graphene,” Opt. Express 19(1), 141–146 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. I. Maeng, S. Lim, S. J. Chae, Y. H. Lee, H. Choi, and J. H. Son, “Gate-controlled nonlinear conductivity of Dirac fermion in graphene field-effect transistors measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 551–555 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. M. J. Paul, J. L. Tomaino, J. W. Kevek, T. Deborde, Z. J. Thompson, E. D. Minot, and Y. S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging of inhomogeneous electrodynamics in single-layer graphene embedded in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091109 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. G. B. Jung, Y. Myung, Y. J. Cho, Y. J. Sohn, D. M. Jang, H. S. Kim, C. W. Lee, J. Park, I. Maeng, J. H. Son, and C. Kang, “Terahertz spectroscopy of nanocrystal-carbon nanotube and -graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(25), 11258–11265 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. Liu, H. Jeong, K. Lee, J. Y. Park, Y. H. Ahn, and S. Lee, “Reduction of functionalized graphite oxides by trioctylphosphine in non-polar organic solvents,” Carbon 48(8), 2282–2289 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  32. M. A. Seo, J. H. Yim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, D. S. Kim, S. Lee, and H. Lim, “Terahertz electromagnetic interference shielding using single-walled carbon nanotube flexible films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231905 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. Y. Moon, S. B. Choi, J. K. Park, R. Farbian, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz wave applications of single-walled carbon nanotube films with high shielding effectiveness,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 015102 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. A. Seo, J. W. Lee, and D. S. Kim, “Dielectric constant engineering with polymethylmethacrylate-graphite metastate composites in the terahertz region,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 066103 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  35. M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  36. N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. Horng, C. F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude conductivity of Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 83(16), 165113 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  38. F. T. Vasko, V. V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 86(23), 235424 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  39. S. Barrau, P. Demont, A. Peigney, C. Laurent, and C. Lacabanne, “Dc and ac conductivity of carbon nanotubes-polyepoxy composites,” Macromolecules 36(14), 5187–5194 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  40. H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2012 (6)

L. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, M. D. Stoller, Y. Zhu, H. Ji, S. Murali, Y. Wu, S. Perales, B. Clevenger, and R. S. Ruoff, “Highly conductive and porous activated reduced graphene oxide films for high-power supercapacitors,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1806–1812 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Maeng, S. Lim, S. J. Chae, Y. H. Lee, H. Choi, and J. H. Son, “Gate-controlled nonlinear conductivity of Dirac fermion in graphene field-effect transistors measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 551–555 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Paul, J. L. Tomaino, J. W. Kevek, T. Deborde, Z. J. Thompson, E. D. Minot, and Y. S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging of inhomogeneous electrodynamics in single-layer graphene embedded in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091109 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Ren, Q. Zhang, J. Yao, Z. Sun, R. Kaneko, Z. Yan, S. Nanot, Z. Jin, I. Kawayama, M. Tonouchi, J. M. Tour, and J. Kono, “Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of gated large-area graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3711–3715 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. Y. Moon, S. B. Choi, J. K. Park, R. Farbian, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz wave applications of single-walled carbon nanotube films with high shielding effectiveness,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 015102 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. T. Vasko, V. V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 86(23), 235424 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

