Abstract

We propose an ultra-broadband multimode interference (MMI) coupler with a wavelength range exceeding the O, E, S, C, L and U optical communication bands. For the first time, the dispersion property of the MMI section is engineered using a subwavelength grating structure to mitigate wavelength dependence of the device. We present a 2 × 2 MMI design with a bandwidth of 450nm, an almost fivefold enhancement compared to conventional designs, maintaining insertion loss, power imbalance and MMI phase deviation below 1dB, 0.6dB and 3°, respectively. The design is performed using an in-house tool based on the 2D Fourier Eigenmode Expansion Method (F-EEM) and verified with a 3D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulator.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1×12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46, 1281–1283 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, “Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting,” Appl. Opt.34, 6898–6910 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Halir, G. Roelkens, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “High-performance 90° hybrid based on a silicon-on-insulator multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Lett.36, 178–180 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelenght structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1406–1408 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. M. A. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Design of optical polarization splitters in a single-section deeply etched MMI waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B73, 613–618 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “Length reduction of tapered N × N devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 830–832 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Improving multimode interference couplers performance through index profile engineering,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 1307–1314 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol.12, 1004–1009 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett.35, 3243–3245 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express18, 20251–20262 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 243901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 16146–16155 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express14, 4695–4702 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Cheben, P. Bock, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett.35, 2526–2528 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. I. Glesk, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, and S. Janz, “All-optical switching using nonlinear subwavelength Mach-Zehnder on silicon,” Opt. Express19, 14031–14039 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Dispositivo acoplador de guías de onda, y método de diseño de dicho dispositivo,” Spanish patent application serial number P201230280 (2012).
  19. R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express12, 13470–13477 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagn. Res.123, 447–465 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, “A new design approach to large input/output number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 1292–1294 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “Optimizing imbalance and loss in 2×2 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width,” J. Lightwave Technol.21, 2305–2313 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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  27. http://www.rsoftdesign.com .

2012 (2)

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express12, 13470–13477 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagn. Res.123, 447–465 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

R. Halir, G. Roelkens, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “High-performance 90° hybrid based on a silicon-on-insulator multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Lett.36, 178–180 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelenght structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1406–1408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Glesk, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, and S. Janz, “All-optical switching using nonlinear subwavelength Mach-Zehnder on silicon,” Opt. Express19, 14031–14039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

B. M. A. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Design of optical polarization splitters in a single-section deeply etched MMI waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B73, 613–618 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “Length reduction of tapered N × N devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 830–832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, “A new design approach to large input/output number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 1292–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, “Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting,” Appl. Opt.34, 6898–6910 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol.12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP2, 466–475 (1956).

Abashin, M.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aers, G. C.

Bachmann, M.

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, “Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting,” Appl. Opt.34, 6898–6910 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol.12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barkai, A.

Bedard, D.

Besse, P. A.

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, “Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting,” Appl. Opt.34, 6898–6910 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol.12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bock, P.

Bock, P. J.

Cheben, P.

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express12, 13470–13477 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelenght structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1406–1408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Glesk, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, and S. Janz, “All-optical switching using nonlinear subwavelength Mach-Zehnder on silicon,” Opt. Express19, 14031–14039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett.35, 3243–3245 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 16146–16155 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express18, 20251–20262 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, P. Bock, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett.35, 2526–2528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express14, 4695–4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, L. F. Zavargo-Peche, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Adiabatic transitions for sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), April 16–18 2012, Sitges (Spain), paper 71.

Chen, R. T.

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1×12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46, 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Elek, N.

Fainman, Y.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glesk, I.

Grattan, K. T. V.

B. M. A. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Design of optical polarization splitters in a single-section deeply etched MMI waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B73, 613–618 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Halir, R.

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express12, 13470–13477 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelenght structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1406–1408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, G. Roelkens, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “High-performance 90° hybrid based on a silicon-on-insulator multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Lett.36, 178–180 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett.35, 3243–3245 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Dispositivo acoplador de guías de onda, y método de diseño de dicho dispositivo,” Spanish patent application serial number P201230280 (2012).

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, L. F. Zavargo-Peche, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Adiabatic transitions for sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), April 16–18 2012, Sitges (Spain), paper 71.

Hall, T.

Hall, T. J.

Hill, M. T.

Hosseini, A.

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1×12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46, 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, “A new design approach to large input/output number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 1292–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, K.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janz, S.

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express12, 13470–13477 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Glesk, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, and S. Janz, “All-optical switching using nonlinear subwavelength Mach-Zehnder on silicon,” Opt. Express19, 14031–14039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express18, 20251–20262 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett.35, 3243–3245 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 16146–16155 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, P. Bock, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett.35, 2526–2528 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express14, 4695–4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

Kamiya, T.

Khoe, G. D.

Kim, D.

Krishnamoorthy, A.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, D.

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1×12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46, 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Leijtens, X. J. M.

Levy, D. S.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “Length reduction of tapered N × N devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 830–832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levy, U.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

Liu, Y.

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1×12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46, 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.

Maese-Novo, A.

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express12, 13470–13477 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelenght structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1406–1408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Dispositivo acoplador de guías de onda, y método de diseño de dicho dispositivo,” Spanish patent application serial number P201230280 (2012).

Melchior, H.

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, “Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting,” Appl. Opt.34, 6898–6910 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol.12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Molina-Fernández, I.

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express12, 13470–13477 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagn. Res.123, 447–465 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelenght structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1406–1408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett.35, 3243–3245 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Improving multimode interference couplers performance through index profile engineering,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 1307–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Dispositivo acoplador de guías de onda, y método de diseño de dicho dispositivo,” Spanish patent application serial number P201230280 (2012).

