Abstract

Local distribution of the optical magnetic field is a critical parameter in developing materials with artificially engineered optical properties. Optical magnetic field characterization in nano-scale remains a challenge, because of the weak matter-optical magnetic field interactions. Here, we demonstrate an experimental visualization of the optical magnetic field profiles by raster scanning circular apertures in metal film or in a conical probe. Optical magnetic fields of surface plasmon polaritons and radially polarized beam are visualized by measuring the transmission through metallic apertures, in excellent agreements with theoretical predictions. Our results show that Bethe-Bouwkamp aperture can be used in visualizing optical magnetic field profiles.

© 2013 OSA

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2013

2012

A. Asenjo-Garcia, A. Manjavacas, V. Myroshnychenko, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Magnetic polarization in the optical absorption of metallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express20(27), 28142–28152 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kumar, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, P. C. M. Planken, and A. J. L. Adam, “THz near-field Faraday imaging in hybrid metamaterials,” Opt. Express20(10), 11277–11287 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat Commun3, 979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(21), 213907 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Yi, A. Cuche, F. de León-Pérez, A. Degiron, E. Laux, E. Devaux, C. Genet, J. Alegret, L. Martín-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Diffraction regimes of single holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(2), 023901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, “Discrimination of field components in optical probe microscopy,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3606–3608 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat Commun2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Karaveli and R. Zia, “Spectral tuning by selective enhancement of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(19), 193004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Y. Nikitin, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Surface electromagnetic field radiated by a subwavelength hole in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(7), 073902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science326(5952), 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bitzer, H. Merbold, A. Thoman, T. Feurer, H. Helm, and M. Walther, “Terahertz near-field imaging of electric and magnetic resonances of a planar metamaterial,” Opt. Express17(5), 3826–3834 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Dual mode near-field scanning optical microscopy for near-field imaging of surface plasmon polariton,” Opt. Commun.282(12), 2442–2445 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(10), 107401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. Kim, and N. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(26), 263901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kang, D. S. Kim, and Q. H. Park, “Local capacitor model for plasmonic electric field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, Y. M. Byun, D. S. Kim, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. H. Kang, and Q. H. Park, “Near-to-far-field spectral evolution in a plasmonic crystal: Experimental verification of the equipartition of diffraction orders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073109–073103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. S. Jeong, and D. K. Ko, “Experimental verification of surface plasmon amplification on a metallic transmission grating,” Phys. Rev. B77(11), 115451 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science317(5845), 1698–1702 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Fourier-transform terahertz near-field imaging of one-dimensional slit arrays: mapping of electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and Poynting vectors,” Opt. Express15(19), 11781–11789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, J.-P. Goudonnet, and C. Girard, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B62(15), 10504–10514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, ““Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE,” T. Microw. Theory47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1954

C. J. Bouwkamp, “Diffraction theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys.17(1), 35–100 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1944

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev.66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

Ahn, J.

Ahn, K. J.

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Dual mode near-field scanning optical microscopy for near-field imaging of surface plasmon polariton,” Opt. Commun.282(12), 2442–2445 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. S. Jeong, and D. K. Ko, “Experimental verification of surface plasmon amplification on a metallic transmission grating,” Phys. Rev. B77(11), 115451 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, S.-H.

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alegret, J.

J. M. Yi, A. Cuche, F. de León-Pérez, A. Degiron, E. Laux, E. Devaux, C. Genet, J. Alegret, L. Martín-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Diffraction regimes of single holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(2), 023901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asenjo-Garcia, A.

Averitt, R. D.

Bak, W. S.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat Commun2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat Commun2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev.66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M. R.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bitzer, A.

Bourillot, E.

E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, J.-P. Goudonnet, and C. Girard, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B62(15), 10504–10514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bouwkamp, C. J.

C. J. Bouwkamp, “Diffraction theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys.17(1), 35–100 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burresi, M.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science326(5952), 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byun, Y. M.

D. J. Park, K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, Y. M. Byun, D. S. Kim, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. H. Kang, and Q. H. Park, “Near-to-far-field spectral evolution in a plasmonic crystal: Experimental verification of the equipartition of diffraction orders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073109–073103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. B.

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. S. Jeong, and D. K. Ko, “Experimental verification of surface plasmon amplification on a metallic transmission grating,” Phys. Rev. B77(11), 115451 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cuche, A.