J. L. Tomaino, A. D. Jameson, J. W. Kevek, M. J. Paul, A. M. van der Zande, R. A. Barton, P. L. McEuen, E. D. Minot, and Y.-S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of large-area single-layer graphene,” Opt. Express 19(1), 141–146 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. He, S. Wu, S. Gao, X. Cao, Z. Yin, H. Li, P. Chen, and H. Zhang, “Transparent, flexible, all-reduced graphene oxide thin film transistors,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5038–5044 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Horng, C. F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude conductivity of Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 83(16), 165113 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. J. Han, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes Garcia, A. D. Franklin, A. A. Bol, and W. Haensch, “High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3690–3693 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, Y. M. Lin, A. A. Bol, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, and P. Avouris, “High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon,” Nature 472(7341), 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. B. Jung, Y. Myung, Y. J. Cho, Y. J. Sohn, D. M. Jang, H. S. Kim, C. W. Lee, J. Park, I. Maeng, J. H. Son, and C. Kang, “Terahertz spectroscopy of nanocrystal-carbon nanotube and -graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(25), 11258–11265 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, H. Jeong, K. Lee, J. Y. Park, Y. H. Ahn, and S. Lee, “Reduction of functionalized graphite oxides by trioctylphosphine in non-polar organic solvents,” Carbon 48(8), 2282–2289 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Acik, G. Lee, C. Mattevi, M. Chhowalla, K. Cho, and Y. J. Chabal, “Unusual infrared-absorption mechanism in thermally reduced graphene oxide,” Nat. Mater. 9(10), 840–845 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. C. Compton and S. T. Nguyen, “Graphene oxide, highly reduced graphene oxide, and graphene: Versatile building blocks for carbon-based materials,” Small 6(6), 711–723 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (10)

J. H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Xiao, M. Ishigami, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Intrinsic and extrinsic performance limits of graphene devices on SiO2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(4), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 491–495 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Eda, G. Fanchini, and M. Chhowalla, “Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(5), 270–274 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. A. Seo, J. H. Yim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, D. S. Kim, S. Lee, and H. Lim, “Terahertz electromagnetic interference shielding using single-walled carbon nanotube flexible films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231905 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P. Kim, and A. K. Geim, “Room-temperature quantum hall effect in graphene,” Science 315(5817), 1379 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. A. Seo, J. W. Lee, and D. S. Kim, “Dielectric constant engineering with polymethylmethacrylate-graphite metastate composites in the terahertz region,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 066103 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Zhang, Y. W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, “Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 201–204 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Barrau, P. Demont, A. Peigney, C. Laurent, and C. Lacabanne, “Dc and ac conductivity of carbon nanotubes-polyepoxy composites,” Macromolecules 36(14), 5187–5194 (2003).
[Crossref]

Acik, M.

M. Acik, G. Lee, C. Mattevi, M. Chhowalla, K. Cho, and Y. J. Chabal, “Unusual infrared-absorption mechanism in thermally reduced graphene oxide,” Nat. Mater. 9(10), 840–845 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, J. H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. Y. Moon, S. B. Choi, J. K. Park, R. Farbian, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz wave applications of single-walled carbon nanotube films with high shielding effectiveness,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 015102 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, H. Jeong, K. Lee, J. Y. Park, Y. H. Ahn, and S. Lee, “Reduction of functionalized graphite oxides by trioctylphosphine in non-polar organic solvents,” Carbon 48(8), 2282–2289 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. A. Seo, J. H. Yim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, D. S. Kim, S. Lee, and H. Lim, “Terahertz electromagnetic interference shielding using single-walled carbon nanotube flexible films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231905 (2008).
[Crossref]

Andrei, E. Y.

X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 491–495 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

Y. Wu, Y. M. Lin, A. A. Bol, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, and P. Avouris, “High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon,” Nature 472(7341), 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balakrishnan, J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Z.

H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barker, A.

X. Du, I. Skachko, A. Barker, and E. Y. Andrei, “Approaching ballistic transport in suspended graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 491–495 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrau, S.

