Abstract

The effect of ultra-thin inserting layer (UIL) on the photovoltaic performances of InGaN/GaN solar cells is investigated. With UIL implemented, the open-circuit voltage was increased from 1.4 V to 1.7 V, short-circuit current density was increased by 65% and external quantum efficiency was increased by 59%, compared to its counterparts at room temperature under 1-sun AM1.5G illumination. The improvements in electrical and photovoltaic properties are mainly attributed to the UIL which can boost the crystal quality and alleviate strain. Moreover, it can act as a transition layer for higher indium incorporation and an effective light sub-absorption layer in multiple quantum wells.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, C. Yang, J. Ran, C. Wang, Q. Hou, and J. Li, “Simulation of In0.65Ga0.35 N single-junction solar cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(23), 7335–7338 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Nanishi, Y. Satio, and T. Yamaguchi, “RF-molecular beam epitaxy growth and properties of InN and related alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2549–2559 (2003).
  5. J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, and Y. Nanishi, “Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3967–3969 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1?xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Chen, K. D. Matthews, D. Hao, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Growth, fabrication, and characterization of InGaN solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1103–1105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. J. Wierer, D. D. Koleske, and S. R. Lee, “Influence of barrier thickness on the performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111119 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. John, C. Soukoulis, M. H. Cohen, and E. N. Economou, “Theory of Electron Band Tails and the Urbach Optical-Absorption Edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(14), 1777–1780 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2012

J. J. Wierer, D. D. Koleske, and S. R. Lee, “Influence of barrier thickness on the performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, K. D. Matthews, D. Hao, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Growth, fabrication, and characterization of InGaN solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1103–1105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

X. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, C. Yang, J. Ran, C. Wang, Q. Hou, and J. Li, “Simulation of In0.65Ga0.35 N single-junction solar cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(23), 7335–7338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1?xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Nanishi, Y. Satio, and T. Yamaguchi, “RF-molecular beam epitaxy growth and properties of InN and related alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2549–2559 (2003).

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, and Y. Nanishi, “Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3967–3969 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1986

S. John, C. Soukoulis, M. H. Cohen, and E. N. Economou, “Theory of Electron Band Tails and the Urbach Optical-Absorption Edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(14), 1777–1780 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ader-hold, J.

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ager, J. W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, and Y. Nanishi, “Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3967–3969 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, D.

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, A.

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bechstedt, F.

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bouazzi, A. S.

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1?xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, S.

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, K. D. Matthews, D. Hao, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Growth, fabrication, and characterization of InGaN solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1103–1105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, M. H.

S. John, C. Soukoulis, M. H. Cohen, and E. N. Economou, “Theory of Electron Band Tails and the Urbach Optical-Absorption Edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(14), 1777–1780 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cruz, S. C.

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davydov, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, L. F.

X. Chen, K. D. Matthews, D. Hao, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Growth, fabrication, and characterization of InGaN solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1103–1105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

S. John, C. Soukoulis, M. H. Cohen, and E. N. Economou, “Theory of Electron Band Tails and the Urbach Optical-Absorption Edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(14), 1777–1780 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emery, K.

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emtsev, V. V.

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furthmuller, J.

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Garul, J.

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K.

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gray, J.

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, and Y. Nanishi, “Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3967–3969 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hal-ler, E. E.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hamzaoui, H.

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1?xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haney, M.

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hao, D.

X. Chen, K. D. Matthews, D. Hao, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Growth, fabrication, and characterization of InGaN solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1103–1105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harima, H.

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, J. H.

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Q.

X. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, C. Yang, J. Ran, C. Wang, Q. Hou, and J. Li, “Simulation of In0.65Ga0.35 N single-junction solar cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(23), 7335–7338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, G.

C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, S. V.

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jani, O.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John, C. Soukoulis, M. H. Cohen, and E. N. Economou, “Theory of Electron Band Tails and the Urbach Optical-Absorption Edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(14), 1777–1780 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, S.

