Abstract

We observe the high harmonic generation (HHG) from anti-aligned CO2 molecules when the on-axis peak of HHG from HOMO-2 orbital disappears. The harmonic emission at anti-alignment can be attributed to the contribution of HOMO-1 orbital. Simulations reproduce these observations and reveal the angular distributions of tunneling ionization from HOMO and HOMO-1 respectively at different intensity. The determination of HOMO-1 orbital contributions in harmonic spectra is important for the tomography imaging of aligned molecules and analysis of the time evolved harmonic emission.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature466(7306), 604–607 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Vozzi, M. Negro, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Generalized molecular orbital tomography,” Nat. Phys.7(10), 822–826 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Ramakrishna and T. Seideman, “Information content of high harmonics generated from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(11), 113901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Ramakrishna and T. Seideman, “High-order harmonic generation as a probe of rotational dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053411 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. M. Lock, S. Ramakrishna, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and T. Seideman, “Extracting continuum electron dynamics from high harmonic emission from molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133901 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(15), 153902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. T. Le, X.-M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Evidence of two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from CO2,” Phys. Rev. A73(4), 041402 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80(1), 013401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(7), 073902 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys.366(1-3), 22–32 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2.,” Science322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Jin, J. B. Bertrand, R. R. Lucchese, H. J. Wörner, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, A. T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Intensity dependence of multiple orbital contributions and shape resonance in high-order harmonic generation of aligned N2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013405 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. Diveki, A. Camper, S. Haessler, T. Auguste, T. Ruchon, B. Carré, P. Salières, R. Guichard, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Spectrally resolved multi-channel contributions to the harmonic emission in N2,” New J. Phys.14(2), 023062 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. H. Lee, I. J. Kim, S. B. Park, T. K. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Alignment dependence of high harmonics contributed from HOMO and HOMO-1 orbitals of N2,” J. Phys. B43(20), 205602 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, and C. D. Lin, “Uncovering multiple orbitals influence in high harmonic generation from aligned N2,” J. Phys. B42(21), 211001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Jin, A. T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of effects of macroscopic propagation and multiple molecular orbitals on the minimum in high-order harmonic generation of aligned CO2,” Phys. Rev. A83(5), 053409 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, P. Hockett, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Controlling the interference of multiple molecular orbitals in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(23), 233904 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C. Wu, H. Zhang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, D. Song, and H. Su, “Tunneling ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. A83(3), 033410 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys.75(2), 543–557 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Miyazaki, M. Kaku, G. Miyaji, A. Abdurrouf, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Field-free alignment of molecules observed with high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(24), 243903 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. T. Seideman and E. Hamilton, “Nonadiabatic alignment by intense pulses. Concepts, theory, and directions,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.52, 289–329 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(18), 183903 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A66(2), 023805 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taïeb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 545–549 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. X. Zhu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from heteronuclear diatomic molecules,” Opt. Express19(2), 436–447 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A54(1), 742–745 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. X. X. Zhou, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Role of molecular orbital symmetry on the alignment dependence of high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(6), 061801 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. X. X. Zhou, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Alignment dependence of high-order harmonic generation from N2 and O2 molecules in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A72(3), 033412 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. W. Schmidt, K. K. Baldridge, J. A. Boatz, S. T. Elbert, M. S. Gordon, J. H. Jensen, S. Koseki, N. Matsunaga, K. A. Nguyen, S. Su, T. L. Windus, M. Dupuis, and J. A. Montgomery, “General atomic and molecular electronic structure system,” J. Comput. Chem.14(11), 1347–1363 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  36. R. Murray, W.-K. Liu, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Partial Fourier-transform approach to tunnel ionization: atomic systems,” Phys. Rev. A81(2), 023413 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. Murray, M. Spanner, S. Patchkovskii, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Tunnel ionization of molecules and orbital imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(17), 173001 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. P. Liu, P. Yu, Z. Zeng, H. Xiong, X. Ge, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser intensity dependence of high-order harmonic generation from aligned CO2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A78(1), 015802 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2012