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J. H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Xiao, M. Ishigami, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Intrinsic and extrinsic performance limits of graphene devices on SiO2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(4), 206–209 (2008).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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S. J. Han, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes Garcia, A. D. Franklin, A. A. Bol, and W. Haensch, “High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3690–3693 (2011).
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M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
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J. H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Xiao, M. Ishigami, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Intrinsic and extrinsic performance limits of graphene devices on SiO2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(4), 206–209 (2008).
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A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 109–162 (2009).
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M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
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Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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Q. He, S. Wu, S. Gao, X. Cao, Z. Yin, H. Li, P. Chen, and H. Zhang, “Transparent, flexible, all-reduced graphene oxide thin film transistors,” ACS Nano 5(6), 5038–5044 (2011).
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M. Walther, D. G. Cooke, C. Sherstan, M. Hajar, M. R. Freeman, and F. A. Hegmann, “Terahertz conductivity of thin gold films at the metal-insulator percolation transition,” Phys. Rev. B 76(12), 125408 (2007).
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J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. Y. Moon, S. B. Choi, J. K. Park, R. Farbian, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz wave applications of single-walled carbon nanotube films with high shielding effectiveness,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 015102 (2012).
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J. Horng, C. F. Chen, B. Geng, C. Girit, Y. Zhang, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, M. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Drude conductivity of Dirac fermions in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 83(16), 165113 (2011).
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J. H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Xiao, M. Ishigami, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Intrinsic and extrinsic performance limits of graphene devices on SiO2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(4), 206–209 (2008).
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Jang, C.

J. H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Xiao, M. Ishigami, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Intrinsic and extrinsic performance limits of graphene devices on SiO2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(4), 206–209 (2008).
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Y. Wu, Y. M. Lin, A. A. Bol, K. A. Jenkins, F. Xia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, and P. Avouris, “High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon,” Nature 472(7341), 74–78 (2011).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
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K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P. Kim, and A. K. Geim, “Room-temperature quantum hall effect in graphene,” Science 315(5817), 1379 (2007).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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G. B. Jung, Y. Myung, Y. J. Cho, Y. J. Sohn, D. M. Jang, H. S. Kim, C. W. Lee, J. Park, I. Maeng, J. H. Son, and C. Kang, “Terahertz spectroscopy of nanocrystal-carbon nanotube and -graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(25), 11258–11265 (2010).
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H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
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M. A. Seo, J. H. Yim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, D. S. Kim, S. Lee, and H. Lim, “Terahertz electromagnetic interference shielding using single-walled carbon nanotube flexible films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231905 (2008).
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M. A. Seo, J. W. Lee, and D. S. Kim, “Dielectric constant engineering with polymethylmethacrylate-graphite metastate composites in the terahertz region,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 066103 (2006).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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G. B. Jung, Y. Myung, Y. J. Cho, Y. J. Sohn, D. M. Jang, H. S. Kim, C. W. Lee, J. Park, I. Maeng, J. H. Son, and C. Kang, “Terahertz spectroscopy of nanocrystal-carbon nanotube and -graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(25), 11258–11265 (2010).
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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P. Kim, and A. K. Geim, “Room-temperature quantum hall effect in graphene,” Science 315(5817), 1379 (2007).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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S. Barrau, P. Demont, A. Peigney, C. Laurent, and C. Lacabanne, “Dc and ac conductivity of carbon nanotubes-polyepoxy composites,” Macromolecules 36(14), 5187–5194 (2003).