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, D.

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klochikhin, A. A.

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

J. J. Wierer, D. D. Koleske, and S. R. Lee, “Influence of barrier thickness on the performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kretchmer, J.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurimoto, E.

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lai, K. Y.

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.-L.

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lang, J. R.

R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

LeBoeuf, S. F.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. R.

J. J. Wierer, D. D. Koleske, and S. R. Lee, “Influence of barrier thickness on the performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

X. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, C. Yang, J. Ran, C. Wang, Q. Hou, and J. Li, “Simulation of In0.65Ga0.35 N single-junction solar cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(23), 7335–7338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. J.

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, and Y. Nanishi, “Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3967–3969 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, T.

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, K. D.

X. Chen, K. D. Matthews, D. Hao, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Growth, fabrication, and characterization of InGaN solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1103–1105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, W. K.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moore, D.

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mudryi, A. V.

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakao, M.

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nanishi, Y.

Y. Nanishi, Y. Satio, and T. Yamaguchi, “RF-molecular beam epitaxy growth and properties of InN and related alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2549–2559 (2003).

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, and Y. Nanishi, “Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3967–3969 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, C. J.

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pfaff, N.

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ran, J.

X. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, C. Yang, J. Ran, C. Wang, Q. Hou, and J. Li, “Simulation of In0.65Ga0.35 N single-junction solar cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(23), 7335–7338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rezig, B.

H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1?xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, and Y. Nanishi, “Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3967–3969 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salzman, D.

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sandvik, P. M.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Satio, Y.

Y. Nanishi, Y. Satio, and T. Yamaguchi, “RF-molecular beam epitaxy growth and properties of InN and related alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2549–2559 (2003).

Schaff, W. J.

X. Chen, K. D. Matthews, D. Hao, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Growth, fabrication, and characterization of InGaN solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1103–1105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, and Y. Nanishi, “Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3967–3969 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R.

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seisyan, R. P.

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Semchinova, O.

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shan, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simeonov, D.

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C.

S. John, C. Soukoulis, M. H. Cohen, and E. N. Economou, “Theory of Electron Band Tails and the Urbach Optical-Absorption Edge,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(14), 1777–1780 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

Y.-L. Hu, R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, M. Iza, S. C. Cruz, N. Pfaff, D. Simeonov, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “Effect of quantum well cap layer thickness on the microstructure and performance of InGaN/GaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stokes, E. B.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toledo, N. G.

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D.

X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walukiewicz, W.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, and Y. Nanishi, “Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3967–3969 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, C. Yang, J. Ran, C. Wang, Q. Hou, and J. Li, “Simulation of In0.65Ga0.35 N single-junction solar cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(23), 7335–7338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, C. Yang, J. Ran, C. Wang, Q. Hou, and J. Li, “Simulation of In0.65Ga0.35 N single-junction solar cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(23), 7335–7338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wanlass, M.

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. D. Koleske, and S. R. Lee, “Influence of barrier thickness on the performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
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C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, C. Yang, J. Ran, C. Wang, Q. Hou, and J. Li, “Simulation of In0.65Ga0.35 N single-junction solar cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(23), 7335–7338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Nanishi, Y. Satio, and T. Yamaguchi, “RF-molecular beam epitaxy growth and properties of InN and related alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2549–2559 (2003).

Yang, C.

X. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, C. Yang, J. Ran, C. Wang, Q. Hou, and J. Li, “Simulation of In0.65Ga0.35 N single-junction solar cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(23), 7335–7338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K. M.