R. M. Lock, S. Ramakrishna, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and T. Seideman, “Extracting continuum electron dynamics from high harmonic emission from molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jin, J. B. Bertrand, R. R. Lucchese, H. J. Wörner, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, A. T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Intensity dependence of multiple orbital contributions and shape resonance in high-order harmonic generation of aligned N2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Diveki, A. Camper, S. Haessler, T. Auguste, T. Ruchon, B. Carré, P. Salières, R. Guichard, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Spectrally resolved multi-channel contributions to the harmonic emission in N2,” New J. Phys.14(2), 023062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Generalized molecular orbital tomography,” Nat. Phys.7(10), 822–826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Jin, A. T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of effects of macroscopic propagation and multiple molecular orbitals on the minimum in high-order harmonic generation of aligned CO2,” Phys. Rev. A83(5), 053409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, H. Zhang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, D. Song, and H. Su, “Tunneling ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. A83(3), 033410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Murray, M. Spanner, S. Patchkovskii, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Tunnel ionization of molecules and orbital imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(17), 173001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from heteronuclear diatomic molecules,” Opt. Express19(2), 436–447 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

R. Murray, W.-K. Liu, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Partial Fourier-transform approach to tunnel ionization: atomic systems,” Phys. Rev. A81(2), 023413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, P. Hockett, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Controlling the interference of multiple molecular orbitals in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(23), 233904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature466(7306), 604–607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Lee, I. J. Kim, S. B. Park, T. K. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Alignment dependence of high harmonics contributed from HOMO and HOMO-1 orbitals of N2,” J. Phys. B43(20), 205602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, and C. D. Lin, “Uncovering multiple orbitals influence in high harmonic generation from aligned N2,” J. Phys. B42(21), 211001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80(1), 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys.366(1-3), 22–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2.,” Science322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taïeb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 545–549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(7), 073902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ramakrishna and T. Seideman, “High-order harmonic generation as a probe of rotational dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Liu, P. Yu, Z. Zeng, H. Xiong, X. Ge, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser intensity dependence of high-order harmonic generation from aligned CO2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A78(1), 015802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Ramakrishna and T. Seideman, “Information content of high harmonics generated from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(11), 113901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. T. Le, X.-M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Evidence of two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from CO2,” Phys. Rev. A73(4), 041402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. X. Zhou, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Role of molecular orbital symmetry on the alignment dependence of high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(6), 061801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Zhou, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Alignment dependence of high-order harmonic generation from N2 and O2 molecules in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A72(3), 033412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Miyazaki, M. Kaku, G. Miyaji, A. Abdurrouf, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Field-free alignment of molecules observed with high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(24), 243903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seideman and E. Hamilton, “Nonadiabatic alignment by intense pulses. Concepts, theory, and directions,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.52, 289–329 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys.75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(18), 183903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A66(2), 023805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A54(1), 742–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

M. W. Schmidt, K. K. Baldridge, J. A. Boatz, S. T. Elbert, M. S. Gordon, J. H. Jensen, S. Koseki, N. Matsunaga, K. A. Nguyen, S. Su, T. L. Windus, M. Dupuis, and J. A. Montgomery, “General atomic and molecular electronic structure system,” J. Comput. Chem.14(11), 1347–1363 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdurrouf, A.

K. Miyazaki, M. Kaku, G. Miyaji, A. Abdurrouf, and F. H. M. Faisal, “Field-free alignment of molecules observed with high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(24), 243903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auguste, T.

Z. Diveki, A. Camper, S. Haessler, T. Auguste, T. Ruchon, B. Carré, P. Salières, R. Guichard, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Spectrally resolved multi-channel contributions to the harmonic emission in N2,” New J. Phys.14(2), 023062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldridge, K. K.