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, L. F. Zavargo-Peche, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Adiabatic transitions for sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), April 16–18 2012, Sitges (Spain), paper 71.

Nguyen, H.

Ortega-Moñux, A.

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagn. Res.123, 447–465 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express12, 13470–13477 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelenght structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1406–1408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, G. Roelkens, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “High-performance 90° hybrid based on a silicon-on-insulator multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Lett.36, 178–180 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Improving multimode interference couplers performance through index profile engineering,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 1307–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Dispositivo acoplador de guías de onda, y método de diseño de dicho dispositivo,” Spanish patent application serial number P201230280 (2012).

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, L. F. Zavargo-Peche, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Adiabatic transitions for sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), April 16–18 2012, Sitges (Spain), paper 71.

Osgood, R.

Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, “A new design approach to large input/output number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 1292–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “Length reduction of tapered N × N devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 830–832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Galacho, D.

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, L. F. Zavargo-Peche, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Adiabatic transitions for sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), April 16–18 2012, Sitges (Spain), paper 71.

Rahman, B. M. A.

B. M. A. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Design of optical polarization splitters in a single-section deeply etched MMI waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B73, 613–618 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP2, 466–475 (1956).

Scarmozzino, R.

Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, “A new design approach to large input/output number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 1292–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “Length reduction of tapered N × N devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 830–832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J.

Schmid, J. H.

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express12, 13470–13477 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelenght structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1406–1408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Glesk, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, and S. Janz, “All-optical switching using nonlinear subwavelength Mach-Zehnder on silicon,” Opt. Express19, 14031–14039 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett.35, 3243–3245 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express18, 20251–20262 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express18, 16146–16155 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “Optimizing imbalance and loss in 2×2 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width,” J. Lightwave Technol.21, 2305–2313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol.12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol.12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Somasiri, N.

B. M. A. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Design of optical polarization splitters in a single-section deeply etched MMI waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B73, 613–618 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Themistos, C.

B. M. A. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Design of optical polarization splitters in a single-section deeply etched MMI waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B73, 613–618 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagn. Res.123, 447–465 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, and S. Janz, “Colorless directional coupler with dispersion engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Express12, 13470–13477 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelenght structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1406–1408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, G. Roelkens, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “High-performance 90° hybrid based on a silicon-on-insulator multimode interference coupler,” Opt. Lett.36, 178–180 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Improving multimode interference couplers performance through index profile engineering,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 1307–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, L. F. Zavargo-Peche, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Adiabatic transitions for sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), April 16–18 2012, Sitges (Spain), paper 71.

Xu, D.

Xu, D.-X.

Zavargo-Peche, L.

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagn. Res.123, 447–465 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelenght structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1406–1408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zavargo-Peche, L. F.

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, L. F. Zavargo-Peche, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Adiabatic transitions for sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), April 16–18 2012, Sitges (Spain), paper 71.

Zhang, Y.

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1×12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46, 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. M. A. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, and K. T. V. Grattan, “Design of optical polarization splitters in a single-section deeply etched MMI waveguide,” Appl. Phys. B73, 613–618 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

D. Kwong, Y. Zhang, A. Hosseini, Y. Liu, and R. T. Chen, “1×12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane,” Electron. Lett.46, 1281–1283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. Ortega-Moñux, L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Maese-Novo, I. Molina-Fernández, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “High-performance multimode interference coupler in silicon waveguides with subwavelenght structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23, 1406–1408 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “Length reduction of tapered N × N devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 830–832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, and R. Osgood, “A new design approach to large input/output number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10, 1292–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “Optimizing imbalance and loss in 2×2 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width,” J. Lightwave Technol.21, 2305–2313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Improving multimode interference couplers performance through index profile engineering,” J. Lightwave Technol.27, 1307–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, and M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol.12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 243901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Electromagn. Res. (1)

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagn. Res.123, 447–465 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP2, 466–475 (1956).

Other (4)

http://ab-initio.mit.edu/meep/ .

D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, L. F. Zavargo-Peche, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and P. Cheben, “Adiabatic transitions for sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), April 16–18 2012, Sitges (Spain), paper 71.

http://www.rsoftdesign.com .

R. Halir, A. Maese-Novo, A. Ortega-Moñux, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Dispositivo acoplador de guías de onda, y método de diseño de dicho dispositivo,” Spanish patent application serial number P201230280 (2012).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the ultra-wideband 2 × 2 MMI coupler with subwavelength grating multimode section and tapered transitions between conventional interconnecting waveguides and SWG access ports.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic view of the silicon waveguide cross-section used throughout this work. (b) Conventional 2 × 2 MMI coupler structure and parameters. (c) Insertion loss of an MMI coupler (WMMI = 6μm) as a function of device length, for different center wavelengths (λ0).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Beat length of an SWG-MMI coupler as a function of grating pitch and wavelength, for DC = 50% and WMMI = 6μm. (b) Coupling length of the optimized design as a function of wavelength, compared to a conventional MMI. (c) Modal phase error (MPEm) for the first 5 modes of the SWG-MMI composite section for a device length of LMMI = 23.18μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Insertion loss, (b) power imbalance and (c) MMI phase deviation as a function of wavelength for the SWG-MMI and conventional MMI design. (d) Light propagation (electric field component Ex) in the SWG-MMI device, for wavelength λ = 1.26μm, λ = 1.47μm and λ = 1.675μm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ β m = β 0 β m = m ( m + 2 ) π 3 L π ,
L π ( λ ) = λ 2 ( n eff , 0 ( λ ) n eff , 1 ( λ ) ) ,
L π ( λ ) 4 n f W M M I 2 3 λ ,

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