J. M. Yi, A. Cuche, F. de León-Pérez, A. Degiron, E. Laux, E. Devaux, C. Genet, J. Alegret, L. Martín-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Diffraction regimes of single holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(2), 023901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de León-Pérez, F.

J. M. Yi, A. Cuche, F. de León-Pérez, A. Degiron, E. Laux, E. Devaux, C. Genet, J. Alegret, L. Martín-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Diffraction regimes of single holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(2), 023901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

J. M. Yi, A. Cuche, F. de León-Pérez, A. Degiron, E. Laux, E. Devaux, C. Genet, J. Alegret, L. Martín-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Diffraction regimes of single holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(2), 023901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, J.-P. Goudonnet, and C. Girard, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B62(15), 10504–10514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

J. M. Yi, A. Cuche, F. de León-Pérez, A. Degiron, E. Laux, E. Devaux, C. Genet, J. Alegret, L. Martín-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Diffraction regimes of single holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(2), 023901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, J.-P. Goudonnet, and C. Girard, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B62(15), 10504–10514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Dorpe, P. V.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eah, S. H.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat Commun2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

J. M. Yi, A. Cuche, F. de León-Pérez, A. Degiron, E. Laux, E. Devaux, C. Genet, J. Alegret, L. Martín-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Diffraction regimes of single holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(2), 023901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science317(5845), 1698–1702 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

Feurer, T.

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

García-Vidal, F. J.

A. Y. Nikitin, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Surface electromagnetic field radiated by a subwavelength hole in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(7), 073902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

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D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. S. Jeong, and D. K. Ko, “Experimental verification of surface plasmon amplification on a metallic transmission grating,” Phys. Rev. B77(11), 115451 (2008).
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S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. Kim, and N. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(26), 263901 (2009).
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S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(21), 213907 (2012).
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S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(21), 213907 (2012).
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Lee, K.

Lee, K. G.

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Dual mode near-field scanning optical microscopy for near-field imaging of surface plasmon polariton,” Opt. Commun.282(12), 2442–2445 (2009).
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D. J. Park, K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, Y. M. Byun, D. S. Kim, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. H. Kang, and Q. H. Park, “Near-to-far-field spectral evolution in a plasmonic crystal: Experimental verification of the equipartition of diffraction orders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073109–073103 (2008).
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K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 53–56 (2007).
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S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(21), 213907 (2012).
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M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(10), 107401 (2009).
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S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(21), 213907 (2012).
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M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science326(5952), 550–553 (2009).
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H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat Commun2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, Y. M. Byun, D. S. Kim, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. H. Kang, and Q. H. Park, “Near-to-far-field spectral evolution in a plasmonic crystal: Experimental verification of the equipartition of diffraction orders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073109–073103 (2008).
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M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(10), 107401 (2009).
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N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
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F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
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Martín-Moreno, L.

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F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
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S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(21), 213907 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, D. J.

D. J. Park, K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, Y. M. Byun, D. S. Kim, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. H. Kang, and Q. H. Park, “Near-to-far-field spectral evolution in a plasmonic crystal: Experimental verification of the equipartition of diffraction orders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073109–073103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. S. Jeong, and D. K. Ko, “Experimental verification of surface plasmon amplification on a metallic transmission grating,” Phys. Rev. B77(11), 115451 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(21), 213907 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, N.

S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. Kim, and N. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(26), 263901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, N. K.

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat Commun2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Q. H.

J. H. Kang, D. S. Kim, and Q. H. Park, “Local capacitor model for plasmonic electric field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, Y. M. Byun, D. S. Kim, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. H. Kang, and Q. H. Park, “Near-to-far-field spectral evolution in a plasmonic crystal: Experimental verification of the equipartition of diffraction orders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073109–073103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. S. Jeong, and D. K. Ko, “Experimental verification of surface plasmon amplification on a metallic transmission grating,” Phys. Rev. B77(11), 115451 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Fourier-transform terahertz near-field imaging of one-dimensional slit arrays: mapping of electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and Poynting vectors,” Opt. Express15(19), 11781–11789 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. E.

Pelton, M.

M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(10), 107401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, ““Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE,” T. Microw. Theory47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, ““Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE,” T. Microw. Theory47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

D. J. Park, K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, Y. M. Byun, D. S. Kim, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. H. Kang, and Q. H. Park, “Near-to-far-field spectral evolution in a plasmonic crystal: Experimental verification of the equipartition of diffraction orders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073109–073103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

Schoenmaker, H.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science326(5952), 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, M. A.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, J.

