Abstract

We present a novel measurement scheme using a double-clad fiber coupler (DCFC) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to resolve cladding modes. Direct measurement of the optical spectra and power in the cladding modes is obtained through the use of a specially designed DCFC spliced to a highly reflective FBG written into slightly etched standard photosensitive single mode fiber to match the inner cladding diameter of the DCFC. The DCFC is made by tapering and fusing two double-clad fibers (DCF) together. The device is capable of capturing backward propagating low and high order cladding modes simply and efficiently. Also, we demonstrate the capability of such a device to measure the surrounding refractive index (SRI) with an extremely high sensitivity of 69.769 ± 0.035 μW/RIU and a resolution of 1.433 × 10−5 ± 8 × 10−9 RIU between 1.37 and 1.45 RIU. The device provides a large SRI operating range from 1.30 to 1.45 RIU with sufficient discrimination for all individual captured cladding modes. The proposed scheme can be adapted to many different types of bend, temperature, refractive index and other evanescent wave based sensors.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. O. V. Ivanov, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. V. Gulyaev, “Cladding modes of optical fibers: properties and applications,” Phys. Usp.49(2), 167–191 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic Press, 1999).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Guo, L. Shao, H.-Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, and J. Albert, “Tilted fiber grating accelerometer incorporating an abrupt biconical taper for cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express17(23), 20651–20660 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Zhou, A. P. Zhang, S. He, and B. Gu, “Cladding-mode-recoupling-based tilted fiber Bragg grating sensor with a core-diameter-mismatched fiber section,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 152–157 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Han, F. Guo, and Y. Lu, “Optical fiber refractometer based on cladding-mode Bragg grating,” Opt. Lett.35(3), 399–401 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A.-P. Zhang, X.-M. Tao, W.-H. Chung, B.-O. Guan, and H.-Y. Tam, “Cladding-mode-assisted recouplings in concatenated long-period and fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett.27(14), 1214–1216 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Lemire-Renaud, M. Rivard, M. Strupler, D. Morneau, F. Verpillat, X. Daxhelet, N. Godbout, and C. Boudoux, “Double-clad fiber coupler for endoscopy,” Opt. Express18(10), 9755–9764 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Gagné and R. Kashyap, “New nanosecond Q-switched 213 and 224-nm lasers for fiber Bragg grating writing in hydrogen-free optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE8243, 824314 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

M. Gagné and R. Kashyap, “New nanosecond Q-switched 213 and 224-nm lasers for fiber Bragg grating writing in hydrogen-free optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE8243, 824314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

O. V. Ivanov, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. V. Gulyaev, “Cladding modes of optical fibers: properties and applications,” Phys. Usp.49(2), 167–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Albert, J.

Boudoux, C.

Chen, C.

Chung, W.-H.

Daxhelet, X.

Gagné, M.

M. Gagné and R. Kashyap, “New nanosecond Q-switched 213 and 224-nm lasers for fiber Bragg grating writing in hydrogen-free optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE8243, 824314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Godbout, N.

Gu, B.

B. Zhou, A. P. Zhang, S. He, and B. Gu, “Cladding-mode-recoupling-based tilted fiber Bragg grating sensor with a core-diameter-mismatched fiber section,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 152–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guan, B.-O.

Gulyaev, Y. V.

O. V. Ivanov, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. V. Gulyaev, “Cladding modes of optical fibers: properties and applications,” Phys. Usp.49(2), 167–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, F.

Guo, T.

Han, M.

He, S.

B. Zhou, A. P. Zhang, S. He, and B. Gu, “Cladding-mode-recoupling-based tilted fiber Bragg grating sensor with a core-diameter-mismatched fiber section,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 152–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A.

Ivanov, O. V.

O. V. Ivanov, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. V. Gulyaev, “Cladding modes of optical fibers: properties and applications,” Phys. Usp.49(2), 167–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

M. Gagné and R. Kashyap, “New nanosecond Q-switched 213 and 224-nm lasers for fiber Bragg grating writing in hydrogen-free optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE8243, 824314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krug, P. A.

Lemire-Renaud, S.

Lu, Y.

Morneau, D.

Nikitov, S. A.

O. V. Ivanov, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. V. Gulyaev, “Cladding modes of optical fibers: properties and applications,” Phys. Usp.49(2), 167–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rivard, M.

Shao, L.

Strupler, M.

Tam, H.-Y.

Tao, X.-M.

Verpillat, F.

Zhang, A. P.

B. Zhou, A. P. Zhang, S. He, and B. Gu, “Cladding-mode-recoupling-based tilted fiber Bragg grating sensor with a core-diameter-mismatched fiber section,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 152–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, A.-P.

Zhou, B.

B. Zhou, A. P. Zhang, S. He, and B. Gu, “Cladding-mode-recoupling-based tilted fiber Bragg grating sensor with a core-diameter-mismatched fiber section,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 152–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

B. Zhou, A. P. Zhang, S. He, and B. Gu, “Cladding-mode-recoupling-based tilted fiber Bragg grating sensor with a core-diameter-mismatched fiber section,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 152–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Usp. (1)

O. V. Ivanov, S. A. Nikitov, and Y. V. Gulyaev, “Cladding modes of optical fibers: properties and applications,” Phys. Usp.49(2), 167–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Gagné and R. Kashyap, “New nanosecond Q-switched 213 and 224-nm lasers for fiber Bragg grating writing in hydrogen-free optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE8243, 824314 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic Press, 1999).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed device to characterize the reflection spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The transmission and reflection spectra of the proposed scheme before etchingof the DCF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral response of the DCFC core transmission and the inner cladding transmission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The reflection spectra of the proposed scheme with the fiber diameter decreased by 10, 18 and 20 ± 0.2 µm by wet etching.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The reflection (red curve) and the transmission (black curve) spectra of the proposed device after wet etching by 20 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The reflection spectra of the optimised device (20 micron etch) in response to different SRI.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence between the number of cladding modes disappear on increasing the SRIs from 1.37 to 1.45 RIU.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Distribution of the reflected power with different SRI.

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