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G. B. Jung, Y. Myung, Y. J. Cho, Y. J. Sohn, D. M. Jang, H. S. Kim, C. W. Lee, J. Park, I. Maeng, J. H. Son, and C. Kang, “Terahertz spectroscopy of nanocrystal-carbon nanotube and -graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(25), 11258–11265 (2010).
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M. Acik, G. Lee, C. Mattevi, M. Chhowalla, K. Cho, and Y. J. Chabal, “Unusual infrared-absorption mechanism in thermally reduced graphene oxide,” Nat. Mater. 9(10), 840–845 (2010).
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M. A. Seo, J. W. Lee, and D. S. Kim, “Dielectric constant engineering with polymethylmethacrylate-graphite metastate composites in the terahertz region,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(6), 066103 (2006).
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J. Liu, H. Jeong, K. Lee, J. Y. Park, Y. H. Ahn, and S. Lee, “Reduction of functionalized graphite oxides by trioctylphosphine in non-polar organic solvents,” Carbon 48(8), 2282–2289 (2010).
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J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. Y. Moon, S. B. Choi, J. K. Park, R. Farbian, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz wave applications of single-walled carbon nanotube films with high shielding effectiveness,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 015102 (2012).
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J. Liu, H. Jeong, K. Lee, J. Y. Park, Y. H. Ahn, and S. Lee, “Reduction of functionalized graphite oxides by trioctylphosphine in non-polar organic solvents,” Carbon 48(8), 2282–2289 (2010).
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M. A. Seo, J. H. Yim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, D. S. Kim, S. Lee, and H. Lim, “Terahertz electromagnetic interference shielding using single-walled carbon nanotube flexible films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231905 (2008).
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K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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I. Maeng, S. Lim, S. J. Chae, Y. H. Lee, H. Choi, and J. H. Son, “Gate-controlled nonlinear conductivity of Dirac fermion in graphene field-effect transistors measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 551–555 (2012).
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M. J. Paul, J. L. Tomaino, J. W. Kevek, T. Deborde, Z. J. Thompson, E. D. Minot, and Y. S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging of inhomogeneous electrodynamics in single-layer graphene embedded in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091109 (2012).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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M. A. Seo, J. H. Yim, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, D. S. Kim, S. Lee, and H. Lim, “Terahertz electromagnetic interference shielding using single-walled carbon nanotube flexible films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231905 (2008).
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J. Liu, H. Jeong, K. Lee, J. Y. Park, Y. H. Ahn, and S. Lee, “Reduction of functionalized graphite oxides by trioctylphosphine in non-polar organic solvents,” Carbon 48(8), 2282–2289 (2010).
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H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
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K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
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K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P. Kim, and A. K. Geim, “Room-temperature quantum hall effect in graphene,” Science 315(5817), 1379 (2007).
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I. Maeng, S. Lim, S. J. Chae, Y. H. Lee, H. Choi, and J. H. Son, “Gate-controlled nonlinear conductivity of Dirac fermion in graphene field-effect transistors measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 551–555 (2012).
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G. B. Jung, Y. Myung, Y. J. Cho, Y. J. Sohn, D. M. Jang, H. S. Kim, C. W. Lee, J. Park, I. Maeng, J. H. Son, and C. Kang, “Terahertz spectroscopy of nanocrystal-carbon nanotube and -graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(25), 11258–11265 (2010).
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K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
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H. A. Becerril, J. Mao, Z. Liu, R. M. Stoltenberg, Z. Bao, and Y. Chen, “Evaluation of solution-processed reduced graphene oxide films as transparent conductors,” ACS Nano 2(3), 463–470 (2008).
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H. Choi, F. Borondics, D. A. Siegel, S. Y. Zhou, M. C. Martin, A. Lanzara, and R. A. Kaindl, “Broadband electromagnetic response and ultrafast dynamics of few-layer epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 172102 (2009).
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M. Acik, G. Lee, C. Mattevi, M. Chhowalla, K. Cho, and Y. J. Chabal, “Unusual infrared-absorption mechanism in thermally reduced graphene oxide,” Nat. Mater. 9(10), 840–845 (2010).
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Minot, E. D.