S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. Kim, and N. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(26), 263901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnefraud, Y.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stalder, M.

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, ““Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE,” T. Microw. Theory47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Strikwerda, A. C.

Sukhov, S.

Taminiau, T. H.

T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat Commun3, 979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thoman, A.

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat Commun3, 979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Oosten, D.

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science326(5952), 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

Weeber, J.-C.

E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, J.-P. Goudonnet, and C. Girard, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B62(15), 10504–10514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Woo, D. H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J. M.

J. M. Yi, A. Cuche, F. de León-Pérez, A. Degiron, E. Laux, E. Devaux, C. Genet, J. Alegret, L. Martín-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Diffraction regimes of single holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(2), 023901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, M.

Yoon, Y. C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Youngworth, K. S.

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, W. S.

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

N. Kumar, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, P. C. M. Planken, and A. J. L. Adam, “THz near-field Faraday imaging in hybrid metamaterials,” Opt. Express20(10), 11277–11287 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zia, R.

T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat Commun3, 979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Karaveli and R. Zia, “Spectral tuning by selective enhancement of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(19), 193004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. J. Park, K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, Y. M. Byun, D. S. Kim, C. Ropers, C. Lienau, J. H. Kang, and Q. H. Park, “Near-to-far-field spectral evolution in a plasmonic crystal: Experimental verification of the equipartition of diffraction orders,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(7), 073109–073103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett.8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-S. Kim, J. Heo, S.-H. Ahn, S. W. Han, W. S. Yun, and Z. H. Kim, “Real-space mapping of the strongly coupled plasmons of nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett.9(10), 3619–3625 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun

T. H. Taminiau, S. Karaveli, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Zia, “Quantifying the magnetic nature of light emission,” Nat Commun3, 979 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Kihm, S. M. Koo, Q. H. Kim, K. Bao, J. E. Kihm, W. S. Bak, S. H. Eah, C. Lienau, H. Kim, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, N. K. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Bethe-hole polarization analyser for the magnetic vector of light,” Nat Commun2, 451 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies,” Nat. Mater.7(1), 31–37 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

H. W. Kihm, K. G. Lee, D. S. Kim, and K. J. Ahn, “Dual mode near-field scanning optical microscopy for near-field imaging of surface plasmon polariton,” Opt. Commun.282(12), 2442–2445 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev.66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

E. Devaux, A. Dereux, E. Bourillot, J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, J.-P. Goudonnet, and C. Girard, “Local detection of the optical magnetic field in the near zone of dielectric samples,” Phys. Rev. B62(15), 10504–10514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. S. Jeong, and D. K. Ko, “Experimental verification of surface plasmon amplification on a metallic transmission grating,” Phys. Rev. B77(11), 115451 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Liu, T.-W. Lee, S. K. Gray, P. Guyot-Sionnest, and M. Pelton, “Excitation of dark plasmons in metal nanoparticles by a localized emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(10), 107401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Nikitin, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Surface electromagnetic field radiated by a subwavelength hole in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(7), 073902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Yi, A. Cuche, F. de León-Pérez, A. Degiron, E. Laux, E. Devaux, C. Genet, J. Alegret, L. Martín-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Diffraction regimes of single holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(2), 023901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Karaveli and R. Zia, “Spectral tuning by selective enhancement of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(19), 193004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett.86(23), 5251–5254 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Koo, M. S. Kumar, J. Shin, D. Kim, and N. Park, “Extraordinary magnetic field enhancement with metallic nanowire: role of surface impedance in Babinet’s principle for sub-skin-depth regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett.103(26), 263901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Lee, I.-M. Lee, J. Park, S. Oh, W. Lee, K.-Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Role of magnetic induction currents in nanoslit excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(21), 213907 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kang, D. S. Kim, and Q. H. Park, “Local capacitor model for plasmonic electric field enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102(9), 093906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

C. J. Bouwkamp, “Diffraction theory,” Rep. Prog. Phys.17(1), 35–100 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. Burresi, D. van Oosten, T. Kampfrath, H. Schoenmaker, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, and L. Kuipers, “Probing the magnetic field of light at optical frequencies,” Science326(5952), 550–553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Engheta, “Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials,” Science317(5845), 1698–1702 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Microw. Theory

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, ““Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE,” T. Microw. Theory47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd edition ed. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, 1999).

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University press, 2006).

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag Berlin HeidelBerg, Berlin, 1988).

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