M. W. Schmidt, K. K. Baldridge, J. A. Boatz, S. T. Elbert, M. S. Gordon, J. H. Jensen, S. Koseki, N. Matsunaga, K. A. Nguyen, S. Su, T. L. Windus, M. Dupuis, and J. A. Montgomery, “General atomic and molecular electronic structure system,” J. Comput. Chem.14(11), 1347–1363 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Benedetti, E.

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertrand, J. B.

C. Jin, J. B. Bertrand, R. R. Lucchese, H. J. Wörner, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, A. T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Intensity dependence of multiple orbital contributions and shape resonance in high-order harmonic generation of aligned N2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature466(7306), 604–607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, P. Hockett, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Controlling the interference of multiple molecular orbitals in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(23), 233904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boatz, J. A.

M. W. Schmidt, K. K. Baldridge, J. A. Boatz, S. T. Elbert, M. S. Gordon, J. H. Jensen, S. Koseki, N. Matsunaga, K. A. Nguyen, S. Su, T. L. Windus, M. Dupuis, and J. A. Montgomery, “General atomic and molecular electronic structure system,” J. Comput. Chem.14(11), 1347–1363 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boutu, W.

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taïeb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 545–549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A54(1), 742–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taïeb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 545–549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brugnera, L.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Gühr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2.,” Science322(5905), 1232–1235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, N.

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A54(1), 742–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caillat, J.

Z. Diveki, A. Camper, S. Haessler, T. Auguste, T. Ruchon, B. Carré, P. Salières, R. Guichard, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Spectrally resolved multi-channel contributions to the harmonic emission in N2,” New J. Phys.14(2), 023062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taïeb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 545–549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Generalized molecular orbital tomography,” Nat. Phys.7(10), 822–826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(15), 153902 (2005).
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M. W. Schmidt, K. K. Baldridge, J. A. Boatz, S. T. Elbert, M. S. Gordon, J. H. Jensen, S. Koseki, N. Matsunaga, K. A. Nguyen, S. Su, T. L. Windus, M. Dupuis, and J. A. Montgomery, “General atomic and molecular electronic structure system,” J. Comput. Chem.14(11), 1347–1363 (1993).
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C. Jin, A. T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of effects of macroscopic propagation and multiple molecular orbitals on the minimum in high-order harmonic generation of aligned CO2,” Phys. Rev. A83(5), 053409 (2011).
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R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys.366(1-3), 22–32 (2009).
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X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(7), 073902 (2008).
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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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C. Jin, J. B. Bertrand, R. R. Lucchese, H. J. Wörner, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, A. T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Intensity dependence of multiple orbital contributions and shape resonance in high-order harmonic generation of aligned N2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013405 (2012).
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A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, and C. D. Lin, “Uncovering multiple orbitals influence in high harmonic generation from aligned N2,” J. Phys. B42(21), 211001 (2009).
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G. H. Lee, I. J. Kim, S. B. Park, T. K. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Alignment dependence of high harmonics contributed from HOMO and HOMO-1 orbitals of N2,” J. Phys. B43(20), 205602 (2010).
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M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A66(2), 023805 (2002).
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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
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M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
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P. Liu, P. Yu, Z. Zeng, H. Xiong, X. Ge, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser intensity dependence of high-order harmonic generation from aligned CO2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A78(1), 015802 (2008).
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R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys.366(1-3), 22–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(7), 073902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Jin, J. B. Bertrand, R. R. Lucchese, H. J. Wörner, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, A. T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Intensity dependence of multiple orbital contributions and shape resonance in high-order harmonic generation of aligned N2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Jin, A. T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Analysis of effects of macroscopic propagation and multiple molecular orbitals on the minimum in high-order harmonic generation of aligned CO2,” Phys. Rev. A83(5), 053409 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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R. Murray, W.-K. Liu, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Partial Fourier-transform approach to tunnel ionization: atomic systems,” Phys. Rev. A81(2), 023413 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(7), 073902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. M. Lock, S. Ramakrishna, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and T. Seideman, “Extracting continuum electron dynamics from high harmonic emission from molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys.366(1-3), 22–32 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Lucchese, R. R.

