Abstract

Surface dark solitons in photovoltaic nonlinear media are reported. Taking advantage of diffusion and photovoltaic nonlinearities we demonstrated the surface dark solitons and their behaviors near surface theoretically and experimentally in LiNbO3 crystal. It is very interesting that surface dark soliton is just half of dark soliton in bulk. Another interesting thing is that transverse modulation instability can be perfectly suppressed by surface dark soliton in virtue of surface. In addition, surface waveguides were written successfully utilizing surface dark soliton.

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  1. I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, H. H. Ma, C. B. Lou, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “Giant enhancement of surface second-harmonic generation using photorefractive surface waves with diffusion and drift nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1605–1607 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(7), 923–926 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. Sharp, and A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 1978–1981 (1995).
  5. Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.21(9), 629–631 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(18), 3335–3337 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett.20(20), 2066–2068 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 073901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, B. G. Zhu, H. H. Ma, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “(2+1)D surface solitons in virtue of the cooperation of nonlocal and local nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.34(21), 3298–3300 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Safioui, E. Fazio, F. Devaux, and M. Chauvet, “Surface-wave pyroelectric photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Lett.35(8), 1254–1256 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. Q. Chen, X. Yang, S. Y. Zhong, Z. Yan, T. H. Zhang, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “Surface dark screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.36(19), 3801–3803 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. J. Ma, R. Carretero-González, P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and B. A. Malomed, “Controlling the transverse instability of dark solitons and nucleation of vortices by a potential barrier,” Phys. Rev. A82(2), 023621 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

2007

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2002

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(18), 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Lan, M. F. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. G. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, “Second-harmonic generation in waveguides induced by photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett.24(16), 1145–1147 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

1995

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett.20(20), 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. Sharp, and A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 1978–1981 (1995).

1994

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(7), 923–926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfassi, B.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anastassiou, C.

Assanto, G.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(18), 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bezryadina, A.

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carretero-González, R.

M. J. Ma, R. Carretero-González, P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and B. A. Malomed, “Controlling the transverse instability of dark solitons and nucleation of vortices by a potential barrier,” Phys. Rev. A82(2), 023621 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chauvet, M.

Chen, W. Q.

Chen, Z. G.

Christodoulides, D. N.

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conti, C.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(18), 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. Sharp, and A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 1978–1981 (1995).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(7), 923–926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Luca, A.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(18), 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, F.

DiPorto, P.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreisow, F.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duree, G.

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett.20(20), 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. Sharp, and A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 1978–1981 (1995).

Fazio, E.

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(7), 923–926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frantzeskakis, D. J.

M. J. Ma, R. Carretero-González, P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and B. A. Malomed, “Controlling the transverse instability of dark solitons and nucleation of vortices by a potential barrier,” Phys. Rev. A82(2), 023621 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, M. H.

Giordmaine, J. A.

Hache, A.

Kang, H. Z.

Kartashov, Y. V.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kevrekidis, P. G.

M. J. Ma, R. Carretero-González, P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and B. A. Malomed, “Controlling the transverse instability of dark solitons and nucleation of vortices by a potential barrier,” Phys. Rev. A82(2), 023621 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

Lee, C. H.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. M.

Lou, C. B.

Ma, H. H.

Ma, M. J.

M. J. Ma, R. Carretero-González, P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and B. A. Malomed, “Controlling the transverse instability of dark solitons and nucleation of vortices by a potential barrier,” Phys. Rev. A82(2), 023621 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Makris, K. G.

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malomed, B. A.

M. J. Ma, R. Carretero-González, P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and B. A. Malomed, “Controlling the transverse instability of dark solitons and nucleation of vortices by a potential barrier,” Phys. Rev. A82(2), 023621 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manela, O.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J.

Mitchell, M.

Mizell, G.

Morin, M.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. Sharp, and A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 1978–1981 (1995).

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett.20(20), 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolte, S.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peccianti, M.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(18), 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Porto, P. D.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. Sharp, and A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 1978–1981 (1995).

Rotschild, C.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safioui, J.

Salamo, G.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. Sharp, and A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 1978–1981 (1995).

