B. Markovic, S. Tisa, F.A. Villa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “A high-linearity, 17 ps precision time-to-digital coverter based on a single-stage delay Vernier loop fine interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits . Syst. I. Reg. Pap.99, 1-13 (2013).

M. Crotti, I. Rech, and M. Ghioni, “Four channel, 40 ps resolution, fully integrated time-to-amplitude converter for time-resolved photon counting,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 699–708 (2012).

[CrossRef]

J. R. Bruzzi, K. Strohbehn, B. G. Boone, S. Kerem, R. S. Layman, and M. W. Noble, “A compact laser altimeter for spacecraft landing applications,” Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig.30, 331–345 (2012).

A. Leone, G. Diraco, and P. Siciliano, “Detecting falls with 3D range camera in ambient assisted living applications: A preliminary study,” Med. Eng. Phys.33(6), 770–781 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. L. Hafiane, W. Wagner, Z. Dibi, and O. Manck, “Analysis and estimation of NEP and DR in CMOS TOF-3D image sensor based on MDSI,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.169(1), 66–73 (2011).

[CrossRef]

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 759–774 (2010).

[CrossRef]

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, J. Ye, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting,” Proc. SPIE7780, 77801I, 77801I-12 (2010).

[CrossRef]

F. Rinaudo, F. Chiabrando, F. Nex, and D. Piatti, “New instruments and technologies for cultural heritage survey: full integration between point clouds and digital photogrammetry,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.6436, 56–70 (2010).

[CrossRef]

F. Chiabrando, R. Chiabrando, D. Piatti, and F. Rinaudo, “Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera,” Sensors (Basel)9(12), 10080–10096 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, and W. Ulfig, “Three-dimensional CMOS image sensor for pedestrian protection and collision mitigation,” Adv. Microsyst. Automotive Appl.2, 23–39 (2006).

R. Lange and P. Seitz, “Solid-state time-of-flight range camera,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(3), 390–397 (2001).

[CrossRef]

J. R. Bruzzi, K. Strohbehn, B. G. Boone, S. Kerem, R. S. Layman, and M. W. Noble, “A compact laser altimeter for spacecraft landing applications,” Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig.30, 331–345 (2012).

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, and W. Ulfig, “Three-dimensional CMOS image sensor for pedestrian protection and collision mitigation,” Adv. Microsyst. Automotive Appl.2, 23–39 (2006).

J. R. Bruzzi, K. Strohbehn, B. G. Boone, S. Kerem, R. S. Layman, and M. W. Noble, “A compact laser altimeter for spacecraft landing applications,” Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig.30, 331–345 (2012).

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, J. Ye, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting,” Proc. SPIE7780, 77801I, 77801I-12 (2010).

[CrossRef]

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, S. Cova, M. Umasuthan, and A. M. Wallace, “Time-of-flight optical ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt.37(31), 7298–7304 (1998).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Rinaudo, F. Chiabrando, F. Nex, and D. Piatti, “New instruments and technologies for cultural heritage survey: full integration between point clouds and digital photogrammetry,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.6436, 56–70 (2010).

[CrossRef]

F. Chiabrando, R. Chiabrando, D. Piatti, and F. Rinaudo, “Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera,” Sensors (Basel)9(12), 10080–10096 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Chiabrando, R. Chiabrando, D. Piatti, and F. Rinaudo, “Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera,” Sensors (Basel)9(12), 10080–10096 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, S. Cova, M. Umasuthan, and A. M. Wallace, “Time-of-flight optical ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt.37(31), 7298–7304 (1998).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt.35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Crotti, I. Rech, and M. Ghioni, “Four channel, 40 ps resolution, fully integrated time-to-amplitude converter for time-resolved photon counting,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 699–708 (2012).

[CrossRef]

M. L. Hafiane, W. Wagner, Z. Dibi, and O. Manck, “Analysis and estimation of NEP and DR in CMOS TOF-3D image sensor based on MDSI,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.169(1), 66–73 (2011).