C. Jin, J. B. Bertrand, R. R. Lucchese, H. J. Wörner, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, A. T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Intensity dependence of multiple orbital contributions and shape resonance in high-order harmonic generation of aligned N2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80(1), 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, and C. D. Lin, “Uncovering multiple orbitals influence in high harmonic generation from aligned N2,” J. Phys. B42(21), 211001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Diveki, A. Camper, S. Haessler, T. Auguste, T. Ruchon, B. Carré, P. Salières, R. Guichard, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Spectrally resolved multi-channel contributions to the harmonic emission in N2,” New J. Phys.14(2), 023062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taïeb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 545–549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A66(2), 023805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
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W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taïeb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 545–549 (2008).
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Montgomery, J. A.

M. W. Schmidt, K. K. Baldridge, J. A. Boatz, S. T. Elbert, M. S. Gordon, J. H. Jensen, S. Koseki, N. Matsunaga, K. A. Nguyen, S. Su, T. L. Windus, M. Dupuis, and J. A. Montgomery, “General atomic and molecular electronic structure system,” J. Comput. Chem.14(11), 1347–1363 (1993).
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A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80(1), 013401 (2009).
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R. M. Lock, S. Ramakrishna, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and T. Seideman, “Extracting continuum electron dynamics from high harmonic emission from molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133901 (2012).
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R. M. Lock, X. Zhou, W. Li, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Measuring the intensity and phase of high-order harmonic emission from aligned molecules,” Chem. Phys.366(1-3), 22–32 (2009).
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X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(7), 073902 (2008).
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R. Murray, M. Spanner, S. Patchkovskii, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Tunnel ionization of molecules and orbital imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(17), 173001 (2011).
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R. Murray, W.-K. Liu, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Partial Fourier-transform approach to tunnel ionization: atomic systems,” Phys. Rev. A81(2), 023413 (2010).
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G. H. Lee, I. J. Kim, S. B. Park, T. K. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Alignment dependence of high harmonics contributed from HOMO and HOMO-1 orbitals of N2,” J. Phys. B43(20), 205602 (2010).
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M. W. Schmidt, K. K. Baldridge, J. A. Boatz, S. T. Elbert, M. S. Gordon, J. H. Jensen, S. Koseki, N. Matsunaga, K. A. Nguyen, S. Su, T. L. Windus, M. Dupuis, and J. A. Montgomery, “General atomic and molecular electronic structure system,” J. Comput. Chem.14(11), 1347–1363 (1993).
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J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
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C. Vozzi, M. Negro, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Generalized molecular orbital tomography,” Nat. Phys.7(10), 822–826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(15), 153902 (2005).
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Park, S. B.

G. H. Lee, I. J. Kim, S. B. Park, T. K. Kim, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, “Alignment dependence of high harmonics contributed from HOMO and HOMO-1 orbitals of N2,” J. Phys. B43(20), 205602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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R. Murray, M. Spanner, S. Patchkovskii, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Tunnel ionization of molecules and orbital imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(17), 173001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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R. M. Lock, S. Ramakrishna, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and T. Seideman, “Extracting continuum electron dynamics from high harmonic emission from molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133901 (2012).
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S. Ramakrishna and T. Seideman, “High-order harmonic generation as a probe of rotational dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramakrishna and T. Seideman, “Information content of high harmonics generated from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(11), 113901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Diveki, A. Camper, S. Haessler, T. Auguste, T. Ruchon, B. Carré, P. Salières, R. Guichard, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Spectrally resolved multi-channel contributions to the harmonic emission in N2,” New J. Phys.14(2), 023062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

T. Kanai, S. Minemoto, and H. Sakai, “Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Nature435(7041), 470–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

Z. Diveki, A. Camper, S. Haessler, T. Auguste, T. Ruchon, B. Carré, P. Salières, R. Guichard, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Spectrally resolved multi-channel contributions to the harmonic emission in N2,” New J. Phys.14(2), 023062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taïeb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 545–549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Generalized molecular orbital tomography,” Nat. Phys.7(10), 822–826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, M. W.