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett.20(20), 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(21), 213901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lan, M. F. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. G. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, “Second-harmonic generation in waveguides induced by photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett.24(16), 1145–1147 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.21(9), 629–631 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. Sharp, and A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 1978–1981 (1995).

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett.20(20), 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(7), 923–926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, E.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. Sharp, and A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 1978–1981 (1995).

Shih, M. F.

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suntsov, S.

Szameit, A.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

Torner, L.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

A. Szameit, Y. V. Kartashov, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and L. Torner, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons in asymmetric waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(17), 173903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(18), 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.21(9), 629–631 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vysloukh, V. A.

Y. V. Kartashov, V. A. Vysloukh, and L. Torner, “Surface gap solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(7), 073901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B. H.

Wang, X. S.

X. S. Wang, A. Bezryadina, Z. G. Chen, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, and G. I. Stegeman, “Observation of two-dimensional surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(12), 123903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J. J.

Yan, Z.

Yang, X.

Yariv, A.

G. Duree, M. Morin, G. Salamo, M. Segev, B. Crosignani, P. D. Porto, E. Sharp, and A. Yariv, “Dark photorefractive spatial solitons and photorefractive vortex solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.74, 1978–1981 (1995).

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive materials with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73(24), 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, B. Crosignani, A. Yariv, and B. Fischer, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett.68(7), 923–926 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, T. H.

Zhong, S. Y.

Zhu, B. G.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, “All-optical switching and logic gating with spatial solitons in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(18), 3335–3337 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett.20(20), 2066–2068 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lan, M. F. Shih, G. Mizell, J. A. Giordmaine, Z. G. Chen, C. Anastassiou, J. Martin, and M. Segev, “Second-harmonic generation in waveguides induced by photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett.24(16), 1145–1147 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. G. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. F. Shih, M. Segev, M. H. Garrett, and G. C. Valley, “Steady-state dark photorefractive screening solitons,” Opt. Lett.21(9), 629–631 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett.30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, B. G. Zhu, H. H. Ma, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “(2+1)D surface solitons in virtue of the cooperation of nonlocal and local nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett.34(21), 3298–3300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The (1 + 1)D stationary surface photovoltaic dark soliton solutions, stabilities and their intensity FWHM dependence on Imax/(Id + Ib). (a), (b) and (c) the profiles of surface photovoltaic dark solitons with β = 2.5982634 × 107m−1, 2.5976282 × 107m−1 and 2.5974742 × 107m−1, respectively; (d) the intensity FWHM of stationary surface photovoltaic dark solitons vs. Imax/(Id + Ib); (e) simulated propagation of stationary surface photovoltaic dark soliton corresponding to (b) with 10% noise; (f) the input (in red) and output (in black) light fields corresponding to e).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The excitation of dark solitons and their propagation. (a) the self-bending of dark soliton in bulk; (b) the reflection of dark soliton at the boundary of PRC; (c) the excitation and straightly propagation of surface dark soliton along PRC boundary; (d) and (e) the profiles of light field at input face (in solid line) and at output face (in dashed line) corresponding to (b) and (c), respectively. The crystal surface is located at x = 0μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The experimental setup for surface dark soliton.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The formation of dark solitons and their guided waves in bulk and near surface. (a) The incident dark notch lase beam at input face; (b)–(e) the evolvement of the pattern at the output face along with time; (a1)–(e1) in bulk; (a2)–(e2) d = 6μm; (a3)–(e3) d = 0μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The guided wave of the waveguide written by photovoltaic dark solitons. (a), (b) and (c) are the guided waves of the waveguides written by photovoltaic dark solitons corresponding to Fig. 4(e1), 5(e2) and 5e(3), respectively.

Equations (3)

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2 E( x,z )+ k 2 E( x,z )=0,
E SC (x,y)= k B T q ln[ I(x,y)+ I d + I b ] β eff γ R N D + qμs( N D N D + ) I(x,y) I(x,y)+ I d + I b ,
2 x 2 A(x) r eff n 4 k B T q 2A(x) A 2 (x)+1 A(x) x + r eff n 4 E p A 2 (x) A 2 (x)+1 A(x)+( k 0 2 n 2 β 2 )A(x)=0,

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