M. J. Paul, J. L. Tomaino, J. W. Kevek, T. Deborde, Z. J. Thompson, E. D. Minot, and Y. S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging of inhomogeneous electrodynamics in single-layer graphene embedded in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091109 (2012).
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F. Xia, T. Mueller, Y. M. Lin, A. Valdes-Garcia, and P. Avouris, “Ultrafast graphene photodetector,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(12), 839–843 (2009).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
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F. T. Vasko, V. V. Mitin, V. Ryzhii, and T. Otsuji, “Interplay of intra- and interband absorption in a disordered graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 86(23), 235424 (2012).
[Crossref]

Özyilmaz, B.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. Y. Moon, S. B. Choi, J. K. Park, R. Farbian, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz wave applications of single-walled carbon nanotube films with high shielding effectiveness,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 015102 (2012).
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G. B. Jung, Y. Myung, Y. J. Cho, Y. J. Sohn, D. M. Jang, H. S. Kim, C. W. Lee, J. Park, I. Maeng, J. H. Son, and C. Kang, “Terahertz spectroscopy of nanocrystal-carbon nanotube and -graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(25), 11258–11265 (2010).
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J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. Y. Moon, S. B. Choi, J. K. Park, R. Farbian, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz wave applications of single-walled carbon nanotube films with high shielding effectiveness,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 015102 (2012).
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J. T. Hong, D. J. Park, J. Y. Moon, S. B. Choi, J. K. Park, R. Farbian, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Terahertz wave applications of single-walled carbon nanotube films with high shielding effectiveness,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(1), 015102 (2012).
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J. Liu, H. Jeong, K. Lee, J. Y. Park, Y. H. Ahn, and S. Lee, “Reduction of functionalized graphite oxides by trioctylphosphine in non-polar organic solvents,” Carbon 48(8), 2282–2289 (2010).
[Crossref]

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M. J. Paul, J. L. Tomaino, J. W. Kevek, T. Deborde, Z. J. Thompson, E. D. Minot, and Y. S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging of inhomogeneous electrodynamics in single-layer graphene embedded in dielectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(9), 091109 (2012).
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J. L. Tomaino, A. D. Jameson, J. W. Kevek, M. J. Paul, A. M. van der Zande, R. A. Barton, P. L. McEuen, E. D. Minot, and Y.-S. Lee, “Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of large-area single-layer graphene,” Opt. Express 19(1), 141–146 (2011).
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S. Barrau, P. Demont, A. Peigney, C. Laurent, and C. Lacabanne, “Dc and ac conductivity of carbon nanotubes-polyepoxy composites,” Macromolecules 36(14), 5187–5194 (2003).
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X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 323–327 (2008).
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L. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, M. D. Stoller, Y. Zhu, H. Ji, S. Murali, Y. Wu, S. Perales, B. Clevenger, and R. S. Ruoff, “Highly conductive and porous activated reduced graphene oxide films for high-power supercapacitors,” Nano Lett. 12(4), 1806–1812 (2012).
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ACS Nano (2)

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Appl. Phys. Express (1)

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I. Maeng, S. Lim, S. J. Chae, Y. H. Lee, H. Choi, and J. H. Son, “Gate-controlled nonlinear conductivity of Dirac fermion in graphene field-effect transistors measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 551–555 (2012).
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Nat. Mater. (2)

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Nat. Nanotechnol. (5)

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Özyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
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Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the fabrication of rGO films based on a spraying method. (b) SEM image of rGO flakes. (c) AFM image of rGO30 film. Also shown is the line profile the film thickness along the dashed line in the AFM image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of sheet resistance for the series of the rGO samples with different thicknesses, from rGO5 (5 nm) to rGO30 (30 nm) films (red circles). Open and filled squares show optical transmission at 550 nm as a function of the thickness for the GO and rGO films, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) THz time-domain transmission amplitudes for rGO30 (red line) and GO30 (blue line) films, respectively, normalized to the reference transmission (dashed line) (b) THz transmission amplitude spectra, from rGO5 to rGO30 films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Real (open squares) and imaginary (open circles) parts of the THz conductivity of rGO30 film. Red and blue solid lines are fits to the data by Drude free-electron model. (b) Real (blue line) and imaginary (red line) parts of the refractive indexes for the rGO30 film extracted from complex conductivity in (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Real part of the ac conductivities for the series of the films with Nsp = 60, at reduction temperatures ranging from 200 to 1000 °C. (b) THz conductivities at 1 THz as a function of reduction temperature (red). Shown together are dc conductivities extracted from the four-probe measurements (black). Inset shows conductivities ( σ σ r ) at visible to near-IR range for the rGO films with different TR values extracted from the transmission spectra and the thin film equation.

Equations (2)

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E rGO+sub (ω) E sub (ω) = 1+ n sub 1+ n sub + Z 0 σ ˜ (ω)d
σ ˜ = ε 0 ω p 2 τ 1iωτ

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