M. W. Schmidt, K. K. Baldridge, J. A. Boatz, S. T. Elbert, M. S. Gordon, J. H. Jensen, S. Koseki, N. Matsunaga, K. A. Nguyen, S. Su, T. L. Windus, M. Dupuis, and J. A. Montgomery, “General atomic and molecular electronic structure system,” J. Comput. Chem.14(11), 1347–1363 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Seideman, T.

R. M. Lock, S. Ramakrishna, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and T. Seideman, “Extracting continuum electron dynamics from high harmonic emission from molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(13), 133901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ramakrishna and T. Seideman, “High-order harmonic generation as a probe of rotational dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A77(5), 053411 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramakrishna and T. Seideman, “Information content of high harmonics generated from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(11), 113901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Seideman and E. Hamilton, “Nonadiabatic alignment by intense pulses. Concepts, theory, and directions,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.52, 289–329 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys.75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Silvestri, S.

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Generalized molecular orbital tomography,” Nat. Phys.7(10), 822–826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smirnova, O.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, D.

C. Wu, H. Zhang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, D. Song, and H. Su, “Tunneling ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. A83(3), 033410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Spanner, M.

R. Murray, M. Spanner, S. Patchkovskii, and M. Y. Ivanov, “Tunnel ionization of molecules and orbital imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(17), 173001 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Springate, E.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Generalized molecular orbital tomography,” Nat. Phys.7(10), 822–826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stankiewicz, M.

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taïeb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 545–549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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H. Stapelfeldt and T. Seideman, “Colloquium: aligning molecules with strong laser pulses,” Rev. Mod. Phys.75(2), 543–557 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Su, H.

C. Wu, H. Zhang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, D. Song, and H. Su, “Tunneling ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. A83(3), 033410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Su, S.

M. W. Schmidt, K. K. Baldridge, J. A. Boatz, S. T. Elbert, M. S. Gordon, J. H. Jensen, S. Koseki, N. Matsunaga, K. A. Nguyen, S. Su, T. L. Windus, M. Dupuis, and J. A. Montgomery, “General atomic and molecular electronic structure system,” J. Comput. Chem.14(11), 1347–1363 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taïeb, R.

Z. Diveki, A. Camper, S. Haessler, T. Auguste, T. Ruchon, B. Carré, P. Salières, R. Guichard, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, and R. Taïeb, “Spectrally resolved multi-channel contributions to the harmonic emission in N2,” New J. Phys.14(2), 023062 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taïeb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 545–549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. M.

X. X. Zhou, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Role of molecular orbital symmetry on the alignment dependence of high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A71(6), 061801 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Zhou, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, “Alignment dependence of high-order harmonic generation from N2 and O2 molecules in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A72(3), 033412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X.-M.

A. T. Le, X.-M. Tong, and C. D. Lin, “Evidence of two-center interference in high-order harmonic generation from CO2,” Phys. Rev. A73(4), 041402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tonzani, S.

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. A80(1), 013401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Torres, R.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turcu, I. C. E.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. G.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

R. Torres, T. Siegel, L. Brugnera, I. Procino, J. G. Underwood, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, E. Springate, C. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, S. Patchkovskii, M. Y. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, and J. P. Marangos, “Revealing molecular structure and dynamics through high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-IR fields,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 051802 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A66(2), 023805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(18), 183903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature460(7258), 972–977 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

C. Jin, J. B. Bertrand, R. R. Lucchese, H. J. Wörner, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, A. T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Intensity dependence of multiple orbital contributions and shape resonance in high-order harmonic generation of aligned N2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature466(7306), 604–607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, P. Hockett, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Controlling the interference of multiple molecular orbitals in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(23), 233904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

C. Vozzi, M. Negro, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, “Generalized molecular orbital tomography,” Nat. Phys.7(10), 822–826 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, J.-P. Caumes, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, M. Nisoli, R. Torres, E. Heesel, N. Kajumba, J. P. Marangos, C. Altucci, and R. Velotta, “Controlling two-center interference in molecular high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(15), 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, N.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(7), 073902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waters, G.