[CrossRef]

A. Leone, G. Diraco, and P. Siciliano, “Detecting falls with 3D range camera in ambient assisted living applications: A preliminary study,” Med. Eng. Phys.33(6), 770–781 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, and W. Ulfig, “Three-dimensional CMOS image sensor for pedestrian protection and collision mitigation,” Adv. Microsyst. Automotive Appl.2, 23–39 (2006).

M. Crotti, I. Rech, and M. Ghioni, “Four channel, 40 ps resolution, fully integrated time-to-amplitude converter for time-resolved photon counting,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 699–708 (2012).

[CrossRef]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt.35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 759–774 (2010).

[CrossRef]

M. L. Hafiane, W. Wagner, Z. Dibi, and O. Manck, “Analysis and estimation of NEP and DR in CMOS TOF-3D image sensor based on MDSI,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.169(1), 66–73 (2011).

[CrossRef]

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, and W. Ulfig, “Three-dimensional CMOS image sensor for pedestrian protection and collision mitigation,” Adv. Microsyst. Automotive Appl.2, 23–39 (2006).

J. R. Bruzzi, K. Strohbehn, B. G. Boone, S. Kerem, R. S. Layman, and M. W. Noble, “A compact laser altimeter for spacecraft landing applications,” Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig.30, 331–345 (2012).

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, and W. Ulfig, “Three-dimensional CMOS image sensor for pedestrian protection and collision mitigation,” Adv. Microsyst. Automotive Appl.2, 23–39 (2006).

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, J. Ye, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting,” Proc. SPIE7780, 77801I, 77801I-12 (2010).

[CrossRef]

R. Lange and P. Seitz, “Solid-state time-of-flight range camera,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(3), 390–397 (2001).

[CrossRef]

J. R. Bruzzi, K. Strohbehn, B. G. Boone, S. Kerem, R. S. Layman, and M. W. Noble, “A compact laser altimeter for spacecraft landing applications,” Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig.30, 331–345 (2012).

A. Leone, G. Diraco, and P. Siciliano, “Detecting falls with 3D range camera in ambient assisted living applications: A preliminary study,” Med. Eng. Phys.33(6), 770–781 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, and W. Ulfig, “Three-dimensional CMOS image sensor for pedestrian protection and collision mitigation,” Adv. Microsyst. Automotive Appl.2, 23–39 (2006).

M. L. Hafiane, W. Wagner, Z. Dibi, and O. Manck, “Analysis and estimation of NEP and DR in CMOS TOF-3D image sensor based on MDSI,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.169(1), 66–73 (2011).

[CrossRef]

B. Markovic, S. Tisa, F.A. Villa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “A high-linearity, 17 ps precision time-to-digital coverter based on a single-stage delay Vernier loop fine interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits . Syst. I. Reg. Pap.99, 1-13 (2013).

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, J. Ye, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting,” Proc. SPIE7780, 77801I, 77801I-12 (2010).

[CrossRef]

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, and W. Ulfig, “Three-dimensional CMOS image sensor for pedestrian protection and collision mitigation,” Adv. Microsyst. Automotive Appl.2, 23–39 (2006).

F. Rinaudo, F. Chiabrando, F. Nex, and D. Piatti, “New instruments and technologies for cultural heritage survey: full integration between point clouds and digital photogrammetry,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.6436, 56–70 (2010).

[CrossRef]

J. R. Bruzzi, K. Strohbehn, B. G. Boone, S. Kerem, R. S. Layman, and M. W. Noble, “A compact laser altimeter for spacecraft landing applications,” Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig.30, 331–345 (2012).

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, and W. Ulfig, “Three-dimensional CMOS image sensor for pedestrian protection and collision mitigation,” Adv. Microsyst. Automotive Appl.2, 23–39 (2006).

