Abstract

We demonstrate a hybrid optical/digital phase-sensitive boosting (PSB) technique for long-haul wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. The approach uses four-wave mixing (FWM) to generate a phase-conjugated idler alongside the original signal. At the receiver, the signal and idler are jointly detected, and the phases of the idler symbols are conjugated and summed with the signal symbols to suppress noise and nonlinear phase distortion. The proposed hybrid PSB scheme is independent of modulation format and does not require an optical phase-locked loop to achieve phase matching required by conventional phase-sensitive amplifiers. Our simulation and experimental results of 112-Gb/s dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift-keying (DP-QPSK) transmission confirmed the principle of the PSB scheme, attaining a Q-factor improvement of 2.4 dB over conventional single-channel transmission after 4,800 km of dispersion-managed fiber (DMF) link at the expense of 50% reduction in spectral efficiency and extending the system reach by 60% to 7,680 km.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (1)

2011 (1)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (5)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Inline coherent optical amplifier with noise figure lower than 3 dB quantum limit,” Electron. Lett.36(1), 63–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anderkson, P. A.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Buchali, F.

Burrows, E. C.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. X. Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(17), 1804–1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Calabrò, S.

Chandrasekhar, S.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

Croussore, K.

Dasgupta, S.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

Devgan, P. S.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Ellis, A. D.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R. J.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. X. Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(17), 1804–1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fishteyn, M.

Grigoryan, V.

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Hardcastle, I.

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O'Sullivan, and I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(2), 403–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, T.

Herstrom, S.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. P.

Imajuku, W.

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Inline coherent optical amplifier with noise figure lower than 3 dB quantum limit,” Electron. Lett.36(1), 63–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ip, E.

Jakobsen, D.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, S. L.

Kahn, J. M.

Kakande, J.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G.-D.

Kikuchi, K.

Kim, C.

Kim, I.

Krummrich, P. M.

Kumar, P.

Lasri, J.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, W.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. X. Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(17), 1804–1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O'Sullivan, and I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(2), 403–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Liu, X.

Lowery, A. J.

Lundstrom, C.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lundström, C.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

McKinstrie, C. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, T.

O’Gorman, J.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, S.

O'Sullivan, M.

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O'Sullivan, and I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(2), 403–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parmigiani, F.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phelan, R.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qing, W. X.

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. X. Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(17), 1804–1806 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, K.

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O'Sullivan, and I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(2), 403–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

Sjodin, M.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slavik, R.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

Spinnler, B.

Strawczynski, L.

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O'Sullivan, and I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(2), 403–405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suche, H.

Sugimoto, N.

Sygletos, S. S.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takada, A.

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Inline coherent optical amplifier with noise figure lower than 3 dB quantum limit,” Electron. Lett.36(1), 63–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tang, R.

Tang, Y.

Taunay, T. F.

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics5(7), 430–436 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

van den Borne, D.

Vasilyev, M.

Weerasuriya, R.

R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Inline coherent optical amplifier with noise figure lower than 3 dB quantum limit,” Electron. Lett.36(1), 63–64 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, W. X. Qing, W. Lee, C. A. White, and E. C. Burrows, “Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(17), 1804–1806 (2006).
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R. Slavik, F. Parmigiani, J. Kakande, C. Lundstrom, M. Sjodin, P. A. Anderkson, R. Weerasuriya, S. S. Sygletos, A. D. Ellis, L. Gruner-Nielsen, D. Jakobsen, S. Herstrom, R. Phelan, J. O’Gorman, A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, S. Dasgupta, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 690–695 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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D. Ogasahara, K. Fukuchi, M. Arikawa, and E. Le Taillandier de Gabory, “Real-time evaluation of optical nonlinear effects on 112Gbps PM-QPSK signal in dispersion managed links,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OMR3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of digital phase-sensitive boosting. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber, PBS: polarization beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Q-factor improvement by digital PSB in dispersion-managed link (a) and dispersion-unmanaged link (b); Q-factor versus channel power comparison of PSB scheme, DSC scheme and original signal in CD compensated link (c) and CD uncompensated link (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of digital phase-sensitive boosting for 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission. DMF: dispersion-managed fiber, IL: interleaver, OC: optical coupler, VOA: variable optical attenuator, WSS: wavelength selective switch.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectrum of five 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK channels and eight-five CW channels; (b) Comparison of B2B performance with and without digital PSB; (c) Measured Q-factors for digital PSB scheme, DSC scheme and original signal at different launch power; (d) Measured Q-factors versus transmission distance for digital PSB scheme, DSC scheme and original signal at optimum launch power. PSB: phase-sensitive boosting, DSC: direct signal copying.

Equations (2)

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θ s + θ i =2 θ p .
e θ s + θ NL + e θ i θ NL = e θ s + θ NL + e θ s θ NL =2cos θ NL e θ s .

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