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taïeb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carré, and P. Salières, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys.4(7), 545–549 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Windus, T. L.

M. W. Schmidt, K. K. Baldridge, J. A. Boatz, S. T. Elbert, M. S. Gordon, J. H. Jensen, S. Koseki, N. Matsunaga, K. A. Nguyen, S. Su, T. L. Windus, M. Dupuis, and J. A. Montgomery, “General atomic and molecular electronic structure system,” J. Comput. Chem.14(11), 1347–1363 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wörner, H. J.

C. Jin, J. B. Bertrand, R. R. Lucchese, H. J. Wörner, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Villeneuve, A. T. Le, and C. D. Lin, “Intensity dependence of multiple orbital contributions and shape resonance in high-order harmonic generation of aligned N2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A85(1), 013405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, D. V. Kartashov, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Following a chemical reaction using high-harmonic interferometry,” Nature466(7306), 604–607 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Wörner, J. B. Bertrand, P. Hockett, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Controlling the interference of multiple molecular orbitals in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(23), 233904 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, H. Zhang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, D. Song, and H. Su, “Tunneling ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. A83(3), 033410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, H.

P. Liu, P. Yu, Z. Zeng, H. Xiong, X. Ge, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser intensity dependence of high-order harmonic generation from aligned CO2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A78(1), 015802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

P. Liu, P. Yu, Z. Zeng, H. Xiong, X. Ge, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser intensity dependence of high-order harmonic generation from aligned CO2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A78(1), 015802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

C. Wu, H. Zhang, H. Yang, Q. Gong, D. Song, and H. Su, “Tunneling ionization of carbon dioxide from lower-lying orbitals,” Phys. Rev. A83(3), 033410 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

P. Liu, P. Yu, Z. Zeng, H. Xiong, X. Ge, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Laser intensity dependence of high-order harmonic generation from aligned CO2 molecules,” Phys. Rev. A78(1), 015802 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental result of harmonic yields from aligned CO2 molecules for probe laser intensities of ~1.9 × 1014 Wcm−2, as a function of the pump-probe delay time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The comparison of measured (blue solid line) and calculated (red dash line) H23-H33 yield from aligned CO2 molecules for probe laser intensities of 1.9 × 1014 Wcm−2, as functions of the pump-probe delay time. Error bars are labeled on 50% of data for clearance. Calculated alignment degree cos 2 θ (t) is shown in green dotted dash line in the first subplot. (b) The calculated result without the contribution from the HOMO-1 orbital.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of measured (blue solid line) and calculated (red dash line) H23-H29 yield from aligned CO2 molecules by the probe laser intensity of 1.2 × 1014 Wcm−2, as a function of pump-probe delay. Error bars are labeled on 50% of data for clearance.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated angular distributions of the tunneling ionization of HOMO (blue line), HOMO-1 (red line) and HOMO-2 (green line) at (a) 1.2 × 1014 Wcm−2 and (b) 1.9 × 1014 Wcm−2 respectively.

Equations (6)

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cos 2 θ (t)= J ρ J JM ψ(t)| cos 2 θ |ψ(t) JM (t) .
Rcos(θ)=nλ,n=1,2,3,...
r(t)=i 0 dτ( π ε+iτ/2 ) 3/2 [ cosθ d z (t)+sinθ d y (t) ] ×[ cosθ d z (tτ)+sinθ d y (tτ) ] ×E(tτ)exp[ i S st (t,τ) ] a (θ,t)a(θ,tτ)+c.c..
d y = 1 (2π) 3/2 e i( p x x+ p y y+ p z z) yϕ(x,y,z)dxdydz ,
S st (t,τ)= tτ t ( [ p st (t,τ)A(t')] 2 /2+ I p )dt' ,
f n (t) N(θ) S n (θ) | ψ(θ,t) | 2 sin(θ)dθ,

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