F. Rinaudo, F. Chiabrando, F. Nex, and D. Piatti, “New instruments and technologies for cultural heritage survey: full integration between point clouds and digital photogrammetry,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.6436, 56–70 (2010).

[CrossRef]

F. Chiabrando, R. Chiabrando, D. Piatti, and F. Rinaudo, “Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera,” Sensors (Basel)9(12), 10080–10096 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Crotti, I. Rech, and M. Ghioni, “Four channel, 40 ps resolution, fully integrated time-to-amplitude converter for time-resolved photon counting,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 699–708 (2012).

[CrossRef]

F. Rinaudo, F. Chiabrando, F. Nex, and D. Piatti, “New instruments and technologies for cultural heritage survey: full integration between point clouds and digital photogrammetry,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.6436, 56–70 (2010).

[CrossRef]

F. Chiabrando, R. Chiabrando, D. Piatti, and F. Rinaudo, “Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera,” Sensors (Basel)9(12), 10080–10096 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, and W. Ulfig, “Three-dimensional CMOS image sensor for pedestrian protection and collision mitigation,” Adv. Microsyst. Automotive Appl.2, 23–39 (2006).

R. Lange and P. Seitz, “Solid-state time-of-flight range camera,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(3), 390–397 (2001).

[CrossRef]

A. Leone, G. Diraco, and P. Siciliano, “Detecting falls with 3D range camera in ambient assisted living applications: A preliminary study,” Med. Eng. Phys.33(6), 770–781 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. R. Bruzzi, K. Strohbehn, B. G. Boone, S. Kerem, R. S. Layman, and M. W. Noble, “A compact laser altimeter for spacecraft landing applications,” Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig.30, 331–345 (2012).

B. Markovic, S. Tisa, F.A. Villa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “A high-linearity, 17 ps precision time-to-digital coverter based on a single-stage delay Vernier loop fine interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits . Syst. I. Reg. Pap.99, 1-13 (2013).

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 759–774 (2010).

[CrossRef]

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, and W. Ulfig, “Three-dimensional CMOS image sensor for pedestrian protection and collision mitigation,” Adv. Microsyst. Automotive Appl.2, 23–39 (2006).

B. Markovic, S. Tisa, F.A. Villa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “A high-linearity, 17 ps precision time-to-digital coverter based on a single-stage delay Vernier loop fine interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits . Syst. I. Reg. Pap.99, 1-13 (2013).

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 759–774 (2010).

[CrossRef]

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, and W. Ulfig, “Three-dimensional CMOS image sensor for pedestrian protection and collision mitigation,” Adv. Microsyst. Automotive Appl.2, 23–39 (2006).

B. Markovic, S. Tisa, F.A. Villa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “A high-linearity, 17 ps precision time-to-digital coverter based on a single-stage delay Vernier loop fine interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits . Syst. I. Reg. Pap.99, 1-13 (2013).

M. L. Hafiane, W. Wagner, Z. Dibi, and O. Manck, “Analysis and estimation of NEP and DR in CMOS TOF-3D image sensor based on MDSI,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.169(1), 66–73 (2011).

[CrossRef]

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, J. Ye, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting,” Proc. SPIE7780, 77801I, 77801I-12 (2010).

[CrossRef]

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, S. Cova, M. Umasuthan, and A. M. Wallace, “Time-of-flight optical ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt.37(31), 7298–7304 (1998).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, J. Ye, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting,” Proc. SPIE7780, 77801I, 77801I-12 (2010).

[CrossRef]

B. Markovic, S. Tisa, F.A. Villa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “A high-linearity, 17 ps precision time-to-digital coverter based on a single-stage delay Vernier loop fine interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits . Syst. I. Reg. Pap.99, 1-13 (2013).

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 759–774 (2010).

[CrossRef]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt.35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, and W. Ulfig, “Three-dimensional CMOS image sensor for pedestrian protection and collision mitigation,” Adv. Microsyst. Automotive Appl.2, 23–39 (2006).