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, and Y. Nanishi, “Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3967–3969 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, C. Yang, J. Ran, C. Wang, Q. Hou, and J. Li, “Simulation of In0.65Ga0.35 N single-junction solar cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(23), 7335–7338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

O. Jani, I. Ferguson, C. Honsberg, and S. Kurtz, “Design and characterization of GaN/InGaN solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 132117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, N. G. Toledo, S. C. Cruz, M. Iza, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN solar cells with 2.95 eV band gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, J. W. Ager, E. E. Haller, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, Y. Saito, and Y. Nanishi, “Unusual properties of the fundamental band gap of InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 3967–3969 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuoka, H. Okamoto, M. Nakao, H. Harima, and E. Kurimoto, “Optical bandgap energy of wurtzite InN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1246–1248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, D. D. Koleske, and S. R. Lee, “Influence of barrier thickness on the performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(11), 111119 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, J. R. Lang, M. Iza, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and J. S. Speck, “High quantum efficiency InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells with spectral response extending out to 520 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

C. J. Neufeld, S. C. Cruz, R. M. Farrell, M. Iza, J. R. Lang, S. Keller, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and U. K. Mishra, “Effect of doping and polarization on carrier collection in InGaN quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 243507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, Y.-L. Lai, Y. F. Chen, and J. H. He, “Effect of indium fluctuation on the photovoltaic characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081103 (2010).
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X. A. Cao, E. B. Stokes, P. M. Sandvik, S. F. LeBoeuf, J. Kretchmer, and D. Walker, “Diffusion and tunneling currents in GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Electron. Dev. 23(9), 535–537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Nanishi, Y. Satio, and T. Yamaguchi, “RF-molecular beam epitaxy growth and properties of InN and related alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2549–2559 (2003).

J. Wu, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, W. Shan, J. W. Ager, E. E. Hal-ler, H. Lu, W. J. Schaff, W. K. Metzger, and S. Kurtz, “Superior radiation resistance of InGaN alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic material system,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6477 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

X. Zhang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, C. Yang, J. Ran, C. Wang, Q. Hou, and J. Li, “Simulation of In0.65Ga0.35 N single-junction solar cell,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(23), 7335–7338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Phys. Status Solidi A

C. Yang, X. Wang, H. Xiao, J. Ran, C. Wang, G. Hu, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Li, and J. Li, “Photovoltaic effects in InGaN structures with p–n junctions,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(12), 4288–4291 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, K. D. Matthews, D. Hao, W. J. Schaff, and L. F. Eastman, “Growth, fabrication, and characterization of InGaN solar cells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1103–1105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B

V. Yu. Davydov, A. A. Klochikhin, R. P. Seisyan, V. V. Emtsev, S. V. Ivanov, F. Bechstedt, J. Furthmuller, H. Harima, A. V. Mudryi, J. Ader-hold, O. Semchinova, and J. Garul, “Absorption and Emission of Hexagonal InN. Evidence of Narrow Fundamental Band Gap,” Phys. Status Solidi B 229(3), r1–r3 (2002).
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H. Hamzaoui, A. S. Bouazzi, and B. Rezig, “Theoretical possibilities of InxGa1?xN tandem PV structures,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1–4), 595–603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Barnett, C. Honsberg, D. Kirkpatrick, S. Kurtz, D. Moore, D. Salzman, R. Schwartz, J. Gray, S. Bowden, K. Goossen, M. Haney, D. Aiken, M. Wanlass, and K. Emery, “50% Efficient Solar Cell Architectures and Designs,” Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion2, 2560–2564 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-sectional schematic of the reference device structure (b) cross-sectional schematic of the improved device structure (c) an optical microscopy image of a fabricated device

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Omega /Two-Theta XRD rocking curves of InGaN solar cell with and without ultra-thin inserting layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reciprocal space map around the asymmetric (105) reflection of InGaN/GaN solar cell sample A (a) and sample B (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized EQE spectra from devices with and without ultra-thin inserting layer

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Illuminated J-V curves from devices with and without ultra-thin inserting layer under 1sun AM1.5G equivalent illumination.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

J-V curves from devices with and without ultra-thin inserting layer under dark condition.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The summary of the photovoltaic property of the two samples

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