J. S. Massa, G. S. Buller, A. C. Walker, S. Cova, M. Umasuthan, and A. M. Wallace, “Time-of-flight optical ranging system based on time-correlated single-photon counting,” Appl. Opt.37(31), 7298–7304 (1998).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, and F. Zappa, “Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for single-photon detection,” Appl. Opt.35(12), 1956–1976 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. Lange and P. Seitz, “Solid-state time-of-flight range camera,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(3), 390–397 (2001).

[CrossRef]

M. Crotti, I. Rech, and M. Ghioni, “Four channel, 40 ps resolution, fully integrated time-to-amplitude converter for time-resolved photon counting,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits47(3), 699–708 (2012).

[CrossRef]

F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “Two-dimensional SPAD imaging camera for photon counting,” IEEE Photonics J.2(5), 759–774 (2010).

[CrossRef]

B. Markovic, S. Tisa, F.A. Villa, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “A high-linearity, 17 ps precision time-to-digital coverter based on a single-stage delay Vernier loop fine interpolation,” IEEE Trans. Circuits . Syst. I. Reg. Pap.99, 1-13 (2013).

J. R. Bruzzi, K. Strohbehn, B. G. Boone, S. Kerem, R. S. Layman, and M. W. Noble, “A compact laser altimeter for spacecraft landing applications,” Johns Hopkins APL Tech. Dig.30, 331–345 (2012).

F. Rinaudo, F. Chiabrando, F. Nex, and D. Piatti, “New instruments and technologies for cultural heritage survey: full integration between point clouds and digital photogrammetry,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci.6436, 56–70 (2010).

[CrossRef]

A. Leone, G. Diraco, and P. Siciliano, “Detecting falls with 3D range camera in ambient assisted living applications: A preliminary study,” Med. Eng. Phys.33(6), 770–781 (2011).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. J. Krichel, A. McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, J. Ye, and G. S. Buller, “Long-range depth imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting,” Proc. SPIE7780, 77801I, 77801I-12 (2010).

[CrossRef]

M. L. Hafiane, W. Wagner, Z. Dibi, and O. Manck, “Analysis and estimation of NEP and DR in CMOS TOF-3D image sensor based on MDSI,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.169(1), 66–73 (2011).

[CrossRef]

F. Chiabrando, R. Chiabrando, D. Piatti, and F. Rinaudo, “Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera,” Sensors (Basel)9(12), 10080–10096 (2009).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Bellisai, F. Guerrieri, S. Tisa, and F. Zappa, “3D ranging with a single-photon imaging array,” Proc. of SPIE Conference on Sensors, Cameras, and Systems XII, 78750M (2011).

See SPC2 module data-sheet by MPD srl, http://www.micro-photon-devices.com/products_spc2.asp .

S. May, B. Werner, H. Surmann, and K. Pervölz, “3D time-of-flight cameras for mobile robotics,” in 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IEEE/RSJ, 2006), pp. 790–795.

N. Cottini, M. De Nicola, M. Gottardi, and R. Manduchi, “A low-power stereo vision system based on a custom CMOS imager with positional data coding,” 2011 7th Conference on Ph.D. Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PRIME) (2011), pp. 161–164.

Y. Sooyeong, S. Jinho, H. Youngjin, and D. Hwang, “Active ranging system based on structured laser light image,” Proceedings of SICE Annual Conference 2010 (2010), pp. 747–752.

D. Stoppa and A. Simoni, “Single-photon detectors for time-of-flight range imaging,” in Single-Photon Imaging, 1st ed, P. Seitz and A. J. P. Theuwissen, eds. (Springer, Berlin, 2011), pp. 275–300.

S. Tisa, F. Guerrieri, A. Tosi, and F. Zappa, “100 kframe/s 8 bit monolithic single-photon imagers,” Proceedings of the 38th European Solid-State Device Research Conference, 274–277 (2008).